Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 11, Issue 1, Jan 2022, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.977955
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.977955
Copyright © 2022 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application

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Amin,M., Al Minhaj,A., Bhowmik,B., Islam,D., Islam,M., 2022. Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application. Eurasian J Soil Sci 11(1):17-24. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955
Amin,M.,Al Minhaj,A.Bhowmik,B.Islam,D.,& Islam,M. Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11(1):17-24. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955
Amin,M.,Al Minhaj,A.Bhowmik,B.Islam,D., and ,Islam,M."Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 11.1 (2022):17-24. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955
Amin,M.,Al Minhaj,A.Bhowmik,B.Islam,D., and ,Islam,M. "Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,11(Jan 2022):17-24 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955
M,Amin.A,Al Minhaj.B,Bhowmik.D,Islam.M,Islam "Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.11, no.1, pp.17-24 (Jan 2022), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955
Amin,M.G. Mostofa ;Al Minhaj,Ahmed ;Bhowmik,Biswajit ;Islam,Deen ;Islam,Md. Nazrul Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2022),11.1:17-24. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955

How to cite

Amin, M., Al Minhaj, A., Bhowmik, B., Islam, D., Islam, M., 2022. Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and vegetative growth of maize as affected by organic manure application. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 11(1): 17-24. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.977955

Author information

M.G. Mostofa Amin , Department of Irrigation and Water Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
Ahmed Al Minhaj , Department of Irrigation and Water Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
Biswajit Bhowmik , Department of Irrigation and Water Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
Deen Islam , Department of Irrigation and Water Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
Md. Nazrul Islam , Department of Irrigation and Water Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh

Publication information

Article first published online : 03 Aug 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 01 Aug 2021
Manuscript Received: 03 Apr 2021
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.977955
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.977955

Abstract

Maize production in Asia is rapidly increasing. For its sustainable production, the effects of raw and dry manure application on soil water dynamics, nutrient leaching, and plant growth were investigated. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the percolated water below a 110-cm depth of field-lysimeter columns were analyzed to quantify leaching. Soil water, soil temperature, and plant growth were routinely monitored. The manure application practices increased soil water content by 0.008–0.025 cm3 cm-3 throughout the vegetative period by reducing bulk density and reduced the daytime temperature range by 0.4–1.2°C. The average leaching concentrations of total N increased from 2.6 to 4.7 mg N L-1 and available P decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 mg P L-1 between 63 and 93 DAS (day after sowing), respectively. The manure treatments did not increase nutrient leaching load at 63 DAS, but at 93 DAS the N load was increased by 219–324 g ha-1 and P load by 2.0–3.1 g ha-1 compared with the control treatment. The dry manure released a larger amount of N (30.7%) and P (3.2%) in the leachates than the raw manure. The dry and raw manure treatment produced 14.5 and 5 cm taller plants, respectively than the control treatment. Manure application with a slight modification in nutrient management can avoid the nutrient leaching problem.

Keywords

Dry manure, maize root growth, raw manure, soil temperature, soil water conservation.

Corresponding author

References

Adekiya, A.O., Ojeniyi, S.O., Owonifari, O.E., 2016. Effect of cow dung on soil physical properties, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) in a tropical Alfisol. Scientia Agricola 15: 374–379.

Admas, H., Gebrekidan, H., Bedadi, B., Adgo, E., 2015. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield components of maize at Wajiraba watershed, northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 5: 1–15.

Agbede, T.M., Adekiya, A.O., Eifediyi, E.K., 2017. Impact of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on soil physical properties and growth and yield of carrot. Journal of Horticultural Research 25: 81–88.

Ali, M.H., Islam, A.K.M.R., Amin, M.G.M., 2007. Trend of rainfall and temperature in different regions of Bangladesh during last five decades. Journal of Agrometeorology 9: 26–33.

Amin, M.G.M., Bech, T.B., Forslund, A., Hansen, M., Petersen, S.O., Lægdsmand, M., 2014. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry. Science of the Total Environment 466/467: 1003–1010.

Amin, M.G.M., Karsten, H.D., Veith, T.L., Beegle, D.B., Kleinman, P.J.A., 2018. Conservation dairy farming impact on water quality in a karst watershed in northeastern US. Agricultural Systems 165: 187–196.

