Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 3, Jul 2021, Pages 259-268
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.930620
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.930620
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil

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Mohamad,H., Zainorabidin,A., Musta,B., Mustafa,M., Amaludin,A., Abdurahman,M., 2021. Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(3):259-268. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620
Mohamad,H.,Zainorabidin,A.Musta,B.Mustafa,M.Amaludin,A.,& Abdurahman,M. Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(3):259-268. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620
Mohamad,H.,Zainorabidin,A.Musta,B.Mustafa,M.Amaludin,A., and ,Abdurahman,M."Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.3 (2021):259-268. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620
Mohamad,H.,Zainorabidin,A.Musta,B.Mustafa,M.Amaludin,A., and ,Abdurahman,M. "Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Jul 2021):259-268 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620
H,Mohamad.A,Zainorabidin.B,Musta.M,Mustafa.A,Amaludin.M,Abdurahman "Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.3, pp.259-268 (Jul 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620
Mohamad,Habib M. ;Zainorabidin,Adnan ;Musta,Baba ;Mustafa,M. Nursyahrain ;Amaludin,Adriana Erica ;Abdurahman,Mohamad Niizar Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.3:259-268. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620

How to cite

Mohamad, H., Zainorabidin, A., Musta, B., Mustafa, M., Amaludin, A., Abdurahman, M., 2021. Compressibility behaviour and engineering properties of North Borneo Peat Soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(3): 259-268. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.930620

Author information

Habib M. Mohamad , Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Adnan Zainorabidin , Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
Baba Musta , Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
M. Nursyahrain Mustafa , Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Adriana Erica Amaludin , Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Mohamad Niizar Abdurahman , Public Works Department Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Publication information

Article first published online : 30 Apr 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 24 Apr 2021
Manuscript Received: 16 Oct 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.930620
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.930620

Abstract

It is known that peat soil is highly compressible. A constituent of peat soil from Klias, Sabah covering a wide range of index properties of fiber contents, specific gravity, organic contents and moisture contents were subjected to one-dimensional consolidation tests. This paper presents the engineering properties and compressibility behavior of sapric type of tropical peat soil. In this role, the high compressibility of Klias peat stands out as a most significant engineering property. With this intention, the purpose of this paper is to provide a simple and analytical means for predicting the consolidation settlement of sapric peat deposit under loading. The rate of primary compression, after a certain time. Increases with the logarithm of time. Loading applied from low stress to high stresses started from 2, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 kPa resulting in high compression index, Cc and ratio, C’c. The Klias peat soil represented sapric type of tropical peat with organic content is 98.43% and lower fiber content which is about 18% of the specimen. Compressibility index Cc, Coefficient of consolidation Cv, and Compression index, Cc, was identified as a crucial component of parameters in determination of settlements behaviour of peat soil. The coefficient of consolidation, Cv, was determined within the range of 1.264 to 12.911 cm2/min and requires special considerations in laboratory testing procedures and interpretation of results.

Keywords

One-dimensional, peat, soil, settlement, behaviour, coefficient of consolidation.

Corresponding author

References

Ajlouni, M.A., 2000. Geotechnical properties of peat and related engineering problems. PhD Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.

Akeem, G.A., Alsidqi H., Dayang N.D.U., Siti, N.L., 2019.  Strength and compressibility characteristics of amorphous tropical peat. Journal of GeoEngineering 14(2): 85-96.

ASTM D1997, 2013. Standard test method for laboratory determination of the fiber content of peat and organic soils by dry mass. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D1997&

ASTM D2974, 2013. Standard test methods for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/D2974-13.htm

ASTM D4427, 2013. Standard classification of peat samples by laboratory testing. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D4427&

ASTM D4767, 2011. Standard test method for consolidated undrained triaxial compression test for cohesive soils. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D4767&

Boylan, N., Long, M., 2014.  Evaluation of peat strength for stability assessments.  Geotechnical Engineering 166(5): 421-430.

BS 5930, 2015. The Code of Practice for Site Investigations. British Standards Institute, Milton Keynes.

Bujang, B.K., 2004. Organic and peat soils engineering.  Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 146p.

Bujang, B.K.H., 2004.  Behaviour of Soft Clay Foundation beneath an Embankment. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology 2(2): 215-235.

Casagrande, A., 1936. Determination of the preconsolidation load and its practical significance. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Cambridge, Mass, 22–26 June 1936. Harvard Printing Office, Cambridge, Mass. Vol. 3, pp. 60–64.

De Guzman, E.M.B., Alfaro, M.C., 2018. Laboratory-scale model studies on corduroy-reinforced road embankments on peat foundations using transparent soil. Transportation Geotechnics 16: 1-10.

Duraisamy, Y., Bujang, B.K.H., 2008.  Methods of utilizing cheap land for infrastructure development. ICCBT.

Duraisamy, Y., Bujang, B.K.H., Azlan, A.A., 2007.  Engineering properties and compressibility behavior of tropical peat soil.  American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (10): 768-773

Gofar, N. and Y. Sutejo., 2007.  Long term compression behavior of fibrous peat. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 19(2) :104-116

Hendry, M.T., Sharma, J.S., Martin, C.D., and Barbour, S.L., 2012. Effect  of  fibre  content  and  structure  on  anisotropic  elastic  stiffness  and  shear  strength  of  peat. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49(4): 403-415.

