Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 3, Jul 2021, Pages 215-221
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.888643
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.888643
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents

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Demir,Z., 2021. Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(3):215-221. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643
,& Demir,Z. (2021). Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(3):215-221. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643
, and ,Demir,Z. "Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.3 (2021):215-221. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643
, and ,Demir,Z. "Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Jul 2021):215-221 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643
Z,Demir "Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.3, pp.215-221 (Jul 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643
Demir,Zeynep Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.3:215-221. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643

How to cite

Demir, Z., 2021. Effects of vermicompost applications on Atterberg Limits and workability of soils under different soil moisture contents. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(3): 215-221. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.888643

Author information

Zeynep Demir , Soil, Fertilizer and Water Resources Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey Ankara, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 01 Mar 2021
Manuscript Accepted : 20 Feb 2021
Manuscript Received: 21 Sep 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.888643
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.888643

Abstract

The present research was conducted to assess the effects of vermicompost (VC) treatments under different soil moisture contents on consistency limits of sandy-clay-loam (SCL) soils in which lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa) was cultivated in a greenhouse. Liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), plasticity index (PI), consistency index (Ic) and clay activity (A) values were investigated. Three different VC doses (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) were applied at 3 different soil moisture contents (100% FC-field capacity, 50% FC and 25% FC). Experiments were conducted in 3 replications over 27 experimental plots (3×3x3). Increasing LL and PL values were observed with increasing VC doses. The greatest LL (46.6%) and PL (37.7%) values were obtained from the 5% VC treatment under high soil moisture content (100%FC) and the lowest LL (35.0%) and PL (23.0%) were obtained from the control treatment under low soil moisture content (25%FC). LL had significant correlations with VC (0.848**), PL (0.904**), PI (0.565**), Ic (0.668**) and A (0.548**). Ic had significant correlations with VC (0.815**), PL (0.417*) and PI (0.740**). As compared to the control treatments, Ic values increased by 13.0% and 21.9% respectively with 2.5% and 5% VC treatments. Ic values were greater than 0.75. Therefore, it was observed that the sandy-clay-loam soils could be cultivated without any structural deformations at FC or higher moisture contents with vermicompost application. Moisture content upper limits for optimal tillage without any structural destructions were suggested as 26.8%, 34.9% and 36.9% for 0%VC, 2.5%VC and 5%VC treatments, respectively. Present findings indicated that VC treatments extended the range of moisture for workability.

Keywords

Atterberg Limits, vermicompost, soil water regimes, soil cultivation, sandy-clay-loam soil.

Corresponding author

References

Aksakal, E.L., Angin, İ., Oztas, T., 2013. Effects of diatomite on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility. Catena 101: 157-163.

Aksakal, E.L., Sari, S., Angin. İ., 2016. Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development 27(4): 983-995.

Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Babenko, A., Cannon, J., Galvis, P., Metzger, J.D., 2008. Influences of vermicomposts, produced by earthworms and microorganisms from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste, on the germination, growth and flowering of petunias in the greenhouse. Applied Soil Ecology 39(1): 91-99.

Archer, J.R., 1969. The application of Atterberg Limits to agricultural soils. ADAS, Shardlow, UK.

Baumgartl, T., 2002. Atterberg Limits. In: Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Lal, R. (ed.). Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, USA.  pp:89-93.

Bhushan, L., Sharma, P.K., 2002. Long-term effects of lantana (Lantana spp. L.) residue additions on soil physical properties under rice- wheat cropping. I. Soil consistency, surface cracking and clod formation. Soil and Tillage Research 65(2): 157-167.

Campbell, D.J., 1991. Liquid and plastic limits. In: Soil analysis-physical methods. Smith, K.A., Mullins, C.E. (Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, USA. pp. 367–398.

Cerato, A.B., 2001. Influence of specific surface area on geotechnical characteristics of fine-graded soils. MSc Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Ceyhan, V., Akça, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Veselova, A., Novikova, K., 2015. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(4): 259 – 265.

de Jong, E., Acton, D.F., Stonehouse, H.B., 1990. Estimating the Atterberg limits of southern Saskatchewan soils from texture and carbon contents. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 70(4): 543-554.

Demir, Z., 2019. Effects of Vermicompost on soil physicochemical properties and lettuce (Lactuca sativa Var. Crispa) yield in greenhouse under different soil water regimes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 50(17): 2151-2168.

Demir, Z., 2020. Alleviation of adverse effects of sodium on soil physicochemical properties by application of vermicompost. Compost Science and Utilization 28(2): 100-116.

