Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 1, Jan 2022, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.984060
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.984060
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan

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Sharifi,S., He,X., Dong,X., Shi,S., Obaid,H., Baray,S., Nasrat,N., Khalili,A., 2022. Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(1):33-42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060
Sharifi,S.He,X.,Dong,X.Shi,S.Obaid,H.Baray,S.Nasrat,N.,& Khalili,A. Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(1):33-42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060
Sharifi,S.He,X.,Dong,X.Shi,S.Obaid,H.Baray,S.Nasrat,N., and ,Khalili,A."Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.1 (2022):33-42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060
Sharifi,S.He,X.,Dong,X.Shi,S.Obaid,H.Baray,S.Nasrat,N., and ,Khalili,A. "Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jan 2022):33-42 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060
S,Sharifi.X,He.X,Dong.S,Shi.H,Obaid.S,Baray.N,Nasrat.A,Khalili "Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.1, pp.33-42 (Jan 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060
Sharifi,Sharifullah ;He,Xinhua ;Dong,Xingshui ;Shi,Songmei ;Obaid,Hikmatullah ;Baray,Shah Mehmood ;Nasrat,Nasir Ahmad ;Khalili,Azizullah Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.1:33-42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060

How to cite

Sharifi, S., He, X., Dong, X., Shi, S., Obaid, H., Baray, S., Nasrat, N., Khalili, A., 2022. Splitting nitrogen fertilization improves growth, yield and profit of soybean (Glycine max) production in the semi-arid Afghanistan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(1): 33-42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.984060

Author information

Sharifullah Sharifi , Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China & Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar 3802, Afghanistan
Xinhua He , Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China & School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
Xingshui Dong , Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Songmei Shi , Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Hikmatullah Obaid , Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China & Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar 3802, Afghanistan
Shah Mehmood Baray , Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar 3802, Afghanistan
Nasir Ahmad Nasrat , Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar 3802, Afghanistan
Azizullah Khalili , Agronomy Department, Agriculture Faculty, Sayed Jamaluddin Afghani University. Kunar 2801, Afghanistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 17 Aug 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 09 Aug 2021
Manuscript Received: 19 Feb 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.984060
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.984060

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of splitting application of 30 kg N ha-1 on the growth, yield and economics of soybean (Glycine max var. Dea-won) in the semi-arid and sub-tropical Afghanistan. Besides no-N-fertilization control, urea (30 kg N ha-1) was applied to fields in four-splits: S1, one time basal application at sowing; S2, two-splits of 50% N at sowing and 10 DAS (days after sowing); S3, three-splits of 33% N at sowing, 10 and 20 DAS; and S4, four-splits of 25% N at sowing, 10, 20 and 30 DAS. Aboveground growth and yield parameters were compared at 30, 60, 90 and 127 DAS. Soybean’s growth and yields increased in corresponding with the increased frequency of split fertilization. Three- or four-splits significantly increased plant height, leaf area index, aboveground biomass, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, pod and seed numbers, 1,000-seed weight, yield production and economics (gross and net returns and benefit cost ratio) than those at one or two-splits N-application at all these four harvests. Positive relationships were observed among growth parameters and yield traits and yield production. Three- or four-splits at tested N rate and growth stages can meet N requirement for soybean’s growth and yield while improving N use efficiency in semi-arid Afghanistan.

Keywords

Biomass production, Glycine max, N demanding, N use efficiency, N split application, urea.

Corresponding author

References

Ali, Q.S.,  Zeb, S., Jamil, E., Ahmed, N., Sajid, M., Siddique, S., Jan, N.,  Shahid, M., 2015. Effect of various levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash on the yield of French Bean. Pure and Applied Biology 4(3): 318-322.

Begum, M.A., Islam, M.A., Ahmed, Q.M., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., 2015. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and yield performance of soybean. Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries 2(1): 35-42.

Bender, R.R., Haegele, J.W., Below, F.E., 2015. Nutrient uptake, partitioning, and remobilization in modern soybean varieties. Agronomy Journal 107(2): 563-573.

Bhangu, R., Virk, H.K., 2019. Nitrogen management in soybean: A Review. Agricultural Reviews 40(2): 129-135

Bobrecka-Jamro, D., Jarecki, W., Buczek, J., 2018. Response of soya bean to different nitrogen fertilization levels. Journal of Elementology 23(2): 559-568.

Caliskan, S., Ozkaya, I., Caliskan, M.E., Arslan, M., 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterranean-type soil. Field Crops Research 108(2): 126-132.

Chowdhury, M.M.U., Farhad, I.S.M., Bhowal, S.K., Bhowmik, S.K., Choudhury, A.K., 2014. Fertilizer management for maximizing soybean (Glycine max L.) production in Char lands of Bangladesh. The Agriculturists 12(2): 98-102.