Johari, N.N., Bakar, I., Razali, S.N.M. Wahab., N. 2016.  Fiber effects on compressibility of peat. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 136: 012036.

Jorat, M.E., Kreiter, S., Morz, T., Moon, V., de Lange, W., 2013. Strength and compressibility characteristics of peat stabilized with sand columns. Geomechanics and Engineering 5(6): 575–594.

Landva, A.O., Pheeney, P.E., 1980. Peat fabric and structure. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 17(3): 416-435.

Mesri, G., Ajlouni, M., 2007. Engineering properties of fibrous peats. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 133(7): 850-866.

Mesri, G., Stark, T.D., Ajlouni, M.A., Chen, C.S., 1997. Secondary compression of peat with or without surcharging.  Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 123(5): 411-421.

Michael, R.L., Kenny, K.S., Niels, M., Trankjær, H., 2016. Oedometer tests with measurement of internal friction between oedometer ring and clay specimen. In: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Challenges in Nordic Geotechnic. 25-28 May 2016. Reykjavik, Iceland. pp 289-298.

Mohamad, H.M., Adnan, Z., Razali, S.N.M., Zolkefle, S.N.A., 2020.  Assessment for applicability of microwave oven in rapid determination of moisture content in peat soil.  Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 15(3): 2110-2118.

Munro, R., MacCulloch, F.,  2004.  Dealing with bearing capacity problems on low volume roads constructed on peat. (Executive Summary), Roadex III Northern Periphery Manual, Scotland. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: http://www.roadex.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Roads-on-Peat_English.pdf

Noto, S., 1991.  Simplification of Modified Prediction method of Settlement for Peaty Soft Ground.  Monthly Report of Civil Engineering Research Institute, No. 460, [in Japanese]. pp.37-41.

O’Loughlin, C.D., Lehane., B.M., 2003. A study of the link between composition and compressibility of peat and organic soils. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Advances in Soft Soil Engineering and Technology. Huat, B.B.K., Omar, H., Maail, S., Mahsun, E.,(Eds.). Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, Malaysia. pp.135-152.

Oikawa, H., Ishikawa, G., Vaid, Y.P., 1995. Settlement rates during one-dimensional consolidation of peat. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Compression and Consolidation of Clayey Soils. Yoshikuni, H., Kusakabe, O., (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Brookfield, The Netherlands. Vol. 2, pp.149–154.

Sa’don, N.M., Abdul Karim, A.R., Jaol, W., Wan Lili., W.H., 2015. Sarawak peat characteristics and heat treatment.  Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology 5(3): 6-12.

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2015.  Pre- and post-cyclic behavior on monotonic shear strength of Penor peat.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 20(16): 6927-6935.

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2016a.  Preliminary peat surveys in ecoregion delineation of North Borneo: Engineering perspective.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 21(12): 4485–4493. 

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2016b.  A geotechnical exploration of Sabah peat soil: Engineering classifications and field surveys.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 21(20): 6671–6687.

Zolkefle, S.N.A., 2014.  The dynamic characteristic of Southwest Johor peat under different frequencies.  Degree of Master in Civil Engineering Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.

Abstract

It is known that peat soil is highly compressible.  A constituent of peat soil from Klias, Sabah covering a wide range of index properties of fiber contents, specific gravity, organic contents and moisture contents were subjected to one-dimensional consolidation tests.  This paper presents the engineering properties and compressibility behavior of sapric type of tropical peat soil.  In this role, the high compressibility of Klias peat stands out as a most significant engineering property.  With this intention, the purpose of this paper is to provide a simple and analytical means for predicting the consolidation settlement of sapric peat deposit under loading. The rate of primary compression, after a certain time.  Increases with the logarithm of time.  Loading applied from low stress to high stresses started from 2, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 kPa resulting in high compression index, Cc and ratio, C’c.  The Klias peat soil represented sapric type of tropical peat with organic content is 98.43% and lower fiber content which is about 18% of the specimen.  Compressibility index Cc, Coefficient of consolidation Cv, and Compression index, Cc, was identified as a crucial component of parameters in determination of settlements behaviour of peat soil. The coefficient of consolidation, Cv, was determined within the range of 1.264 to 12.911 cm2/min and requires special considerations in laboratory testing procedures and interpretation of results.

Keywords: One-dimensional, peat, soil, settlement, behaviour, coefficient of consolidation.

References

Ajlouni, M.A., 2000. Geotechnical properties of peat and related engineering problems. PhD Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.

Akeem, G.A., Alsidqi H., Dayang N.D.U., Siti, N.L., 2019.  Strength and compressibility characteristics of amorphous tropical peat. Journal of GeoEngineering 14(2): 85-96.

