Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 10, Issue 2, Apr 2021, Pages 96 - 104
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.825066
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.825066
Copyright © 2021 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal

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Joshi,R., Singh,H., Chhetri,R., Poudel,S., Rijal,S., 2021. Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal. Eurasian J Soil Sci 10(2):96 - 104. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066
Joshi,R.,Singh,H.Chhetri,R.Poudel,S.,& Rijal,S. Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10(2):96 - 104. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066
Joshi,R.,Singh,H.Chhetri,R.Poudel,S., and ,Rijal,S."Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 10.2 (2021):96 - 104. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066
Joshi,R.,Singh,H.Chhetri,R.Poudel,S., and ,Rijal,S. "Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,10(Apr 2021):96 - 104 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066
R,Joshi.H,Singh.R,Chhetri.S,Poudel.S,Rijal "Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.10, no.2, pp.96 - 104 (Apr 2021), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066
Joshi,Rajeev ;Singh,Hukum ;Chhetri,Ramesh ;Poudel,Saroj Raj ;Rijal,Sandip Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2021),10.2:96 - 104. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066

How to cite

Joshi, R., Singh, H., Chhetri, R., Poudel, S., Rijal, S., 2021. Carbon sequestration potential of community forests: A comparative analysis of soil organic carbon stock in community managed forests of Far-Western Nepal. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 10(2): 96 - 104. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.825066

Author information

Rajeev Joshi , Forest Research Institute (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun-248195, Uttarakhand, India & Department of Forestry, Amity Global Education (Lord Buddha College), CTEVT, Tokha -11, Kathmandu-44600, Nepal
Hukum Singh , Forest Ecology and Climate Change Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun-248006, Uttarkhand, India
Ramesh Chhetri , Kali Gandaki polytechnic Institute, CTEVT, Ghiring 1, Tanahun-33900, Nepal
Saroj Raj Poudel , Forest Research Institute (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun-248195, Uttarakhand, India
Sandip Rijal , Forest Research Institute (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun-248195, Uttarakhand, India

Publication information

Article first published online : 12 Nov 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 09 Nov 2020
Manuscript Received: 30 Jun 2020
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.825066
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.825066

Abstract

Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an essential pace for understanding the carbon sequestration potential (CSP) of the soil system as a mitigation strategy and also investigate that they act as a source or sink for the atmospheric CO2 subject to the level of saturation. Improved CSP has been recognized as one of the possible solutions for mitigating climate change. The CSP of soil system for the community forests (CFs) in Nepal is not well recognized. Therefore, a study was conducted in two community-managed forests viz Ganesh (degraded) and Ramnagar (non-degraded) CFs situated in the Kanchanpur district of Nepal to quantify the SOC and Bulk density (BD). For determining SOC, systematic sampling with a sampling intensity of 0.5% was used for collecting altogether 189 soil samples from both the CFs. In addition, the soil samples from varying depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) of each soil profile were collected from each sampling plot. The mean SOC observed upto 30 cm soil depth in Ganesh and Ramnagar CF was 42.55 ± 3.10 t ha-1 and 54.21 ± 3.59 t ha-1 respectively. While, maximum SOC was noticed at 0-10 cm whereas minimum at 20-30 cm in both the CFs. Moreover, SOC decreased and bulk density increased with increasing soil depth in both the CFs. SOC and BD was negatively correlated in both CFs. The total SOC pool exhibited a significant (p<0.05) difference between the two CFs. Hence, the outcome of study shows that the both CFs has enormous potential to sequester the atmospheric concentration of CO2 into soil. With this concern, the participation of local people in sustainable management of community forests enhance the soil quality and meets strategy to mitigate the climate change.

Keywords

Bulk density, carbon sequestration potential, community forest, soil depth, soil organic carbon.

Corresponding author

References

Adhikari, B.M., Ghimire, P., 2019. Assessment of soil organic carbon stock of churia broad leaved forest of Nawalpur District, Nepal. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources 2 (1-2): 45-52.

Ali, A., Ashraf, M.I., Gulzar, S., Akmal, M., Ahmad, B., 2019. Estimation of soil carbon pools in the forests of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Journal of Forestry Research 31: 2313–2321.

Alidoust, E., Afyuni, M., Hajabbasi, M.A., Mosaddeghi, M.R., 2018. Soil carbon sequestration potential as affected by soil physical and climatic factors under different land uses in a semiarid region. Catena 171: 62-71.