Delogu, G., Cattivelli, L., Pecchioni, N., Falcis, D.De., Maggiore, T., Stanca, A.M., 1998. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 9(1):11–20.

Díaz-López, E., Aguilar-Luna, J.M.E., Loeza-Corte, J.M., 2020. Net assimilation rate and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in tartago (Ricinus communis L.) (Euphorbiaceae) in dry climate. Scientifica Article ID 7064745.

Fageria, N.K., 2014. Nitrogen management in crop production. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 399p.

Gan, Y., Ineke, S., Freek, P., Herman, V.K., Pieter, J.C.K., 2002. Effects of N management on growth, N2 fixation and yield of soybean. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 62(2): 163–174.

Gan, Y., Stulena, I., van Keulen, H., Kuiper, P.J.C., 2003. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes. Field Crops Research 80(2): 147–155.

Hellal, F. A., Abdelhamid, M.T., 2013. Nutrient management practices for enhancing soybean (Glycine max L.) production. Acta Biológica Colombiana 18(2): 3–14.

Jones Jr., J.B. 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. 363p.

Khan, A., Tan, D.K.Y., Afridi, M.Z., Luo, H., Tung, S.A., Ajab, M., Fahad, S., 2017. Nitrogen fertility and abiotic stresses management in cotton crop: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(17): 14551-14566.

Li, G.H., Lin, J.J., Xue, L.H., Ding, Y.F., Wang, S.H., Yang, L.Z., 2018. Fate of basal n under split fertilization in rice with 15N isotope tracer. Pedosphere 28: 135-143.

Masaka, J., Mhazo, C., Mushuku, M.I., 2007. The effects of planting position, timing of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer rates on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.). Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology 2: 30-41.

Mohan, Y., Angadi, V.V., 2016. Effect of time and method of application of varied levels of nitrogen in soybean (Glycine max). Journal of Farm Sciences 29(3): 332-336.

Mon, E., Thet, L., Myint, T.Z., Kyi, M.M.K., 2017. Response of soybean (Glycine max L.) to Nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Agriculture Research 4(2): 52-56

Mourtzinis, S., Kaur, G., Orlowski, J.M., Shapiro, C.A., Lee, C.D., Wortmann, C., Holshouser, D., Nafziger, E.D., Kandel, H., Niekamp, J., Ross, W.J., Lofton, J., Vonk, J., Roozeboom, K.L., Thelen, K.D., Lindsey, L.E., Staton, M., Naeve, S.L., Casteel, S.N., Wiebold, W.J., Conley, S.P., 2018. Soybean response to nitrogen application across the United States: A synthesis-analysis. Field Crops Research 215: 74-82.

NEI, 2017. Soybean Production in Afghanistan. Nutrition & Education International. Available at [access date : 19.02.2021]: https://www.neifoundation.org/soybean-farming

Ohyama, T., Tewari, K., Ishikawa, S., Tanaka, K., Kamiyama, S., Ono, Y., Hatano, S., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Hasegawa, H., Sato, T., Tanabata, S., Nagumo, Y., Fujita, Y., Takahashi, Y., 2017. Role of nitrogen on growth and seed yield of soybean and a new fertilization technique to promote nitrogen fixation and seed yield. In: Soybean - The Basis of Yield, Biomass and Productivity, Kasai, M. (Ed.). IntechOpen

Ortez, O.A., Tamagno, S., Salvagiotti, F., Prasad, P.V.V., Ciampitti, I.A., 2019. Soybean nitrogen sources and demand during the seed-filling period. Agronomy Journal 111(4): 1779-1787.

Salvagiotti, F., Specht, J.E., Cassman, K.G., Walters, D.T., Weiss, A., Dobermann, A., 2009. Growth and nitrogen fixation in high-yielding soybean: Impact of nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 101(4): 958-970.

Sawyer, J.E., 2001. Nitrogen fertilizer and swine manure application to soybean. Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference, 5-6 December 2001. Iowa State University. Ames, IA, USA. pp.33-44. Available at [access date : 19.02.2021]: http://www.agronext.iastate.edu/soilfertility/info/nfertswmanure01.pdf

Singh, H., Singh, G., 2013. Effect of potassium and split application of nitrogen on yield attributes and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) merrill]. Agricultural Science Digest - A Research Journal 33(4): 264-268.

Singh, SP., Bansal, K.N., Nepalia, V., 2001. Effect of nitrogen, its application time and sulphur on yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max). Indian Journal of Agronomy 46(1): 141-144.

Starling, M.E., Wood, C., Weaver, D.B., 1998. Starter nitrogen and growth habit effects on late-planted soybean. Agronomy Journal 90: 658–662.

