Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 2, Apr 2021, Pages 150 - 160
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.843861
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.843861
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality

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Amoakwah,E., Rahman,M., Nketia,K., Djouaka,R., Didenko,N., Islam,K., 2021. Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(2):150 - 160. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861
Amoakwah,E.Rahman,M.Nketia,K.Djouaka,R.Didenko,N.,& Islam,K. (2021). Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(2):150 - 160. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861
Amoakwah,E.Rahman,M.Nketia,K.Djouaka,R.Didenko,N., and ,Islam,K. "Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.2 (2021):150 - 160. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861
Amoakwah,E.Rahman,M.Nketia,K.Djouaka,R.Didenko,N., and ,Islam,K. "Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Apr 2021):150 - 160 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861
E,Amoakwah.M,Rahman.K,Nketia.R,Djouaka.N,Didenko.K,Islam "Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.2, pp.150 - 160 (Apr 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861
Amoakwah,Emmanuel ;Rahman,Mohammad A. ;Nketia,Kwabena A. ;Djouaka,Rousseau ;Didenko,Nataliia Oleksandrivna ;Islam,Khandakar R. Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.2:150 - 160. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861

How to cite

Amoakwah, E., Rahman, M., Nketia, K., Djouaka, R., Didenko, N., Islam, K., 2021. Impact of deforestation and subsequent land-use change on soil quality. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(2): 150 - 160. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.843861

Author information

Emmanuel Amoakwah , CSIR – Soil Research Institute, Academy Post Office, Kwadaso-Kumasi, Ghana
Mohammad A. Rahman , Ohio State University South Centers, Piketon, Ohio, USA
Kwabena A. Nketia , CSIR – Soil Research Institute, Academy Post Office, Kwadaso-Kumasi, Ghana
Rousseau Djouaka , International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Benin
Nataliia Oleksandrivna Didenko , Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation, Kyiv, Ukraine
Khandakar R. Islam , Ohio State University South Centers, Piketon, Ohio, USA Ohio, USA

Publication information

Article first published online : 20 Dec 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 19 Nov 2020
Manuscript Received: 11 Jun 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.843861
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.843861

Abstract

Deforestation for conventional farming has affected soil quality (SQ) worldwide. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of land use change, from forest to subsistence farming, on SQ in Benin. Composite soils from forest, horticultural, agricultural, fallow, and degraded lands were collected to analyze for chemical and physical properties. Using inductive additive approach and principal component analysis (PCA), generalized (SQIg) and minimum dataset SQ (SQIMDS) indices were calculated. Results showed that upon conversion of forest, total organic carbon (TOC) decreased by more than 2 folds in fallow and degraded soils. A similar impact was observed on total nitrogen (TN). Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation (BS) were significantly higher under horticulture than in degraded lands. In contrast, carbon protection capacity (CPC) was significantly higher by 12-41% in forest soils compared to the lowest in degraded soils. Among the land uses, aggregate stability index (ASI) was, by far, the lowest (3.2%) in degraded soils and highest (7.5%) in horticulture soils. Soils under fallow and degraded lands had SQIg decreased by 5 to 16%, when compared with forest, indicating a significant SQ degradation. In contrast, SQIg under horticulture increased by 5%, suggesting a similar or even an improvement in SQ comparable to the forest. The PCA-based SQIMDS significantly and positively accounted for 70% of the variability in SQIg with a non-significant biasness (6 ± 3.8% at p<0.12). The TOC and CPC contributed most (20.9% and 21.1%) followed by clay (14.1%) and Ca+2: (Mg+2 + K+1 + Na+) (13.7%), TOC (11%), and ASI (10.5%) compared to lowest by K+ (9.7%) to account for SQIMDS variability. Our results concluded that there was no significant difference between SQIg and SQIMDS, which justified our results to use SQIMDS detecting management-induced changes in SQ.

Keywords

Soil degradation, slush-burn agriculture, Carbon protection capacity, minimum dataset, Soil quality.