Amin, M.G.M., Pedersen, C.Ø., Forslund, A., Veith, T.L., Lægdsmand, M., 2016. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry. Journal of Environmental Management 184: 289–296.

Asadu, C.L.A., Igboka, C.R., 2014. Effects of animal faeces and their extracts on maize yield in an ultisol of eastern Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 5: 1–13.

Aziz, T.S., Ullah, A., Sattar, M., Nasim, M., Khan, M.M.F., 2010. Nutrient availability and maize (Zea mays L.) growth in soil amended with organic manures. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12: 621–624.

Black, C.A., 1965. Method of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling, and Part II - Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monograph 9.1, American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.1572 p.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

CBP, 2016. Chesapeake Bay Program. Available at [Access date: 22.12.2020]: https://statchesapeakebaynet/?q=node/130&quicktabs _10=1

Celik, I., Ortas, I., Kilic, S., 2004. Effect of compost mycorrhiza, manure and fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 59–67.

Chardon, W.J., Aalderink, G.H., van der Salm, C., 2007. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns. Journal of Environmental Quality 36: 17–22.

De Boer, H.C.D., 2008. Co-digestion of animal slurry can increase short-term nitrogen recovery by crops. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 1968–1973.

Du, Y., Cui, B., Zhang, Q., Wang, Z., Sun, J., Niu, W., 2020. Effects of manure fertilizer on crop yield and soil properties in China: A meta-analysis. Catena 193: 104617.

Eghball, B., Wienhold, B.J., Gilley, J.E., Roger, A., Eigenberg, R.A., 2002. Mineralization of manure nutrients. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57: 470–473.

Eze, S., Dougill, A.J., Banwart, S.A., Hermans, T.D.G., Ligowe, I.S., Thierfelder, C., 2020. Impacts of conservation agriculture on soil structure and hydraulic properties of Malawian agricultural systems. Soil and Tillage Research 201: 104639.

FAO, 2018. World Food and Agriculture Statistical Pocketbook 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy. 248p. Available at [Access date:15.07.2021]: http://www.fao.org/3/CA1796EN/ca1796en.pdf

FRG, 2012. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh. 274p. Available at [Access date:15.07.2021]: https://moa.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/moa.portal.gov.bd/page/9d1b92d4_1793_43af_9425_0ed49f27b8d0/FRG_2012_00.pdf

Giacomoni, M.H., Gomez, R., Berglund, E.Z., 2014. Hydrologic impact assessment of land cover change and stormwater management using the hydrologic footprint residence.  Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 50: 1242–1256.

Huhmann, B.L., Harvey, C.F., Uddin, A., Choudhury, I., Ahmed, K.M., Duxbury, J.M., Bostick, B.C., Geen, A.V., 2017. Field study of rice yield diminished by soil arsenic in Bangladesh. Environmental Science & Technology 51: 11553–11560.

ILMM policy, 2015. Draft national integrated livestock manure management (ILMM) policy, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh. Available at [Access date: 26.12.2020]: https://mofl.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mofl.portal.gov.bd/page/221b5a19_4052_4486_ae71_18f1ff6863c1/ILMM%20Policy.pdf

Jjagwe, J., Chelimo, K., Karungi, J., Komakech, A.J., Lederer, J., 2020. Comparative performance of organic fertilizers in maize (zea mays) growth, yield, and economic results. Agronomy 10: 69.

Ksheem, A.M., Bennett, J.M., Antille, D.L., Raine, S.R., 2015. Towards a method for optimized extraction of soluble nutrients from fresh and composted chicken manures. Waste Management 45: 76–90.

Lehrsch, G.A., Kincaid, D.C., 2007. Compost and manure effects on fertilized corn silage and nitrogen uptake under irrigation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38: 2131–2147.

Loria, E.R., Sawyer, J.E., Barker, D.W., Lundvall, J.P., Lorimor, J.C., 2007. Use of anaerobically digested swine manure as a nitrogen source in corn production. Agronomy Journal 99: 1119–1129.