Amir, M., Liu, X., Ahmad, A., Saeed, S., Mannan, A., Muneer, M. A., 2018. Patterns of biomass and carbon allocation across chronosequence of chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest in Pakistan: inventory-based estimate. Advances in Meteorology Article ID 3095891.

ANSAB, 2010. Report on forest carbon stock of community forest in three watersheds (Ludikhola, Kayarkhola, and Charnawati). Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources, Federation of Community Forest Users, Nepal, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development & Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation:. 49. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:  https://www.ansab.org.np/index.php

Aryal, B., Bhattarai, B. P., Pandey, M., Giri, A., 2017. Carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation in a burned ecosystem of Pinus ruoxbrghii forest in Langtang National Park, Nepal. Tropical Plant Research 4 (2): 297-306.

Bhandari, S., Bam, S., 2014. Comparatives study of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forest, cultivated and barren Land: A Case of Chovar Village, Kathmandu. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 14(2): 103-108.

Brown, S., Sathaye, J., Cannell, M., Kauppi, P. E., 1996. Mitigation of carbon emissions to the atmosphere by forest management. The Commonwealth Forestry Review 75 (1): 80-91.

Chaudhari, P. R., Ahire, D. V., Ahire, V. D., Chkravarty, M., Maity, S., 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3 (2): 1-8.

FAO, 2020. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020- Key findings. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 16p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:   http://www.fao.org/3/ca8753en/CA8753EN.pdf

IPCC, 2006. Revised IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Publication, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gautam, A. P., Karmacharya, M. B., Karna, B. K., 2008. Community Forestry, Equity and Sustainable Livelihoods in Nepal. Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges, the Twelfth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons. 14-18 July 2008. Cheltenham, England.

Ghimire, P., Bhatta, B., Pokhrel, B., Kafle, G., Paudel, P., 2018. Soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in Chure region of Makawanpur district, Nepal. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 16 (2): 13-23.

Hou, G., Delang, C., Lu, X., Gao, L., 2019. Soil organic carbon storage varies with stand ages and soil depths following afforestation. Annals of Forest Research 62(2): 3-20.

Joshi, R., Chhetri, R., Yadav, K., 2019. Vegeatation Analysis in community forests of Terai Region, Nepal. International Journal of Environment 8(3): 68-82.

Joshi, R., Singh, H., Chhetri, R., Yadav, R., 2020.Assessment of carbon sequestration potential in degraded and non-degraded community forests in Terai Region of Nepal. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science36 (2): 113-121.

Kafle, G., 2019. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a tropical community forest of Nepal. International Journal of Forestry Research Article ID 3087570.

Khanal, Y., Sharma, R.P., Upadhyaya, C.P., 2010. Soil and vegetation carbon pools in two community forests of Palpa district, Nepal. Banko Janakari 20 (2): 34-40.

Liu, Y., Li, S., Sun, X., Yu, X., 2016. Variations of forest soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in east China. Annals of Forest Science 73: 501-511.

Magar, L. K., Kafle, G., Aryal, P., 2020. Assessment of soil organic carbon in tropical agroforests in the Churiya Range of Makawanpur, Nepal. International Journal of Forestry Research Article ID 8816433.

Mfaume, D.P., 2019. Pedological Characterization and fertility, assessment of mbimba substation soils under coffee production in Mbozi District, Tanzania. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering 5 (10): 221-236

Morisada, K., Ono, K., Kanomata, H., 2004. Organic carbon stock in forest soils in Japan. Geoderma 119 (1-2): 21-32.

Nabiollahi, K., Eskandari, S., Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R., Kerry, R., Triantafilis, J., 2019. Assessing soil organic carbon stocks under land-use change scenarios using random forest models. Carbon Management 10 (1): 63-77.

Pandey, H.P., Pandey, P., Pokhrel, S., Mandal, R., 2019. Relationship between soil properties and forests carbon: Case of three community forests from Far Western Nepal. Banko Janakari 29(1): 43-52.

Pandey, H.P., Bhusal, M., 2016. A comparative study on carbon stock in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in two different ecological regions of Nepal. Banko Janakari 26(1): 24-31.

Pandit, B.H., Albano, A., Kumar, C., 2009. Community-based forest enterprises in Nepal: an analysis of their role in increasing income benefits to the poor. Small-scale Forestry 8 (4): 447-462.