Sun, J., Gao, J., Wang, Z., Hu, S., Zhang, F., Bao, H., Fan, Y., 2019. Maize canopy photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and yield responses to tillage depth. Agronomy 9(1): 3.

Youn, J.T., Van, K., Lee, J.E., Kim, S.K., Song, J., Kim, W.H., Lee, S.H., 2009. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing on N accumulation and N2 fixation of supernodulating soybean mutant. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 12(3): 153-159.

Zhang, M.C., Sun, W.X., Liu, Y.Y., Luo, S.G., Zhao, J., Wu, Q., Wu, Z.Y., Jiang, Y., 2014. Timing of N application affects net primary production of soybean with different planting densities. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13(12): 2778-2787.

Zhou, H., Yao, X., Zhao, Q., Zhang, W., Zhang, B., Xie, F., 2019. Rapid effect of nitrogen supply for soybean at the beginning flowering stage on biomass and sucrose metabolism. Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 15530.

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of splitting application of 30 kg N ha-1 on the growth, yield and economics of soybean (Glycine max var. Dea-won) in the semi-arid and sub-tropical Afghanistan. Besides no-N-fertilization control, urea (30 kg N ha-1) was applied to fields in four-splits: S1, one time basal application at sowing; S2, two-splits of 50% N at sowing and 10 DAS (days after sowing); S3, three-splits of 33% N at sowing, 10 and 20 DAS; and S4, four-splits of 25% N at sowing, 10, 20 and 30 DAS. Aboveground growth and yield parameters were compared at 30, 60, 90 and 127 DAS. Soybean’s growth and yields increased in corresponding with the increased frequency of split fertilization. Three- or four-splits significantly increased plant height, leaf area index, aboveground biomass, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, relative growth rate, pod and seed numbers, 1,000-seed weight, yield production and economics (gross and net returns and benefit cost ratio) than those at one or two-splits N-application at all these four harvests. Positive relationships were observed among growth parameters and yield traits and yield production. Three- or four-splits at tested N rate and growth stages can meet N requirement for soybean’s growth and yield while improving N use efficiency in semi-arid Afghanistan.

Keywords: Biomass production, Glycine max, N demanding, N use efficiency, N split application, urea.

References

Ali, Q.S.,  Zeb, S., Jamil, E., Ahmed, N., Sajid, M., Siddique, S., Jan, N.,  Shahid, M., 2015. Effect of various levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash on the yield of French Bean. Pure and Applied Biology 4(3): 318-322.

Begum, M.A., Islam, M.A., Ahmed, Q.M., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., 2015. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and yield performance of soybean. Research in Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries 2(1): 35-42.

Bender, R.R., Haegele, J.W., Below, F.E., 2015. Nutrient uptake, partitioning, and remobilization in modern soybean varieties. Agronomy Journal 107(2): 563-573.

Bhangu, R., Virk, H.K., 2019. Nitrogen management in soybean: A Review. Agricultural Reviews 40(2): 129-135

Bobrecka-Jamro, D., Jarecki, W., Buczek, J., 2018. Response of soya bean to different nitrogen fertilization levels. Journal of Elementology 23(2): 559-568.

Caliskan, S., Ozkaya, I., Caliskan, M.E., Arslan, M., 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterranean-type soil. Field Crops Research 108(2): 126-132.

Chowdhury, M.M.U., Farhad, I.S.M., Bhowal, S.K., Bhowmik, S.K., Choudhury, A.K., 2014. Fertilizer management for maximizing soybean (Glycine max L.) production in Char lands of Bangladesh. The Agriculturists 12(2): 98-102.

Delogu, G., Cattivelli, L., Pecchioni, N., Falcis, D.De., Maggiore, T., Stanca, A.M., 1998. Uptake and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in winter barley and winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 9(1):11–20.

Díaz-López, E., Aguilar-Luna, J.M.E., Loeza-Corte, J.M., 2020. Net assimilation rate and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen in tartago (Ricinus communis L.) (Euphorbiaceae) in dry climate. Scientifica Article ID 7064745.

Fageria, N.K., 2014. Nitrogen management in crop production. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 399p.

Gan, Y., Ineke, S., Freek, P., Herman, V.K., Pieter, J.C.K., 2002. Effects of N management on growth, N2 fixation and yield of soybean. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 62(2): 163–174.

Gan, Y., Stulena, I., van Keulen, H., Kuiper, P.J.C., 2003. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes. Field Crops Research 80(2): 147–155.

Hellal, F. A., Abdelhamid, M.T., 2013. Nutrient management practices for enhancing soybean (Glycine max L.) production. Acta Biológica Colombiana 18(2): 3–14.