Lynch, J.P., 2013. Steep, cheap and deep: an ideo type to optimize water and N acquisition by maize root systems. Annals of Botany 112: 347–357.

Nahar, M.S., Grewal, P.S., Miller, S.A., Stinner, D., Stinner, B.R., Kleinhenz, M.D., Wszelaki, A., Doohan, D., 2006. Differential effects of raw and composted manure on nematode community, and its indicative value for soil microbial, physical and chemical properties. Applied Soil Ecology 34: 140–151.

Norring, N.P., Jørgensen, E., 2009. Eutrophication and agriculture in Denmark: 20 years of experience and prospects for the future. In: Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems. Developments in Hydrobiology. Andersen, J.H., Conley, D.J. (Eds.). Vol 207. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 65–70.

Rahman, M.N., Amin, M.G.M., Mondal, M.K., Humphreys, E., 2015. Rabi crop establishment methods for increasing land productivity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. In: Proceedings of the CPWF, GBDC, WLE Conference on Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone: Turning Science into Policy and Practices, Dhaka, Bangladesh. CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). Humphreys, E., Tuong, T.P., Buisson, M.C., Pukinskis, I., Phillips, M. (Eds.). 21-23 October 2015. Colombo, Sri Lanka. pp. 504–515.

Sainju, U.M., 2017. Determination of nitrogen balance in agroecosystems. MethodsX 4: 199–208.

Sanni, K.O., 2016. Effect of compost, cow dung and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on growth and yield performance of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus). International Journal of Advanced Science and Research 2: 76–82.

Saunders, O.E., Fortuna, A.M., Harrison, J.H., Whitefield, E., Cogger, C.G., Kennedy, A.C., Bary, A.I., 2012. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production. International Journal of Agronomy Article ID 101074.

Sharp, R.E., Poroyko, V., Hejlek, L.G., Spollen, W.G., Gordon, K., Springer, G.K., Bohnert, H.J., Nguyen, H.T., 2004. Root growth maintenance during water deficits: physiology to functional genomics. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 2343–2351.

Williams, M.R., King, K.W., Duncan, E.W., Pease, L.A., Penn, C.J., 2018. Fertilizer placement and tillage effects on phosphorus concentration in leachate from fine-textured soils. Soil and Tillage Research 178: 130–138.

Wortmann, C.S., Shapiro, C.A., 2008. The effects of manure application on soil aggregation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 80: 173–180.

Xia, L., Lam, S.K., Yan, X., Chen, D., 2017. How does recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems affect crop productivity, reactive nitrogen losses, and carbon balance? Environmental Science & Technology 51: 7450–7457.

Xue, Q.Y., Dai, P.B., Sun, D.S., Sun, C.L., Qi, L.Y., Ostermann, A., He, Y., Lin, X.Y., 2013. Effects of rainfall and manure application on phosphorus leaching in field lysimeters during fallow season. Journal of Soils and Sediments 13: 1527–1537.

Abstract

Maize production in Asia is rapidly increasing. For its sustainable production, the effects of raw and dry manure application on soil water dynamics, nutrient leaching, and plant growth were investigated. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the percolated water below a 110-cm depth of field-lysimeter columns were analyzed to quantify leaching. Soil water, soil temperature, and plant growth were routinely monitored. The manure application practices increased soil water content by 0.008–0.025 cm3 cm-3 throughout the vegetative period by reducing bulk density and reduced the daytime temperature range by 0.4–1.2°C. The average leaching concentrations of total N increased from 2.6 to 4.7 mg N L-1 and available P decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 mg P L-1 between 63 and 93 DAS (day after sowing), respectively. The manure treatments did not increase nutrient leaching load at 63 DAS, but at 93 DAS the N load was increased by 219–324 g ha-1 and P load by 2.0–3.1 g ha-1 compared with the control treatment. The dry manure released a larger amount of N (30.7%) and P (3.2%) in the leachates than the raw manure. The dry and raw manure treatment produced 14.5 and 5 cm taller plants, respectively than the control treatment. Manure application with a slight modification in nutrient management can avoid the nutrient leaching problem. 

Keywords: Dry manure, maize root growth, raw manure, soil temperature, soil water conservation.

