Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 1, Jan 2022, Pages 77-85
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.996603
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.996603
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia

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Gedgafova,F., Gorobtsova,O., Uligova,T., Tsepkova,N., Tembotov,R., Khakunova,E., 2022. Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(1):77-85. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603
Gedgafova,F.Gorobtsova,O.Uligova,T.Tsepkova,N.Tembotov,R.,,& Khakunova,E. Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(1):77-85. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603
Gedgafova,F.Gorobtsova,O.Uligova,T.Tsepkova,N.Tembotov,R.,, and ,Khakunova,E."Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.1 (2022):77-85. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603
Gedgafova,F.Gorobtsova,O.Uligova,T.Tsepkova,N.Tembotov,R.,, and ,Khakunova,E. "Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jan 2022):77-85 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603
F,Gedgafova.O,Gorobtsova.T,Uligova.N,Tsepkova.R,Tembotov.E,Khakunova "Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.1, pp.77-85 (Jan 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603
Gedgafova,Fatima ;Gorobtsova,Olga ;Uligova,Tatyana ;Tsepkova,Nelli ;Tembotov,Rustam ;Khakunova,Elena Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.1:77-85. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603

How to cite

Gedgafova, F., Gorobtsova, O., Uligova, T., Tsepkova, N., Tembotov, R., Khakunova, E., 2022. Assessment of biological activity in mountain chernozems and mountain-meadow chernozemic soils of natural biogeocenoses in the Central Caucasus, Russia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(1): 77-85. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.996603

Author information

Fatima Gedgafova , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia
Olga Gorobtsova , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia
Tatyana Uligova , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia
Nelli Tsepkova , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia
Rustam Tembotov , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia
Elena Khakunova , Federal State Budget Scientific Establishment, Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Laboratory for Soil and Ecological Researches, 360051, Nalchik, Russia

Publication information

Article first published online : 16 Sep 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 12 Sep 2021
Manuscript Received: 05 Feb 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.996603
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.996603

Abstract

Indicators reflecting various aspects of biological properties (genetic, microbiological, biochemical) were estimated for the upper horizons (0-20 cm) of mountain chernozems (Mollic Chernozems, WRB, 2015) and mountain meadow chernozemic soils (Mollic Leptosols Eutric, WRB, 2015), that were formed in the conditions of natural biogeocenoses of the Central Caucasus (Elbrus variant of zonality within Kabardino-Balkaria). A comparative assessment was performed for the biological activity parameters (humic content and stock, microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) content and stock, the enzyme activity of hydrolases (invertase, phosphatase, urease) and oxidoreductases (catalase, dehydrogenase)) in combination with indicators of the soil density and acid-base properties of various subtypes of the studied soils (typical and leached). The obtained results showed that the studied types of mountain soils in the upper horizons are characterized by a porous loose composition (0.75-1.07 g/cm3), neutral (pHH2O = 7.0-7.4) and slightly alkaline (pHH2O = 7.9-8.0) by the reaction of the soil solution, high and very high content (9.5-19.1%) and stock of organic matter (173-276 t/ha). The maximal biological activity was noted in mountain-meadow chernozemic soils, which surpass mountain chernozems in humic content (by 42%) and stock (24%), Cmic content (38%) and stock (17%), relative total activity of hydrolases (36%), but inferior in activity of oxidoreductases (32%). Based on the data obtained, the integrative index of ecological and biological condition (IIEBC) was calculated, which reflects the general level of biological activity of the studied soils. Higher IIEBC values of mountain meadow chernozemic soils (80-100%) in comparison with mountain chernozems (70-74%) are due to the unique complex of soil-forming conditions in which these soils function. The established biological parameters of mountain soils of natural landscapes are necessary for use as reference in environmental studies of anthropogenically disturbed biogeocenoses.

Keywords

Carbon of microbial biomass, Central Caucasus, humus, soil enzymes.

Corresponding author

References

Ananyeva, N.D., 2003. Microbiological aspects of self-purification and stability of soils. Nauka. Moscow, Russia. 203p. [in Russian].

Ananyeva, N.D., Susnko, S.V., Ivashchenko, K.V., Vasenev, V.I., 2020. Soil microbial respiration in subtaiga and forest-steppe ecosystems of European Russia: Field and laboratory approaches. Eurasian Soil Science 10: 1492-1501.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10(3): 215–221.