ASTM D1997, 2013. Standard test method for laboratory determination of the fiber content of peat and organic soils by dry mass. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D1997&

ASTM D2974, 2013. Standard test methods for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/D2974-13.htm

ASTM D4427, 2013. Standard classification of peat samples by laboratory testing. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D4427&

ASTM D4767, 2011. Standard test method for consolidated undrained triaxial compression test for cohesive soils. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: https://www.astm.org/search/fullsite-search.html?query=D4767&

Boylan, N., Long, M., 2014.  Evaluation of peat strength for stability assessments.  Geotechnical Engineering 166(5): 421-430.

BS 5930, 2015. The Code of Practice for Site Investigations. British Standards Institute, Milton Keynes.

Bujang, B.K., 2004. Organic and peat soils engineering.  Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, 146p.

Bujang, B.K.H., 2004.  Behaviour of Soft Clay Foundation beneath an Embankment. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology 2(2): 215-235.

Casagrande, A., 1936. Determination of the preconsolidation load and its practical significance. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Cambridge, Mass, 22–26 June 1936. Harvard Printing Office, Cambridge, Mass. Vol. 3, pp. 60–64.

De Guzman, E.M.B., Alfaro, M.C., 2018. Laboratory-scale model studies on corduroy-reinforced road embankments on peat foundations using transparent soil. Transportation Geotechnics 16: 1-10.

Duraisamy, Y., Bujang, B.K.H., 2008.  Methods of utilizing cheap land for infrastructure development. ICCBT.

Duraisamy, Y., Bujang, B.K.H., Azlan, A.A., 2007.  Engineering properties and compressibility behavior of tropical peat soil.  American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (10): 768-773

Gofar, N. and Y. Sutejo., 2007.  Long term compression behavior of fibrous peat. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 19(2) :104-116

Hendry, M.T., Sharma, J.S., Martin, C.D., and Barbour, S.L., 2012. Effect  of  fibre  content  and  structure  on  anisotropic  elastic  stiffness  and  shear  strength  of  peat. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49(4): 403-415.

Johari, N.N., Bakar, I., Razali, S.N.M. Wahab., N. 2016.  Fiber effects on compressibility of peat. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 136: 012036.

Jorat, M.E., Kreiter, S., Morz, T., Moon, V., de Lange, W., 2013. Strength and compressibility characteristics of peat stabilized with sand columns. Geomechanics and Engineering 5(6): 575–594.

Landva, A.O., Pheeney, P.E., 1980. Peat fabric and structure. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 17(3): 416-435.

Mesri, G., Ajlouni, M., 2007. Engineering properties of fibrous peats. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 133(7): 850-866.

Mesri, G., Stark, T.D., Ajlouni, M.A., Chen, C.S., 1997. Secondary compression of peat with or without surcharging.  Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 123(5): 411-421.

Michael, R.L., Kenny, K.S., Niels, M., Trankjær, H., 2016. Oedometer tests with measurement of internal friction between oedometer ring and clay specimen. In: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Challenges in Nordic Geotechnic. 25-28 May 2016. Reykjavik, Iceland. pp 289-298.

Mohamad, H.M., Adnan, Z., Razali, S.N.M., Zolkefle, S.N.A., 2020.  Assessment for applicability of microwave oven in rapid determination of moisture content in peat soil.  Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 15(3): 2110-2118.

Munro, R., MacCulloch, F.,  2004.  Dealing with bearing capacity problems on low volume roads constructed on peat. (Executive Summary), Roadex III Northern Periphery Manual, Scotland. Available at [Access date: 16.10.2020]: http://www.roadex.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Roads-on-Peat_English.pdf

Noto, S., 1991.  Simplification of Modified Prediction method of Settlement for Peaty Soft Ground.  Monthly Report of Civil Engineering Research Institute, No. 460, [in Japanese]. pp.37-41.

O’Loughlin, C.D., Lehane., B.M., 2003. A study of the link between composition and compressibility of peat and organic soils. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Advances in Soft Soil Engineering and Technology. Huat, B.B.K., Omar, H., Maail, S., Mahsun, E.,(Eds.). Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, Malaysia. pp.135-152.

Oikawa, H., Ishikawa, G., Vaid, Y.P., 1995. Settlement rates during one-dimensional consolidation of peat. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Compression and Consolidation of Clayey Soils. Yoshikuni, H., Kusakabe, O., (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Brookfield, The Netherlands. Vol. 2, pp.149–154.

Sa’don, N.M., Abdul Karim, A.R., Jaol, W., Wan Lili., W.H., 2015. Sarawak peat characteristics and heat treatment.  Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology 5(3): 6-12.

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2015.  Pre- and post-cyclic behavior on monotonic shear strength of Penor peat.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 20(16): 6927-6935.

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2016a.  Preliminary peat surveys in ecoregion delineation of North Borneo: Engineering perspective.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 21(12): 4485–4493. 

Zainorabidin, A., Mohamad, H.M., 2016b.  A geotechnical exploration of Sabah peat soil: Engineering classifications and field surveys.  Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 21(20): 6671–6687.

Zolkefle, S.N.A., 2014.  The dynamic characteristic of Southwest Johor peat under different frequencies.  Degree of Master in Civil Engineering Thesis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science