Corresponding author

References

Adaikwu, A.O., Obi, M.E. Ali, A., 2012. Assessment of degradation status of soils in selected areas of Benue State, Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 22: 171-180.

Aziz, I., Mahmood, T., Islam, K.R., 2013. Effect of long-term no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research 131: 28-35.

Alarima, C.I., Annan‐Afful, E., Obalum, S.E., Awotunde, J.M., Masunaga, T., Igwe, C.A., 2020. Comparative assessment of temporal changes in soil degradation under four contrasting land‐use options along a tropical toposequence. Land Degradation and Development 31(4): 439–450.

Chandel, S., Hadda, M.S., Mahal, A.K., 2018. Soil quality assessment through minimum data set under different land uses of Submontane Punjab. Communications Soil Science and Plant Analysis 49(6): 658-674.

Chesworth, W., 2008. Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 24p.

Davari, M., Gholami, L., Nabiollahi, K., Homaee, M., Jafari, H.J. 2020. Deforestation and cultivation of sparse forest impacts on soil quality (case study: West Iran, Baneh). Soil and Tillage Research 198: 104504.

Durigan, M.R., Cherubin, M.R., De Camargo, P.B., Ferreira, J.N., Berenguer, E., Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., dos Santos Dias, C.T., Signor, D., de Oliveira Junior, Cerri, R.C., C.E.P. , 2017. Soil organic matter responses to anthropogenic forest disturbance and land use change in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Sustainability 9(3): 379.

Ezeaku, P.I., 2015. Evaluation of agro-ecological approach to soil quality assessment for sustainable land use and management systems. Scientific Research and Essays 10(15): 501-512.

Félix, K.A., Pascal, H., Anastase, A.H., Houinsou, D., Armel, G.S.O., 2015. Farmers’ perceptions on soil degradation and their socioeconomic determinants in three watersheds of Southern Benin. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5(22): 29-39.

Hassink, J., 1997. The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particles. Plant and Soil 191: 77–87.

Huddleston, J.H., 1984. Development and use of soil productivity ratings in the United States. Geoderma 32(4): 297-317.

Islam, K.R., Weil, R.R., 2000a. Land use effects on soil quality in a tropical forest ecosystem of Bangladesh. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 79(1): 9-16.

Islam, K.R., Weil, R.R., 2000b. Soil quality indicator properties in mid-Atlantic soils as influenced by conservation management. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 55(1): 69-78.

Jackson, M.L., 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Kalu, S., Koirala, M, Khadka, U.R., Anup, K.C. 2015. Soil quality assessment for different land use in the Panchase area of Western Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Protection 5(1): 38-43.

Kirkby, C.A., Richardson, A.E., Wade, L.J., Batten, G.D., Blanchard, C., Kirkegaard, J.A., 2013. Carbon-nutrient stoichiometry to increase soil carbon sequestration. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 60: 77-86.

Koda, A.D., Dagbenonbakin, G., Assogba, F., Noumavo, P.A., Agbodjatoi, N.A., Assogbai, S., Aguegue, R.M., Adjanohoun, A., Rivera, R., Rivers, R., de la Noval Pons, B.M., Baba-Moussai, L., 2018. Maize (Zea mays l.) response to mycorrhizal fertilization on ferruginous soil of northern Benin. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 6(6): 919-928.

Kpera, A., Houngbeme, A.G., Gbaguidi, F.A., Gandaho, S, Gandonou, C.B., 2019. Effect of different doses of the dung of cow, human urine and their combination on water and vitamins contents of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) in southern Benin. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 13(4): 2053-2064.

Marzaioli, R., D’Ascoli, R., De Pascale, R.A., Rutigliano, F.A., 2010. Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Applied Soil Ecology 44(3): 205-212.