Pearson, T.R.H., Brown, S.L., Birdsey, R.A., 2007. Measurement guidelines for the sequestration of forest carbon. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-18. USA. 42p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]: https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs18.pdf

Post, W.M., Kwon, K.C., 2000. Soil carbon sequestration and land‐use change: processes and potential. Global Change Biology 6 (3): 317-327.

Raddad, E.Y., Luukkanen, O., 2007. The influence of different Acacia senegal agroforestry systems on soil water and crop yields in clay soils of the Blue Nile region, Sudan. Agricultural Water Management 87: 61-72.

Sanji, R., Kooch, Y., Rey, A., 2020. Impact of forest degradation and reforestation with Alnus and Quercus species on soil quality and function in northern Iran. Ecological Indicators 112: 106132.

Sharma, C.M., Gairola, S., Baduni, N.P., Ghildiyal, S.K., Suyal, S., 2011. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Biosciences 36 (4): 701-708.

Sheikh, M.A., Kumar, M., Bussmann, R.W., 2009. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya. Carbon Balance and Management 4: 6.

Shrestha, B.M., Singh, B.R., 2008. Soil and vegetation carbon pools in a mountainous watershed of Nepal. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 81 (2): 179-191.

Shrestha, B. M., Sitaula, B. K., Singh, B. R., Bajracharya, R. M., 2004. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in soil profiles of a mountainous watershed of Nepal as influenced by land use, temperature, moisture and substrate addition. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 68 (2): 155-164.

Shrestha, B.P., 2009a. Carbon sequestration in broad leaved forests of mid-hills of Nepal: A case study from Palpa district. The Initiation 3: 20-29.

Shrestha, B.P., 2009b. Carbon sequestration in Schima-Castanopsis forest: A case study from Palpa District. The Greenery-A Journal of Environment and Biodiversity 7(1): 34-40.

Shrestha, B.P., Devkota, B.P., 2013. Carbon stocks in the oak and pine forests in Salyan district, Nepal. Banko Janakari 23(2): 30-36.

Turner, M.G., Collins, S.L., Lugo, A.L., Magnuson, J.J., Rupp, T.S., Swanson, F.J., 2003. Disturbance dynamics and ecological response: the contribution of long-term ecological research. BioScience 53 (1): 46-56.

UN-REDD, 2014. Understanding drivers and causes of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal: potential policies and measures for REDD+. Discussion paper. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. 89p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:   http://www.tinyurl.com/nepal-drivers-redd

 Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Winjum, J.K., Dixon, R.K., Schroeder, P.E., 1992. Estimating the global potential of forest and agroforest management practices to sequester carbon. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 64 (1-2): 213-227. 

Wu, X., Fang, H., Zhao, Y., Smoak, J.M., Li, W., Shi, W., Sheng, Y., Zhao, L., Ding, Y., 2017. A conceptual model of the controlling factors of soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities in a permafrost-affected region on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122: 1705-1717.

Yao, X., Yu, K., Deng, Y., Liu, J., Lai, Z., 2019. Spatial variability of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the hilly red soil region of Southern China. Journal of Forestry Research 31: 2385–2394.

Abstract

Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an essential pace for understanding the carbon sequestration potential (CSP) of the soil system as a mitigation strategy and also investigate that they act as a source or sink for the atmospheric CO2 subject to the level of saturation. Improved CSP has been recognized as one of the possible solutions for mitigating climate change. The CSP of soil system for the community forests (CFs) in Nepal is not well recognized. Therefore, a study was conducted in two community-managed forests viz Ganesh (degraded) and Ramnagar (non-degraded) CFs situated in the Kanchanpur district of Nepal to quantify the SOC and Bulk density (BD). For determining SOC, systematic sampling with a sampling intensity of 0.5% was used for collecting altogether 189 soil samples from both the CFs. In addition, the soil samples from varying depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) of each soil profile were collected from each sampling plot. The mean SOC observed upto 30 cm soil depth in Ganesh and Ramnagar CF was 42.55 ± 3.10 t ha-1 and 54.21 ± 3.59 t ha-1 respectively. While, maximum SOC was noticed at 0-10 cm whereas minimum at 20-30 cm in both the CFs. Moreover, SOC decreased and bulk density increased with increasing soil depth in both the CFs. SOC and BD was negatively correlated in both CFs. The total SOC pool exhibited a significant (p<0.05) difference between the two CFs. Hence, the outcome of study shows that the both CFs has enormous potential to sequester the atmospheric concentration of CO2 into soil. With this concern, the participation of local people in sustainable management of community forests enhance the soil quality and meets strategy to mitigate the climate change.