Breza-Boruta, B., Lemanowicz, J., Bartkowiak, A., 2016. Variation in biological and physicochemical parameters of the soil affected by uncontrolled landfill sites. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: Article number: 201.

Burns, R.G., Deforest, J.L., Jurgen, M., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Stromberger, M.E., Wallenstein, M.D., Weintraub, M.N., Zoppini, A., 2013. Soil enzymes in a changing environment: Current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry
58: 216-234.

Calderon, F.J., Nielsen, D., Acosta-Martinez, V., Vigil, M.F., Lyon, D., 2016. Cover crop and irrigation effects on soil microbial communities and enzymes in semiarid agroecosystems of the central great plains of North America. Pedosphere 26: 192–205.

Classification and diagnostics of soils of the USSR, 1977. Classification and diagnostics of soils of the USSR. Kolos. Moscow, USSR. 221p. [in Russian].

Dobrovolskiy, V.V., 2001. Practicum manual in soil geography. Vlados. Moscow, Russia. 127p.  [in Russian].

dos Santos Soares, D., Ramos, M.L.G., Marchão, R.L., Maciel, G.A., Oliveira, A.D., Malaquiras, J.V., Carvalho, A.M., 2019. How diversity of crop residues in long-term no-tillage systems affect chemical and microbiological soil properties. Soil and Tillage Research 194: 104316.

Egli, M., Poulenard, J., 2016. Soils of Mountainous Landscapes. In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology. Richardson, D., Castree, N., Goodchild, M.F., Kobayashi, A., Liu, W., Marston, R.A. (Eds.). Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

Fiapshev, B.Kh., 1996. High-mountain soils of the central part of the North Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria and adjacent territories). KBSACA. Nalchik, Russia.135p. [in Russian].

Gaponyuk, E.I., Malakhov, S.V., 1985. Complex system of indicators of soil ecological monitoring. In: Proceedings of 4th All-Union Conference. Obninsk, Russia. pp. 3-10. [in Russian].

Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Gorobtsova, O.N., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2015. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria. Eurasian Soil Science 48: 1341–1348.

Gorobtsova, O.N., Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2016. Ecophysiological indicators of microbial biomass status in chernozem soils of the Central Caucasus (in the territory of Kabardino-Balkaria with the Terek variant of altitudinal zonation). Russian Journal of Ecology 47: 19-25.

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Kashirskaya, N.N., Plekhanova, L.N., Chemisheva, E.V., Eltsov, M.V., Udaltsov, S.N., Borisov, A.V., 2020. Temporal and spatial features of phosphatase activity in natural and human-transformed soils. Eurasian Soil Science 53: 97-109.

Kazeev, K.Sh., Kolesnikov, S.I., Akimenko, Yu.V., Dadenko, E.V., 2016. Methods of bio-diagnostics of terrestrial ecosystems. Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don, Russia. 356p. [in Russian].

Kazeev, K.Sh., Kolesnikov, S.I., Valkov, V.F., 2004. Biology of soils of the Southern Russia. CVRHS Publishing House. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.  350p. [in Russian].

Kazeev, K.Sh., Zhadobin, A.V., Gobarova, A.A., Fedorenko, A.N., Kolesnikov, S.I., 2021. Assessment of ecological state of Rostov zoo soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(2): 87 – 95.

Khakunova, E.M., Gorobtsova, O.N., Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2018. Changes of biological activity in mountain chernozems of the Central Caucasus under agricultural exploitation (within the elbrusskiy variant of vertical zonation in Kabardino-Balkaria). Agrochemistry 3: 12-18. [in Russian].

Kolesnikov, S.I., Tsepina, N.I., Minnikova, T.V., Kazeev, K.Sh., Mandzhieva, S.S., Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mazarji, M., Singh, R.K., Rajput, V.D., 2021. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the biological indicators of Haplic Chernozem. Plants 10(5): 1022.

Kostenko, I.V., 2017. Relationships between parameters of the humus status of forest and meadow soils and their altitudinal position on the main Crimean range. Eurasian Soil Science 50: 515–525.