Moebius‐Clune, B.N., van Es, H.M., Idowu, O.J., Schindelbeck, R.R., Kimetu, J.M., Ngoze, S., Lehmann, J., Kinyangi, J.M., 2011. Long-term soil quality degradation along a cultivation chronosequence in western Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 141(1-2): 86‐99.

Moges, A., Holden, N.M., 2008. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and agricultural land use: a case study of umbulo catchment in Southern Ethiopia. Environmental Management 42: 753-763.

Moges, A., Dagnachew, M., Yimer, F., 2013. Land use effects on soil quality indicators: A case study of Abo-Wonsho Southern Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 784989.

Mullar-Harvey, I., Juo, A.S.R., Wilde, A., 1985. Soil organic C, N, S and P after forest clearance in Nigeria: mineralization rates and spatial variability. European Journal of Soil Science 36(4): 585-591.

Murphy, J., Riley, J.P., 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31-36.

Neina, D., 2019. The role of soil pH in plant nutrition and soil remediation. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 5794869.  

Nguemezi, C., Tematio, P., Yemefack, M., Tsozue, D., Silatsa, T.B.F., 2020. Soil quality and soil fertility status in major soil groups at the Tombel area, South-West Cameroon. Heliyon 6(2): e03432.

Nimmo, J.R., Perkins, K.S., 2002. Aggregates stability and size distribution. In: Method of soil analysis Part 4 Physical methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 317-328.

Obalum, S.E., Buri, M.M., Nwite, J.C., Hermansah, L., Watanabe, Y., Igwe, C.A., Wakatsuki, T., 2012. Soil degradation-induced decline in productivity of sub-Saharan African soils: The prospects of looking downwards the lowlands with the Sawah Ecotechnology. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 673926.

Onweremadu, E.U., Onyia, V.N., Anikwe, M.A.N., 2007. Carbon and nitrogen distribution in water-stable aggregates under two tillage techniques in Fluvisols of Owerri area, southeastern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 97(2): 195-206.

Ouedraogo, I., Tigabu, M., Savadogo, P., Compaore, H., Odén, P.C., Ouadba, J.M., 2010. Land cover change and its relationship with population dynamics in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Land Degradation & Development 21(5): 453-462.

Pieri, C.J.M.G., 1992. Fertility of Soils: A Future for Farming in the West African Savannah s.l.: s.n.

Perrin, A., Basset-Mens, C. Huat, J. Yehouess, W., 2015. High environmental risk and low yield of urban tomato gardens in Benin. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35: 305–315.

Prasad, S.T., Nolte C.H., 1995. Regional characterization of inland valleys agroecosystems in Save, Bante, Bassila, and Parakou regions in south central Republic of Benin. Inland Valleys Characterization Report 1. IITA, Nigeria.

Reicosky, D.C., Forcella, F., 1998. Cover crop and soil quality interactions in agroecosystems. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 53(3): 224-229.

Rezaei, S.A., Giles, R.J., Andrews, S.S., 2006. A minimum data set for assessing soil quality in rangelands. Geoderma 136(1-2): 229-234.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy /Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. pp. 149-158.

Sangare, S.K., Compaore, E, Buerkert, A., Vanclooster, M., Sedego, M.P., Bielders, C.L., 2012. Field-scale analysis of water and nutrient use efficiency for vegetable production in a West African urban agricultural system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 92: 207– 224.

Schulte, E.E., Kelling, K.A., 1993. Soil calcium to magnesium ratios – Should you be concerned (A 2986). Cooperative Extension Publications SR-11-93. University of Wixconsin-Extension. Available at [Access date: 11.06.2020]: http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu/Management/pdfs/a2986.pdf

Sharma, R., Chisti, Y., Banerjee, U.C., 2001. Production, purification, characterization and applications of lipases. Biotechnology Advances 19(8): 627-662.

Schwartz, R.C., Evett, S.R., Unger, P.W., 2003. Soil hydraulic properties of cropland compared with reestablished and native grassland. Geoderma 116(1-2): 47-60.