References

Adekiya, A.O., Ojeniyi, S.O., Owonifari, O.E., 2016. Effect of cow dung on soil physical properties, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) in a tropical Alfisol. Scientia Agricola 15: 374–379.

Admas, H., Gebrekidan, H., Bedadi, B., Adgo, E., 2015. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield components of maize at Wajiraba watershed, northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 5: 1–15.

Agbede, T.M., Adekiya, A.O., Eifediyi, E.K., 2017. Impact of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on soil physical properties and growth and yield of carrot. Journal of Horticultural Research 25: 81–88.

Ali, M.H., Islam, A.K.M.R., Amin, M.G.M., 2007. Trend of rainfall and temperature in different regions of Bangladesh during last five decades. Journal of Agrometeorology 9: 26–33.

Amin, M.G.M., Bech, T.B., Forslund, A., Hansen, M., Petersen, S.O., Lægdsmand, M., 2014. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry. Science of the Total Environment 466/467: 1003–1010.

Amin, M.G.M., Karsten, H.D., Veith, T.L., Beegle, D.B., Kleinman, P.J.A., 2018. Conservation dairy farming impact on water quality in a karst watershed in northeastern US. Agricultural Systems 165: 187–196.

Amin, M.G.M., Pedersen, C.Ø., Forslund, A., Veith, T.L., Lægdsmand, M., 2016. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry. Journal of Environmental Management 184: 289–296.

Asadu, C.L.A., Igboka, C.R., 2014. Effects of animal faeces and their extracts on maize yield in an ultisol of eastern Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 5: 1–13.

Aziz, T.S., Ullah, A., Sattar, M., Nasim, M., Khan, M.M.F., 2010. Nutrient availability and maize (Zea mays L.) growth in soil amended with organic manures. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12: 621–624.

Black, C.A., 1965. Method of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling, and Part II - Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monograph 9.1, American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), Madison, Wisconsin, USA.1572 p.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

CBP, 2016. Chesapeake Bay Program. Available at [Access date: 22.12.2020]: https://statchesapeakebaynet/?q=node/130&quicktabs _10=1

Celik, I., Ortas, I., Kilic, S., 2004. Effect of compost mycorrhiza, manure and fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 59–67.

Chardon, W.J., Aalderink, G.H., van der Salm, C., 2007. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns. Journal of Environmental Quality 36: 17–22.

De Boer, H.C.D., 2008. Co-digestion of animal slurry can increase short-term nitrogen recovery by crops. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 1968–1973.

Du, Y., Cui, B., Zhang, Q., Wang, Z., Sun, J., Niu, W., 2020. Effects of manure fertilizer on crop yield and soil properties in China: A meta-analysis. Catena 193: 104617.

Eghball, B., Wienhold, B.J., Gilley, J.E., Roger, A., Eigenberg, R.A., 2002. Mineralization of manure nutrients. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57: 470–473.

Eze, S., Dougill, A.J., Banwart, S.A., Hermans, T.D.G., Ligowe, I.S., Thierfelder, C., 2020. Impacts of conservation agriculture on soil structure and hydraulic properties of Malawian agricultural systems. Soil and Tillage Research 201: 104639.

FAO, 2018. World Food and Agriculture Statistical Pocketbook 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy. 248p. Available at [Access date:15.07.2021]: http://www.fao.org/3/CA1796EN/ca1796en.pdf

FRG, 2012. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh. 274p. Available at [Access date:15.07.2021]: https://moa.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/moa.portal.gov.bd/page/9d1b92d4_1793_43af_9425_0ed49f27b8d0/FRG_2012_00.pdf

Giacomoni, M.H., Gomez, R., Berglund, E.Z., 2014. Hydrologic impact assessment of land cover change and stormwater management using the hydrologic footprint residence.  Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 50: 1242–1256.

Huhmann, B.L., Harvey, C.F., Uddin, A., Choudhury, I., Ahmed, K.M., Duxbury, J.M., Bostick, B.C., Geen, A.V., 2017. Field study of rice yield diminished by soil arsenic in Bangladesh. Environmental Science & Technology 51: 11553–11560.