Kumakhov, V.I., 2007. Soils of the Central Caucasus. Nalchik, Russia. 125p. [in Russian].

Liang, G., Wu, H., Houssou, A.A., Cai, D., Wu, X., Gao, L., Wang, B., Li, S., 2017. Soil respiration, glomalin content, and enzymatic activity response to straw application in a wheat-maize rotation system. Journal of Soils and Sediments 18(3): 697–707.

Mangalassery, S., Kalaivanan, D., Philip, P.S., 2019. Effect of inorganic fertilisers and organic amendments on soil aggregation and biochemical characteristics in a weathered tropical soil. Soil and Tillage Research 187: 144-151.

Margalef, O., Sardans, J., Fernandez-Martinez, M., Molowny-Horas, R., Janssens, I.A., Ciais, P., Goll, D., Richter, A., Obersteiner, M., Asensio, D., Peñuelas, J., 2017. Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports 7: 1337.

Martinez-Mera, E., Torregrosa, A.C., Garcia, A.V., Geronimo, L.R., 2017. Relationship between soil physicochemical characteristics and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural soils of the Atlantico department, Colombia. Soil and Environment 36(2): 174-181.

Merino, C., Godoy, R., Matus, F., 2016. Soil enzymes and biological activity at different levels of organic matter stability. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 16(1): 14-30.

Molchanov, E.N., 1990. Soil map of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR. Moscow: GUGK USSR. 22p. [in Russian].

Molchanov, E.N., 2008. Mountainous meadow chernozem-like soils of high mountains in the North Caucasus region. Eurasian Soil Science 41: 1268–1281.

Murugan, R., Loges, R., Taube, F., Sradnick, A., Joergensen, R., 2014. Changes in soil microbial biomass and residual indices as ecological indicators of land use change in temperate permanent grassland. Microbial Ecology 67: 907–918.

Oliveira Silva, A.E., De Medeiros, E.V., Dos Santos Borges Inacio, E., Salcedo, I.H., De Amorim, L.B., 2018. Soil enzymatic activities in areas with stages and management of forest regeneration from caatinga. Revista Caatinga 31(2): 405-414.

Purtova, L.N., Kostenkov, N.M., Shchapova, L.N., 2017. Assessing the humus status and CO2 production in soils of anthropogenic and agrogenic landscapes in southern regions of the Russian Far East. Eurasian Soil Science 50: 42–48.

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Sushko, S.V., Ananyeva, N.D., Ivashchenko, K.V., Kudeyarov, V.N., 2019. Soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass, and basal respiration of chernozems under different land uses. Eurasian Soil Science 52(9): 1091-1100.

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Abstract

Indicators reflecting various aspects of biological properties (genetic, microbiological, biochemical) were estimated for the upper horizons (0-20 cm) of mountain chernozems (Mollic Chernozems, WRB, 2015) and mountain meadow chernozemic soils (Mollic Leptosols Eutric, WRB, 2015), that were formed in the conditions of natural biogeocenoses of the Central Caucasus (Elbrus variant of zonality within Kabardino-Balkaria). A comparative assessment was performed for the biological activity parameters (humic content and stock, microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) content and stock, the enzyme activity of hydrolases (invertase, phosphatase, urease) and oxidoreductases (catalase, dehydrogenase)) in combination with indicators of the soil density and acid-base properties of various subtypes of the studied soils (typical and leached). The obtained results showed that the studied types of mountain soils in the upper horizons are characterized by a porous loose composition (0.75-1.07 g/cm3), neutral (pHH2O = 7.0-7.4) and slightly alkaline (pHH2O = 7.9-8.0) by the reaction of the soil solution, high and very high content (9.5-19.1%) and stock of organic matter (173-276 t/ha). The maximal biological activity was noted in mountain-meadow chernozemic soils, which surpass mountain chernozems in humic content (by 42%) and stock (24%), Cmic content (38%) and stock (17%), relative total activity of hydrolases (36%), but inferior in activity of oxidoreductases (32%). Based on the data obtained, the integrative index of ecological and biological condition (IIEBC) was calculated, which reflects the general level of biological activity of the studied soils. Higher IIEBC values ​​of mountain meadow chernozemic soils (80-100%) in comparison with mountain chernozems (70-74%) are due to the unique complex of soil-forming conditions in which these soils function. The established biological parameters of mountain soils of natural landscapes are necessary for use as reference in environmental studies of anthropogenically disturbed biogeocenoses.