Sintayehu, D.W., 2018. Impact of climate change on biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services in Africa: a systematic review. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 4(9): 225-239.

Tellen, V.A., Yerima, B.P.K., 2018. Effects of land use change on soil physicochemical properties in selected areas in the North West region of Cameroon. Environmental Systems Research 7: 3.

Thein, S.J., Graveel, J.G., 1997. Laboratory Manual for Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Principles. 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Dubuque, IA. 218p.

Voundi Nkana, J.C., Demeyer, A., Verloo, M.G., 1998. Chemical effects of wood ash on plant growth in tropical acid soils. Bioresource Technology 63: 251–260.

Wymore, A.W. 1993. Model-Based Systems Engineering. 1st Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton. USA. 710p.

Yimer, F., Ledin, S., Abdelkadir, A., 2007. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in three adjacent land use types in the Bale Mountains, south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 242(2-3): 337-342.

Zhang, S.L., Wang, R.J., Yang, X.Y., Sun, B.H., Li, Q.H., 2016. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol. Scientific Reports 6: 39107.

Abstract

Deforestation for conventional farming has affected soil quality (SQ) worldwide. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of land use change, from forest to subsistence farming, on SQ in Benin. Composite soils from forest, horticultural, agricultural, fallow, and degraded lands were collected to analyze for chemical and physical properties. Using inductive additive approach and principal component analysis (PCA), generalized (SQIg) and minimum dataset SQ (SQIMDS) indices were calculated. Results showed that upon conversion of forest, total organic carbon (TOC) decreased by more than 2 folds in fallow and degraded soils. A similar impact was observed on total nitrogen (TN). Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation (BS) were significantly higher under horticulture than in degraded lands. In contrast, carbon protection capacity (CPC) was significantly higher by 12-41% in forest soils compared to the lowest in degraded soils. Among the land uses, aggregate stability index (ASI) was, by far, the lowest (3.2%) in degraded soils and highest (7.5%) in horticulture soils. Soils under fallow and degraded lands had SQIg decreased by 5 to 16%, when compared with forest, indicating a significant SQ degradation. In contrast, SQIg under horticulture increased by 5%, suggesting a similar or even an improvement in SQ comparable to the forest. The PCA-based SQIMDS significantly and positively accounted for 70% of the variability in SQIg with a non-significant biasness (6 ± 3.8% at p<0.12). The TOC and CPC contributed most (20.9% and 21.1%) followed by clay (14.1%) and Ca+2: (Mg+2 + K+1 + Na+) (13.7%), TOC (11%), and ASI (10.5%) compared to lowest by K+ (9.7%) to account for SQIMDS variability. Our results concluded that there was no significant difference between SQIg and SQIMDS, which justified our results to use SQIMDS detecting management-induced changes in SQ.

Keywords: Soil degradation, slush-burn agriculture, Carbon protection capacity, minimum dataset, Soil quality.

References

Adaikwu, A.O., Obi, M.E. Ali, A., 2012. Assessment of degradation status of soils in selected areas of Benue State, Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 22: 171-180.

Aziz, I., Mahmood, T., Islam, K.R., 2013. Effect of long-term no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research 131: 28-35.

Alarima, C.I., Annan‐Afful, E., Obalum, S.E., Awotunde, J.M., Masunaga, T., Igwe, C.A., 2020. Comparative assessment of temporal changes in soil degradation under four contrasting land‐use options along a tropical toposequence. Land Degradation and Development 31(4): 439–450.

Chandel, S., Hadda, M.S., Mahal, A.K., 2018. Soil quality assessment through minimum data set under different land uses of Submontane Punjab. Communications Soil Science and Plant Analysis 49(6): 658-674.

Chesworth, W., 2008. Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 24p.

Davari, M., Gholami, L., Nabiollahi, K., Homaee, M., Jafari, H.J. 2020. Deforestation and cultivation of sparse forest impacts on soil quality (case study: West Iran, Baneh). Soil and Tillage Research 198: 104504.