Keywords: Bulk density, carbon sequestration potential, community forest, soil depth, soil organic carbon.

References

Adhikari, B.M., Ghimire, P., 2019. Assessment of soil organic carbon stock of churia broad leaved forest of Nawalpur District, Nepal. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources 2 (1-2): 45-52.

Ali, A., Ashraf, M.I., Gulzar, S., Akmal, M., Ahmad, B., 2019. Estimation of soil carbon pools in the forests of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Journal of Forestry Research 31: 2313–2321.

Alidoust, E., Afyuni, M., Hajabbasi, M.A., Mosaddeghi, M.R., 2018. Soil carbon sequestration potential as affected by soil physical and climatic factors under different land uses in a semiarid region. Catena 171: 62-71.

Amir, M., Liu, X., Ahmad, A., Saeed, S., Mannan, A., Muneer, M. A., 2018. Patterns of biomass and carbon allocation across chronosequence of chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest in Pakistan: inventory-based estimate. Advances in Meteorology Article ID 3095891.

ANSAB, 2010. Report on forest carbon stock of community forest in three watersheds (Ludikhola, Kayarkhola, and Charnawati). Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources, Federation of Community Forest Users, Nepal, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development & Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation:. 49. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:  https://www.ansab.org.np/index.php

Aryal, B., Bhattarai, B. P., Pandey, M., Giri, A., 2017. Carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation in a burned ecosystem of Pinus ruoxbrghii forest in Langtang National Park, Nepal. Tropical Plant Research 4 (2): 297-306.

Bhandari, S., Bam, S., 2014. Comparatives study of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forest, cultivated and barren Land: A Case of Chovar Village, Kathmandu. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 14(2): 103-108.

Brown, S., Sathaye, J., Cannell, M., Kauppi, P. E., 1996. Mitigation of carbon emissions to the atmosphere by forest management. The Commonwealth Forestry Review 75 (1): 80-91.

Chaudhari, P. R., Ahire, D. V., Ahire, V. D., Chkravarty, M., Maity, S., 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3 (2): 1-8.

FAO, 2020. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020- Key findings. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 16p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:   http://www.fao.org/3/ca8753en/CA8753EN.pdf

IPCC, 2006. Revised IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas Inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Publication, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gautam, A. P., Karmacharya, M. B., Karna, B. K., 2008. Community Forestry, Equity and Sustainable Livelihoods in Nepal. Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges, the Twelfth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons. 14-18 July 2008. Cheltenham, England.

Ghimire, P., Bhatta, B., Pokhrel, B., Kafle, G., Paudel, P., 2018. Soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in Chure region of Makawanpur district, Nepal. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 16 (2): 13-23.

Hou, G., Delang, C., Lu, X., Gao, L., 2019. Soil organic carbon storage varies with stand ages and soil depths following afforestation. Annals of Forest Research 62(2): 3-20.

Joshi, R., Chhetri, R., Yadav, K., 2019. Vegeatation Analysis in community forests of Terai Region, Nepal. International Journal of Environment 8(3): 68-82.

Joshi, R., Singh, H., Chhetri, R., Yadav, R., 2020.Assessment of carbon sequestration potential in degraded and non-degraded community forests in Terai Region of Nepal. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science36 (2): 113-121.

Kafle, G., 2019. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a tropical community forest of Nepal. International Journal of Forestry Research Article ID 3087570.

Khanal, Y., Sharma, R.P., Upadhyaya, C.P., 2010. Soil and vegetation carbon pools in two community forests of Palpa district, Nepal. Banko Janakari 20 (2): 34-40.

Liu, Y., Li, S., Sun, X., Yu, X., 2016. Variations of forest soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in east China. Annals of Forest Science 73: 501-511.

Magar, L. K., Kafle, G., Aryal, P., 2020. Assessment of soil organic carbon in tropical agroforests in the Churiya Range of Makawanpur, Nepal. International Journal of Forestry Research Article ID 8816433.