Demiralay, I. 1993. Toprak Fiziksel Analizleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No: 143, Erzurum, Turkey. 131p. [in Turkish]

Demiralay, İ., Güresinli, Y.Z., 1979. Erzurum ovası topraklarının kıvam limitleri ve sıkışabilirliği üzerinde bir araştırma. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 10(1-2): 77-93. [in Turkish]

Dexter, A.R., Bird, N.R.A., 2001. Methods for predicting the optimum and the range of soil water contents for tillage based on the water retention curve. Soil and Tillage Research 57(4): 203-212.

Dexter, A.R., Richard, G., Arrouays, D., Czyz, E.A., Jolivet, C., Duval, O., 2008. Complexed organic matter controls soil physical properties. Geoderma 144(3-4): 620-627.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2004. Changes in atterberg limits with different organic waste applications. International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2006. Some mechanical properties and workability of Ondokuz Mayıs University Kurupelit campus soils. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 21(2): 213-217. [in Turkish]

Gülser, C., İç, S., Candemir, F., Demir, Z., 2008. Effects of rice husk application on mechanical properties and cultivation of a clay soil with and without planting. International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. 29 October-01 November 2008. Kuşadası, Turkey.

Gülser, C., Selvi, K.Ç., İç, S., 2009. Some mechanical properties and workability of soils in a Karadeniz Agricultural Research Institute Field. Tarım Makinaları Bilimi Dergisi 5 (4): 423-428.

Hemmat, A., Aghilinategh, N., Rezainejad, Y., Sadeghi, M., 2010. Long- term impacts of municipal solid waste compost, sewage sludge and farmyard manure application on organic carbon, bulk density and consistency limits of a calcareous soil in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 108(1-2): 43-50.

Hillel, D., 1982. Introduction to Soil Phyics. Academic Press Limited, London. UK. 392p.

Jumikis A.R., Soil Mechanics. Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company Inc., Malabar, Florida, USA. 576p.

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri. Toprak Analizleri III. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim, Araştırma ve Geliştirme Vakfı Yayınları No:3, Ankara. 705p. [in Turkish]

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., 2014. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by Earthworm Eisenia foetida. Compost Science and Utilization 22(2): 68-82.

Kızılkaya, R., Yertayeva, Z., Kaldybayev, S., Murzabayev, B., Zhapparova, A., Nurseitov, Z., 2021. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(1): 38 - 50.

Kizilkaya, R., Turkay, F.S., Turkmen, C., Durmus, M., 2012. Vermicompost effects on wheat yield and nutrient contents in soil and plant. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 58: 175-179.

McBride, R.A., 2008. Soil consistency and lower plastic limits. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.) 2nd edition, CRC Press. pp. 761-769.

Mueller, L., Schindler, U., Fausey, N.R., Lal, R., 2003. Comparison of methods for estimating maximum soil water content for optimum workability. Soil and Tillage Research 72(1): 9-20.

Mupambwa, H.A., Mnkeni, P.N.S., 2018. Optimizing the vermicomposting of organic wastes amended with inorganic materials for production of nutrient-rich organic fertilizers: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 10577-10595.

Obour, P.B., Jensen, J.L., Lamandé, M., Watts, C.W., Munkholm, N.J., 2018. Soil organic matter widens the range of water contents for tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 182: 57-65.

Obour, P.B., Lamandé, M., Edwards, G., Sørensen, S.G., Munkholm, N.J., 2017. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review. Soil Use and Management 33(2): 288-298.

Orozco, F.H., Cegarra, J., Trujillo, L.M., Roig, A., 1996. Vermicomposting of coffee pulp using the earthworm Eisenia fetida: effects on C and N contents and the availability of nutrients. Biology and Fertility of Soils 22: 62–166.

Paradelo, R., Moldes, A.B., Barral, M.T., 2009. Amelioration of the physical properties of slate processing fines using grape marc compost and vermicompost. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73(4): 1251- 1260.

Petelkau, H., 1984. Auswirkungen von Schadverdichtungen auf Bodenigenschaften und Pflanzenertrag sowie Massnahmen zu ihrer Minderung. Grundlagen und Verfahren der rationellen Bodenbearbeitung und Erschliessung des Unterbodens fuer Pflanzen. Akademia der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Tagungsbericht Nr. 227: 25-34. [in German]

Sarı, S., Aksakal, E.L., Angın, İ., 2017. Influence of vermicompost application on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 41: 357-371.

Schjonning, P., 1991. Soil mechanical properties of seven Danish soils. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Internal Report No. S2176, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele, Denmark, 33p.

Seybold, C.A., Elrashidi, M.A., Engel, R.J., 2008. Linear regression models to estimate soil liquid limit and plasticity index from basic soil properties. Soil Science 173(1): 25-34.