Durigan, M.R., Cherubin, M.R., De Camargo, P.B., Ferreira, J.N., Berenguer, E., Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., dos Santos Dias, C.T., Signor, D., de Oliveira Junior, Cerri, R.C., C.E.P. , 2017. Soil organic matter responses to anthropogenic forest disturbance and land use change in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Sustainability 9(3): 379.

Ezeaku, P.I., 2015. Evaluation of agro-ecological approach to soil quality assessment for sustainable land use and management systems. Scientific Research and Essays 10(15): 501-512.

Félix, K.A., Pascal, H., Anastase, A.H., Houinsou, D., Armel, G.S.O., 2015. Farmers’ perceptions on soil degradation and their socioeconomic determinants in three watersheds of Southern Benin. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5(22): 29-39.

Hassink, J., 1997. The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particles. Plant and Soil 191: 77–87.

Huddleston, J.H., 1984. Development and use of soil productivity ratings in the United States. Geoderma 32(4): 297-317.

Islam, K.R., Weil, R.R., 2000a. Land use effects on soil quality in a tropical forest ecosystem of Bangladesh. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 79(1): 9-16.

Islam, K.R., Weil, R.R., 2000b. Soil quality indicator properties in mid-Atlantic soils as influenced by conservation management. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 55(1): 69-78.

Jackson, M.L., 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Kalu, S., Koirala, M, Khadka, U.R., Anup, K.C. 2015. Soil quality assessment for different land use in the Panchase area of Western Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Protection 5(1): 38-43.

Kirkby, C.A., Richardson, A.E., Wade, L.J., Batten, G.D., Blanchard, C., Kirkegaard, J.A., 2013. Carbon-nutrient stoichiometry to increase soil carbon sequestration. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 60: 77-86.

Koda, A.D., Dagbenonbakin, G., Assogba, F., Noumavo, P.A., Agbodjatoi, N.A., Assogbai, S., Aguegue, R.M., Adjanohoun, A., Rivera, R., Rivers, R., de la Noval Pons, B.M., Baba-Moussai, L., 2018. Maize (Zea mays l.) response to mycorrhizal fertilization on ferruginous soil of northern Benin. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 6(6): 919-928.

Kpera, A., Houngbeme, A.G., Gbaguidi, F.A., Gandaho, S, Gandonou, C.B., 2019. Effect of different doses of the dung of cow, human urine and their combination on water and vitamins contents of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) in southern Benin. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 13(4): 2053-2064.

Marzaioli, R., D’Ascoli, R., De Pascale, R.A., Rutigliano, F.A., 2010. Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Applied Soil Ecology 44(3): 205-212.

Moebius‐Clune, B.N., van Es, H.M., Idowu, O.J., Schindelbeck, R.R., Kimetu, J.M., Ngoze, S., Lehmann, J., Kinyangi, J.M., 2011. Long-term soil quality degradation along a cultivation chronosequence in western Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment 141(1-2): 86‐99.

Moges, A., Holden, N.M., 2008. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and agricultural land use: a case study of umbulo catchment in Southern Ethiopia. Environmental Management 42: 753-763.

Moges, A., Dagnachew, M., Yimer, F., 2013. Land use effects on soil quality indicators: A case study of Abo-Wonsho Southern Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 784989.

Mullar-Harvey, I., Juo, A.S.R., Wilde, A., 1985. Soil organic C, N, S and P after forest clearance in Nigeria: mineralization rates and spatial variability. European Journal of Soil Science 36(4): 585-591.

Murphy, J., Riley, J.P., 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31-36.

Neina, D., 2019. The role of soil pH in plant nutrition and soil remediation. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 5794869.  

Nguemezi, C., Tematio, P., Yemefack, M., Tsozue, D., Silatsa, T.B.F., 2020. Soil quality and soil fertility status in major soil groups at the Tombel area, South-West Cameroon. Heliyon 6(2): e03432.