ILMM policy, 2015. Draft national integrated livestock manure management (ILMM) policy, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of the people’s republic of Bangladesh. Available at [Access date: 26.12.2020]: https://mofl.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mofl.portal.gov.bd/page/221b5a19_4052_4486_ae71_18f1ff6863c1/ILMM%20Policy.pdf

Jjagwe, J., Chelimo, K., Karungi, J., Komakech, A.J., Lederer, J., 2020. Comparative performance of organic fertilizers in maize (zea mays) growth, yield, and economic results. Agronomy 10: 69.

Ksheem, A.M., Bennett, J.M., Antille, D.L., Raine, S.R., 2015. Towards a method for optimized extraction of soluble nutrients from fresh and composted chicken manures. Waste Management 45: 76–90.

Lehrsch, G.A., Kincaid, D.C., 2007. Compost and manure effects on fertilized corn silage and nitrogen uptake under irrigation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38: 2131–2147.

Loria, E.R., Sawyer, J.E., Barker, D.W., Lundvall, J.P., Lorimor, J.C., 2007. Use of anaerobically digested swine manure as a nitrogen source in corn production. Agronomy Journal 99: 1119–1129.

Lynch, J.P., 2013. Steep, cheap and deep: an ideo type to optimize water and N acquisition by maize root systems. Annals of Botany 112: 347–357.

Nahar, M.S., Grewal, P.S., Miller, S.A., Stinner, D., Stinner, B.R., Kleinhenz, M.D., Wszelaki, A., Doohan, D., 2006. Differential effects of raw and composted manure on nematode community, and its indicative value for soil microbial, physical and chemical properties. Applied Soil Ecology 34: 140–151.

Norring, N.P., Jørgensen, E., 2009. Eutrophication and agriculture in Denmark: 20 years of experience and prospects for the future. In: Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems. Developments in Hydrobiology. Andersen, J.H., Conley, D.J. (Eds.). Vol 207. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 65–70.

Rahman, M.N., Amin, M.G.M., Mondal, M.K., Humphreys, E., 2015. Rabi crop establishment methods for increasing land productivity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. In: Proceedings of the CPWF, GBDC, WLE Conference on Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone: Turning Science into Policy and Practices, Dhaka, Bangladesh. CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). Humphreys, E., Tuong, T.P., Buisson, M.C., Pukinskis, I., Phillips, M. (Eds.). 21-23 October 2015. Colombo, Sri Lanka. pp. 504–515.

Sainju, U.M., 2017. Determination of nitrogen balance in agroecosystems. MethodsX 4: 199–208.

Sanni, K.O., 2016. Effect of compost, cow dung and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on growth and yield performance of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus). International Journal of Advanced Science and Research 2: 76–82.

Saunders, O.E., Fortuna, A.M., Harrison, J.H., Whitefield, E., Cogger, C.G., Kennedy, A.C., Bary, A.I., 2012. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production. International Journal of Agronomy Article ID 101074.

Sharp, R.E., Poroyko, V., Hejlek, L.G., Spollen, W.G., Gordon, K., Springer, G.K., Bohnert, H.J., Nguyen, H.T., 2004. Root growth maintenance during water deficits: physiology to functional genomics. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 2343–2351.

Williams, M.R., King, K.W., Duncan, E.W., Pease, L.A., Penn, C.J., 2018. Fertilizer placement and tillage effects on phosphorus concentration in leachate from fine-textured soils. Soil and Tillage Research 178: 130–138.

Wortmann, C.S., Shapiro, C.A., 2008. The effects of manure application on soil aggregation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 80: 173–180.

Xia, L., Lam, S.K., Yan, X., Chen, D., 2017. How does recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems affect crop productivity, reactive nitrogen losses, and carbon balance? Environmental Science & Technology 51: 7450–7457.

Xue, Q.Y., Dai, P.B., Sun, D.S., Sun, C.L., Qi, L.Y., Ostermann, A., He, Y., Lin, X.Y., 2013. Effects of rainfall and manure application on phosphorus leaching in field lysimeters during fallow season. Journal of Soils and Sediments 13: 1527–1537.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science