Mfaume, D.P., 2019. Pedological Characterization and fertility, assessment of mbimba substation soils under coffee production in Mbozi District, Tanzania. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering 5 (10): 221-236

Morisada, K., Ono, K., Kanomata, H., 2004. Organic carbon stock in forest soils in Japan. Geoderma 119 (1-2): 21-32.

Nabiollahi, K., Eskandari, S., Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R., Kerry, R., Triantafilis, J., 2019. Assessing soil organic carbon stocks under land-use change scenarios using random forest models. Carbon Management 10 (1): 63-77.

Pandey, H.P., Pandey, P., Pokhrel, S., Mandal, R., 2019. Relationship between soil properties and forests carbon: Case of three community forests from Far Western Nepal. Banko Janakari 29(1): 43-52.

Pandey, H.P., Bhusal, M., 2016. A comparative study on carbon stock in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in two different ecological regions of Nepal. Banko Janakari 26(1): 24-31.

Pandit, B.H., Albano, A., Kumar, C., 2009. Community-based forest enterprises in Nepal: an analysis of their role in increasing income benefits to the poor. Small-scale Forestry 8 (4): 447-462.

Pearson, T.R.H., Brown, S.L., Birdsey, R.A., 2007. Measurement guidelines for the sequestration of forest carbon. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-18. USA. 42p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]: https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs18.pdf

Post, W.M., Kwon, K.C., 2000. Soil carbon sequestration and land‐use change: processes and potential. Global Change Biology 6 (3): 317-327.

Raddad, E.Y., Luukkanen, O., 2007. The influence of different Acacia senegal agroforestry systems on soil water and crop yields in clay soils of the Blue Nile region, Sudan. Agricultural Water Management 87: 61-72.

Sanji, R., Kooch, Y., Rey, A., 2020. Impact of forest degradation and reforestation with Alnus and Quercus species on soil quality and function in northern Iran. Ecological Indicators 112: 106132.

Sharma, C.M., Gairola, S., Baduni, N.P., Ghildiyal, S.K., Suyal, S., 2011. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Biosciences 36 (4): 701-708.

Sheikh, M.A., Kumar, M., Bussmann, R.W., 2009. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya. Carbon Balance and Management 4: 6.

Shrestha, B.M., Singh, B.R., 2008. Soil and vegetation carbon pools in a mountainous watershed of Nepal. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 81 (2): 179-191.

Shrestha, B. M., Sitaula, B. K., Singh, B. R., Bajracharya, R. M., 2004. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in soil profiles of a mountainous watershed of Nepal as influenced by land use, temperature, moisture and substrate addition. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 68 (2): 155-164.

Shrestha, B.P., 2009a. Carbon sequestration in broad leaved forests of mid-hills of Nepal: A case study from Palpa district. The Initiation 3: 20-29.

Shrestha, B.P., 2009b. Carbon sequestration in Schima-Castanopsis forest: A case study from Palpa District. The Greenery-A Journal of Environment and Biodiversity 7(1): 34-40.

Shrestha, B.P., Devkota, B.P., 2013. Carbon stocks in the oak and pine forests in Salyan district, Nepal. Banko Janakari 23(2): 30-36.

Turner, M.G., Collins, S.L., Lugo, A.L., Magnuson, J.J., Rupp, T.S., Swanson, F.J., 2003. Disturbance dynamics and ecological response: the contribution of long-term ecological research. BioScience 53 (1): 46-56.

UN-REDD, 2014. Understanding drivers and causes of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal: potential policies and measures for REDD+. Discussion paper. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. 89p. Available at [Access date: 30.06.2020]:   http://www.tinyurl.com/nepal-drivers-redd

 Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Winjum, J.K., Dixon, R.K., Schroeder, P.E., 1992. Estimating the global potential of forest and agroforest management practices to sequester carbon. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 64 (1-2): 213-227. 

Wu, X., Fang, H., Zhao, Y., Smoak, J.M., Li, W., Shi, W., Sheng, Y., Zhao, L., Ding, Y., 2017. A conceptual model of the controlling factors of soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities in a permafrost-affected region on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122: 1705-1717.

Yao, X., Yu, K., Deng, Y., Liu, J., Lai, Z., 2019. Spatial variability of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the hilly red soil region of Southern China. Journal of Forestry Research 31: 2385–2394.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science