Nimmo, J.R., Perkins, K.S., 2002. Aggregates stability and size distribution. In: Method of soil analysis Part 4 Physical methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 317-328.

Obalum, S.E., Buri, M.M., Nwite, J.C., Hermansah, L., Watanabe, Y., Igwe, C.A., Wakatsuki, T., 2012. Soil degradation-induced decline in productivity of sub-Saharan African soils: The prospects of looking downwards the lowlands with the Sawah Ecotechnology. Applied and Environmental Soil Science Article ID 673926.

Onweremadu, E.U., Onyia, V.N., Anikwe, M.A.N., 2007. Carbon and nitrogen distribution in water-stable aggregates under two tillage techniques in Fluvisols of Owerri area, southeastern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research 97(2): 195-206.

Ouedraogo, I., Tigabu, M., Savadogo, P., Compaore, H., Odén, P.C., Ouadba, J.M., 2010. Land cover change and its relationship with population dynamics in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Land Degradation & Development 21(5): 453-462.

Pieri, C.J.M.G., 1992. Fertility of Soils: A Future for Farming in the West African Savannah s.l.: s.n.

Perrin, A., Basset-Mens, C. Huat, J. Yehouess, W., 2015. High environmental risk and low yield of urban tomato gardens in Benin. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35: 305–315.

Prasad, S.T., Nolte C.H., 1995. Regional characterization of inland valleys agroecosystems in Save, Bante, Bassila, and Parakou regions in south central Republic of Benin. Inland Valleys Characterization Report 1. IITA, Nigeria.

Reicosky, D.C., Forcella, F., 1998. Cover crop and soil quality interactions in agroecosystems. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 53(3): 224-229.

Rezaei, S.A., Giles, R.J., Andrews, S.S., 2006. A minimum data set for assessing soil quality in rangelands. Geoderma 136(1-2): 229-234.

Rhoades, J.D., 1982. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy /Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. pp. 149-158.

Sangare, S.K., Compaore, E, Buerkert, A., Vanclooster, M., Sedego, M.P., Bielders, C.L., 2012. Field-scale analysis of water and nutrient use efficiency for vegetable production in a West African urban agricultural system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 92: 207– 224.

Schulte, E.E., Kelling, K.A., 1993. Soil calcium to magnesium ratios – Should you be concerned (A 2986). Cooperative Extension Publications SR-11-93. University of Wixconsin-Extension. Available at [Access date: 11.06.2020]: http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu/Management/pdfs/a2986.pdf

Sharma, R., Chisti, Y., Banerjee, U.C., 2001. Production, purification, characterization and applications of lipases. Biotechnology Advances 19(8): 627-662.

Schwartz, R.C., Evett, S.R., Unger, P.W., 2003. Soil hydraulic properties of cropland compared with reestablished and native grassland. Geoderma 116(1-2): 47-60.

Sintayehu, D.W., 2018. Impact of climate change on biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services in Africa: a systematic review. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 4(9): 225-239.

Tellen, V.A., Yerima, B.P.K., 2018. Effects of land use change on soil physicochemical properties in selected areas in the North West region of Cameroon. Environmental Systems Research 7: 3.

Thein, S.J., Graveel, J.G., 1997. Laboratory Manual for Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Principles. 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Dubuque, IA. 218p.

Voundi Nkana, J.C., Demeyer, A., Verloo, M.G., 1998. Chemical effects of wood ash on plant growth in tropical acid soils. Bioresource Technology 63: 251–260.

Wymore, A.W. 1993. Model-Based Systems Engineering. 1st Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton. USA. 710p.

Yimer, F., Ledin, S., Abdelkadir, A., 2007. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in three adjacent land use types in the Bale Mountains, south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 242(2-3): 337-342.

Zhang, S.L., Wang, R.J., Yang, X.Y., Sun, B.H., Li, Q.H., 2016. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol. Scientific Reports 6: 39107.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science