Keywords: Carbon of microbial biomass, Central Caucasus, humus, soil enzymes.

References

Ananyeva, N.D., 2003. Microbiological aspects of self-purification and stability of soils. Nauka. Moscow, Russia. 203p. [in Russian].

Ananyeva, N.D., Susnko, S.V., Ivashchenko, K.V., Vasenev, V.I., 2020. Soil microbial respiration in subtaiga and forest-steppe ecosystems of European Russia: Field and laboratory approaches. Eurasian Soil Science 10: 1492-1501.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10(3): 215–221.

Breza-Boruta, B., Lemanowicz, J., Bartkowiak, A., 2016. Variation in biological and physicochemical parameters of the soil affected by uncontrolled landfill sites. Environmental Earth Sciences 75: Article number: 201.

Burns, R.G., Deforest, J.L., Jurgen, M., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Stromberger, M.E., Wallenstein, M.D., Weintraub, M.N., Zoppini, A., 2013. Soil enzymes in a changing environment: Current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry
58: 216-234.

Calderon, F.J., Nielsen, D., Acosta-Martinez, V., Vigil, M.F., Lyon, D., 2016. Cover crop and irrigation effects on soil microbial communities and enzymes in semiarid agroecosystems of the central great plains of North America. Pedosphere 26: 192–205.

Classification and diagnostics of soils of the USSR, 1977. Classification and diagnostics of soils of the USSR. Kolos. Moscow, USSR. 221p. [in Russian].

Dobrovolskiy, V.V., 2001. Practicum manual in soil geography. Vlados. Moscow, Russia. 127p.  [in Russian].

dos Santos Soares, D., Ramos, M.L.G., Marchão, R.L., Maciel, G.A., Oliveira, A.D., Malaquiras, J.V., Carvalho, A.M., 2019. How diversity of crop residues in long-term no-tillage systems affect chemical and microbiological soil properties. Soil and Tillage Research 194: 104316.

Egli, M., Poulenard, J., 2016. Soils of Mountainous Landscapes. In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology. Richardson, D., Castree, N., Goodchild, M.F., Kobayashi, A., Liu, W., Marston, R.A. (Eds.). Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

Fiapshev, B.Kh., 1996. High-mountain soils of the central part of the North Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria and adjacent territories). KBSACA. Nalchik, Russia.135p. [in Russian].

Gaponyuk, E.I., Malakhov, S.V., 1985. Complex system of indicators of soil ecological monitoring. In: Proceedings of 4th All-Union Conference. Obninsk, Russia. pp. 3-10. [in Russian].

Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Gorobtsova, O.N., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2015. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria. Eurasian Soil Science 48: 1341–1348.

Gorobtsova, O.N., Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2016. Ecophysiological indicators of microbial biomass status in chernozem soils of the Central Caucasus (in the territory of Kabardino-Balkaria with the Terek variant of altitudinal zonation). Russian Journal of Ecology 47: 19-25.

IUSS Working Group, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources WRB 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 192p. Available at [access date: 05.02.2021]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Kashirskaya, N.N., Plekhanova, L.N., Chemisheva, E.V., Eltsov, M.V., Udaltsov, S.N., Borisov, A.V., 2020. Temporal and spatial features of phosphatase activity in natural and human-transformed soils. Eurasian Soil Science 53: 97-109.

Kazeev, K.Sh., Kolesnikov, S.I., Akimenko, Yu.V., Dadenko, E.V., 2016. Methods of bio-diagnostics of terrestrial ecosystems. Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don, Russia. 356p. [in Russian].

Kazeev, K.Sh., Kolesnikov, S.I., Valkov, V.F., 2004. Biology of soils of the Southern Russia. CVRHS Publishing House. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.  350p. [in Russian].

Kazeev, K.Sh., Zhadobin, A.V., Gobarova, A.A., Fedorenko, A.N., Kolesnikov, S.I., 2021. Assessment of ecological state of Rostov zoo soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(2): 87 – 95.