Jones Jr., J.B. 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. 363p.

Khan, A., Tan, D.K.Y., Afridi, M.Z., Luo, H., Tung, S.A., Ajab, M., Fahad, S., 2017. Nitrogen fertility and abiotic stresses management in cotton crop: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(17): 14551-14566.

Li, G.H., Lin, J.J., Xue, L.H., Ding, Y.F., Wang, S.H., Yang, L.Z., 2018. Fate of basal n under split fertilization in rice with 15N isotope tracer. Pedosphere 28: 135-143.

Masaka, J., Mhazo, C., Mushuku, M.I., 2007. The effects of planting position, timing of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer rates on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.). Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology 2: 30-41.

Mohan, Y., Angadi, V.V., 2016. Effect of time and method of application of varied levels of nitrogen in soybean (Glycine max). Journal of Farm Sciences 29(3): 332-336.

Mon, E., Thet, L., Myint, T.Z., Kyi, M.M.K., 2017. Response of soybean (Glycine max L.) to Nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Agriculture Research 4(2): 52-56

Mourtzinis, S., Kaur, G., Orlowski, J.M., Shapiro, C.A., Lee, C.D., Wortmann, C., Holshouser, D., Nafziger, E.D., Kandel, H., Niekamp, J., Ross, W.J., Lofton, J., Vonk, J., Roozeboom, K.L., Thelen, K.D., Lindsey, L.E., Staton, M., Naeve, S.L., Casteel, S.N., Wiebold, W.J., Conley, S.P., 2018. Soybean response to nitrogen application across the United States: A synthesis-analysis. Field Crops Research 215: 74-82.

NEI, 2017. Soybean Production in Afghanistan. Nutrition & Education International. Available at [access date : 19.02.2021]: https://www.neifoundation.org/soybean-farming

Ohyama, T., Tewari, K., Ishikawa, S., Tanaka, K., Kamiyama, S., Ono, Y., Hatano, S., Ohtake, N., Sueyoshi, K., Hasegawa, H., Sato, T., Tanabata, S., Nagumo, Y., Fujita, Y., Takahashi, Y., 2017. Role of nitrogen on growth and seed yield of soybean and a new fertilization technique to promote nitrogen fixation and seed yield. In: Soybean - The Basis of Yield, Biomass and Productivity, Kasai, M. (Ed.). IntechOpen

Ortez, O.A., Tamagno, S., Salvagiotti, F., Prasad, P.V.V., Ciampitti, I.A., 2019. Soybean nitrogen sources and demand during the seed-filling period. Agronomy Journal 111(4): 1779-1787.

Salvagiotti, F., Specht, J.E., Cassman, K.G., Walters, D.T., Weiss, A., Dobermann, A., 2009. Growth and nitrogen fixation in high-yielding soybean: Impact of nitrogen fertilization. Agronomy Journal 101(4): 958-970.

Sawyer, J.E., 2001. Nitrogen fertilizer and swine manure application to soybean. Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference, 5-6 December 2001. Iowa State University. Ames, IA, USA. pp.33-44. Available at [access date : 19.02.2021]: http://www.agronext.iastate.edu/soilfertility/info/nfertswmanure01.pdf

Singh, H., Singh, G., 2013. Effect of potassium and split application of nitrogen on yield attributes and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) merrill]. Agricultural Science Digest - A Research Journal 33(4): 264-268.

Singh, SP., Bansal, K.N., Nepalia, V., 2001. Effect of nitrogen, its application time and sulphur on yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max). Indian Journal of Agronomy 46(1): 141-144.

Starling, M.E., Wood, C., Weaver, D.B., 1998. Starter nitrogen and growth habit effects on late-planted soybean. Agronomy Journal 90: 658–662.

Sun, J., Gao, J., Wang, Z., Hu, S., Zhang, F., Bao, H., Fan, Y., 2019. Maize canopy photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and yield responses to tillage depth. Agronomy 9(1): 3.

Youn, J.T., Van, K., Lee, J.E., Kim, S.K., Song, J., Kim, W.H., Lee, S.H., 2009. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing on N accumulation and N2 fixation of supernodulating soybean mutant. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 12(3): 153-159.

Zhang, M.C., Sun, W.X., Liu, Y.Y., Luo, S.G., Zhao, J., Wu, Q., Wu, Z.Y., Jiang, Y., 2014. Timing of N application affects net primary production of soybean with different planting densities. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13(12): 2778-2787.

Zhou, H., Yao, X., Zhao, Q., Zhang, W., Zhang, B., Xie, F., 2019. Rapid effect of nitrogen supply for soybean at the beginning flowering stage on biomass and sucrose metabolism. Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 15530.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science