Soil Survey Field and Laboratory Methods Manual, 2014. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 51 Version 2.  USDA-NRCS. National Soil Survey Center, Kellog Soil Survey Laboratory. Available at [Access date: 21.09.2020]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1244466.pdf

Soil Survey Staff, 1993. Soil survey manual. Handbook No: 18. USDA Handbook 18. Washington, D.C. USA. Available at [Access date: 21.09.2020]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcseprd1335011.pdf

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., Mesri, G., 1996. Index properties of soils. In: Soil mechanics in engineering practice. 3rd Edition. John Willey & Sons Inc. New York, USA. pp.3-31.

Abstract

The present research was conducted to assess the effects of vermicompost (VC) treatments under different soil moisture contents on consistency limits of sandy-clay-loam (SCL) soils in which lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa) was cultivated in a greenhouse. Liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), plasticity index (PI), consistency index (Ic) and clay activity (A) values were investigated. Three different VC doses (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) were applied at 3 different soil moisture contents (100% FC-field capacity, 50% FC and 25% FC). Experiments were conducted in 3 replications over 27 experimental plots (3×3x3). Increasing LL and PL values were observed with increasing VC doses. The greatest LL (46.6%) and PL (37.7%) values were obtained from the 5% VC treatment under high soil moisture content (100%FC) and the lowest LL (35.0%) and PL (23.0%) were obtained from the control treatment under low soil moisture content (25%FC). LL had significant correlations with VC (0.848**), PL (0.904**), PI (0.565**), Ic (0.668**) and A (0.548**). Ic had significant correlations with VC (0.815**), PL (0.417*) and PI (0.740**). As compared to the control treatments, Ic values increased by 13.0% and 21.9% respectively with 2.5% and 5% VC treatments. Ic values were greater than 0.75. Therefore, it was observed that the sandy-clay-loam soils could be cultivated without any structural deformations at FC or higher moisture contents with vermicompost application. Moisture content upper limits for optimal tillage without any structural destructions were suggested as 26.8%, 34.9% and 36.9% for 0%VC, 2.5%VC and 5%VC treatments, respectively. Present findings indicated that VC treatments extended the range of moisture for workability.

Keywords: Atterberg Limits, vermicompost, soil water regimes, soil cultivation, sandy-clay-loam soil.

References

Aksakal, E.L., Angin, İ., Oztas, T., 2013. Effects of diatomite on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility. Catena 101: 157-163.

Aksakal, E.L., Sari, S., Angin. İ., 2016. Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development 27(4): 983-995.

Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Babenko, A., Cannon, J., Galvis, P., Metzger, J.D., 2008. Influences of vermicomposts, produced by earthworms and microorganisms from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste, on the germination, growth and flowering of petunias in the greenhouse. Applied Soil Ecology 39(1): 91-99.

Archer, J.R., 1969. The application of Atterberg Limits to agricultural soils. ADAS, Shardlow, UK.

Baumgartl, T., 2002. Atterberg Limits. In: Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Lal, R. (ed.). Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, USA.  pp:89-93.

Bhushan, L., Sharma, P.K., 2002. Long-term effects of lantana (Lantana spp. L.) residue additions on soil physical properties under rice- wheat cropping. I. Soil consistency, surface cracking and clod formation. Soil and Tillage Research 65(2): 157-167.

Campbell, D.J., 1991. Liquid and plastic limits. In: Soil analysis-physical methods. Smith, K.A., Mullins, C.E. (Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, USA. pp. 367–398.

Cerato, A.B., 2001. Influence of specific surface area on geotechnical characteristics of fine-graded soils. MSc Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Ceyhan, V., Akça, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Veselova, A., Novikova, K., 2015. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(4): 259 – 265.

de Jong, E., Acton, D.F., Stonehouse, H.B., 1990. Estimating the Atterberg limits of southern Saskatchewan soils from texture and carbon contents. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 70(4): 543-554.

Demir, Z., 2019. Effects of Vermicompost on soil physicochemical properties and lettuce (Lactuca sativa Var. Crispa) yield in greenhouse under different soil water regimes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 50(17): 2151-2168.

Demir, Z., 2020. Alleviation of adverse effects of sodium on soil physicochemical properties by application of vermicompost. Compost Science and Utilization 28(2): 100-116.

Demiralay, I. 1993. Toprak Fiziksel Analizleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No: 143, Erzurum, Turkey. 131p. [in Turkish]

Demiralay, İ., Güresinli, Y.Z., 1979. Erzurum ovası topraklarının kıvam limitleri ve sıkışabilirliği üzerinde bir araştırma. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 10(1-2): 77-93. [in Turkish]

Dexter, A.R., Bird, N.R.A., 2001. Methods for predicting the optimum and the range of soil water contents for tillage based on the water retention curve. Soil and Tillage Research 57(4): 203-212.

Dexter, A.R., Richard, G., Arrouays, D., Czyz, E.A., Jolivet, C., Duval, O., 2008. Complexed organic matter controls soil physical properties. Geoderma 144(3-4): 620-627.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2004. Changes in atterberg limits with different organic waste applications. International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey.