Khakunova, E.M., Gorobtsova, O.N., Gedgafova, F.V., Uligova, T.S., Tembotov, R.Kh., 2018. Changes of biological activity in mountain chernozems of the Central Caucasus under agricultural exploitation (within the elbrusskiy variant of vertical zonation in Kabardino-Balkaria). Agrochemistry 3: 12-18. [in Russian].

Kolesnikov, S.I., Tsepina, N.I., Minnikova, T.V., Kazeev, K.Sh., Mandzhieva, S.S., Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mazarji, M., Singh, R.K., Rajput, V.D., 2021. Influence of silver nanoparticles on the biological indicators of Haplic Chernozem. Plants 10(5): 1022.

Kostenko, I.V., 2017. Relationships between parameters of the humus status of forest and meadow soils and their altitudinal position on the main Crimean range. Eurasian Soil Science 50: 515–525.

Kumakhov, V.I., 2007. Soils of the Central Caucasus. Nalchik, Russia. 125p. [in Russian].

Liang, G., Wu, H., Houssou, A.A., Cai, D., Wu, X., Gao, L., Wang, B., Li, S., 2017. Soil respiration, glomalin content, and enzymatic activity response to straw application in a wheat-maize rotation system. Journal of Soils and Sediments 18(3): 697–707.

Mangalassery, S., Kalaivanan, D., Philip, P.S., 2019. Effect of inorganic fertilisers and organic amendments on soil aggregation and biochemical characteristics in a weathered tropical soil. Soil and Tillage Research 187: 144-151.

Margalef, O., Sardans, J., Fernandez-Martinez, M., Molowny-Horas, R., Janssens, I.A., Ciais, P., Goll, D., Richter, A., Obersteiner, M., Asensio, D., Peñuelas, J., 2017. Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports 7: 1337.

Martinez-Mera, E., Torregrosa, A.C., Garcia, A.V., Geronimo, L.R., 2017. Relationship between soil physicochemical characteristics and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in agricultural soils of the Atlantico department, Colombia. Soil and Environment 36(2): 174-181.

Merino, C., Godoy, R., Matus, F., 2016. Soil enzymes and biological activity at different levels of organic matter stability. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 16(1): 14-30.

Molchanov, E.N., 1990. Soil map of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR. Moscow: GUGK USSR. 22p. [in Russian].

Molchanov, E.N., 2008. Mountainous meadow chernozem-like soils of high mountains in the North Caucasus region. Eurasian Soil Science 41: 1268–1281.

Murugan, R., Loges, R., Taube, F., Sradnick, A., Joergensen, R., 2014. Changes in soil microbial biomass and residual indices as ecological indicators of land use change in temperate permanent grassland. Microbial Ecology 67: 907–918.

Oliveira Silva, A.E., De Medeiros, E.V., Dos Santos Borges Inacio, E., Salcedo, I.H., De Amorim, L.B., 2018. Soil enzymatic activities in areas with stages and management of forest regeneration from caatinga. Revista Caatinga 31(2): 405-414.

Purtova, L.N., Kostenkov, N.M., Shchapova, L.N., 2017. Assessing the humus status and CO2 production in soils of anthropogenic and agrogenic landscapes in southern regions of the Russian Far East. Eurasian Soil Science 50: 42–48.

Rao, M.A., Scelza, R., Acevedo, F., Diez, M.C., Gianfreda, L., 2014. Enzymes as useful tools for environmental purposes. Chemosphere 107: 145-162.

Sinsabaugh, R.L., 2010. Phenol oxidase, peroxidase and organic matter dynamics of soil. Soil Boilogy and Biochemistry 42(3): 391–404.

Soils of Kabardino-Balkar ASSR and recommendations on exploitation, 1984. Nalchik. State project institute on land management. Sevkavniigiprozem. Nalchik. Russia. 201p. [in Russian].

Sokolov, V.E., Tembotov, A.K., 1989. Vertebrates of the Caucasus. Mammals. Insectivores. Nauka, Moscow, Russia. 547p. [in Russian].

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Sushko, S.V., Ananyeva, N.D., Ivashchenko, K.V., Kudeyarov, V.N., 2019. Soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass, and basal respiration of chernozems under different land uses. Eurasian Soil Science 52(9): 1091-1100.

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