Gülser, C., Candemir, F., 2006. Some mechanical properties and workability of Ondokuz Mayıs University Kurupelit campus soils. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 21(2): 213-217. [in Turkish]

Gülser, C., İç, S., Candemir, F., Demir, Z., 2008. Effects of rice husk application on mechanical properties and cultivation of a clay soil with and without planting. International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. 29 October-01 November 2008. Kuşadası, Turkey.

Gülser, C., Selvi, K.Ç., İç, S., 2009. Some mechanical properties and workability of soils in a Karadeniz Agricultural Research Institute Field. Tarım Makinaları Bilimi Dergisi 5 (4): 423-428.

Hemmat, A., Aghilinategh, N., Rezainejad, Y., Sadeghi, M., 2010. Long- term impacts of municipal solid waste compost, sewage sludge and farmyard manure application on organic carbon, bulk density and consistency limits of a calcareous soil in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 108(1-2): 43-50.

Hillel, D., 1982. Introduction to Soil Phyics. Academic Press Limited, London. UK. 392p.

Jumikis A.R., Soil Mechanics. Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company Inc., Malabar, Florida, USA. 576p.

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri. Toprak Analizleri III. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim, Araştırma ve Geliştirme Vakfı Yayınları No:3, Ankara. 705p. [in Turkish]

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., 2014. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by Earthworm Eisenia foetida. Compost Science and Utilization 22(2): 68-82.

Kızılkaya, R., Yertayeva, Z., Kaldybayev, S., Murzabayev, B., Zhapparova, A., Nurseitov, Z., 2021. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10(1): 38 - 50.

Kizilkaya, R., Turkay, F.S., Turkmen, C., Durmus, M., 2012. Vermicompost effects on wheat yield and nutrient contents in soil and plant. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 58: 175-179.

McBride, R.A., 2008. Soil consistency and lower plastic limits. In: Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.) 2nd edition, CRC Press. pp. 761-769.

Mueller, L., Schindler, U., Fausey, N.R., Lal, R., 2003. Comparison of methods for estimating maximum soil water content for optimum workability. Soil and Tillage Research 72(1): 9-20.

Mupambwa, H.A., Mnkeni, P.N.S., 2018. Optimizing the vermicomposting of organic wastes amended with inorganic materials for production of nutrient-rich organic fertilizers: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 10577-10595.

Obour, P.B., Jensen, J.L., Lamandé, M., Watts, C.W., Munkholm, N.J., 2018. Soil organic matter widens the range of water contents for tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 182: 57-65.

Obour, P.B., Lamandé, M., Edwards, G., Sørensen, S.G., Munkholm, N.J., 2017. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review. Soil Use and Management 33(2): 288-298.

Orozco, F.H., Cegarra, J., Trujillo, L.M., Roig, A., 1996. Vermicomposting of coffee pulp using the earthworm Eisenia fetida: effects on C and N contents and the availability of nutrients. Biology and Fertility of Soils 22: 62–166.

Paradelo, R., Moldes, A.B., Barral, M.T., 2009. Amelioration of the physical properties of slate processing fines using grape marc compost and vermicompost. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73(4): 1251- 1260.

Petelkau, H., 1984. Auswirkungen von Schadverdichtungen auf Bodenigenschaften und Pflanzenertrag sowie Massnahmen zu ihrer Minderung. Grundlagen und Verfahren der rationellen Bodenbearbeitung und Erschliessung des Unterbodens fuer Pflanzen. Akademia der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Tagungsbericht Nr. 227: 25-34. [in German]

Sarı, S., Aksakal, E.L., Angın, İ., 2017. Influence of vermicompost application on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 41: 357-371.

Schjonning, P., 1991. Soil mechanical properties of seven Danish soils. Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Internal Report No. S2176, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele, Denmark, 33p.

Seybold, C.A., Elrashidi, M.A., Engel, R.J., 2008. Linear regression models to estimate soil liquid limit and plasticity index from basic soil properties. Soil Science 173(1): 25-34.

Soil Survey Field and Laboratory Methods Manual, 2014. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 51 Version 2.  USDA-NRCS. National Soil Survey Center, Kellog Soil Survey Laboratory. Available at [Access date: 21.09.2020]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1244466.pdf

Soil Survey Staff, 1993. Soil survey manual. Handbook No: 18. USDA Handbook 18. Washington, D.C. USA. Available at [Access date: 21.09.2020]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcseprd1335011.pdf

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., Mesri, G., 1996. Index properties of soils. In: Soil mechanics in engineering practice. 3rd Edition. John Willey & Sons Inc. New York, USA. pp.3-31.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science