Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 4, Oct 2020, Pages 349-355
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.785380
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.785380
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth

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Akay,A., Sert,D., 2020. The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(4):349-355. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380
Akay,A.,,& Sert,D. The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(4):349-355. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380
Akay,A.,, and ,Sert,D."The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.4 (2020):349-355. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380
Akay,A.,, and ,Sert,D. "The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Oct 2020):349-355 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380
A,Akay.D,Sert "The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.4, pp.349-355 (Oct 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380
Akay,Ayşen ;Sert,Durmus The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.4:349-355. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380

How to cite

Akay, A., Sert, D., 2020. The effects of whey application on the soil biological properties and plant growth. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(4): 349-355. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.785380

Author information

Ayşen Akay , Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Konya, Turkey
Durmus Sert , Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dept of Food Engineering, Konya, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 24 Aug 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 13 Aug 2020
Manuscript Received: 10 Aug 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.785380
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.785380

Abstract

Whey is an industrial dairy by-product. Whey proteins present in whey are valuable functional ingredients with a variety of applications. Because of high investment and management costs, many medium and small-scale cheese manufacturing plants choose the way to waste whey by discharging it to land without refining while large companies prefer to evaluate it. In this experiment were investigated the effects of whey application on some growth parameters of test plant and soil biological properties. For this purpose, greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different whey powder solution (6% dry matter) such as no demineralized whey powder (NDWP), 50% demineralized whey powder (50% DWP) and whey protein powder (WPP) on maize growth and biological properties of soils using increasing application rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ml/kg) as three replication. At the end of the study generally, all whey treatments influenced the soil microbiological properties in comparison with the control, indicating activation by microorganisms. The addition of different doses of different whey solutions caused a rapid and significant increase in microbial biomass C, soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity and catalase activity in soil; this increase was especially noticeable in soils treated with NDWP and 50% DWP. Similarly, addition of 50% DWP to the soil increased values of plant height, fresh plant weight and fresh root weight compared to the control and other whey. Whey has a positive effect on soil biological properties. In conclusion, we can say that this waste product, which has high nutrient element content, could be used in fertilization practices especially as a nitrogen source and multi-perspective studies need to be carried out on this topic.

Keywords

Microbial biomass, Soil respiration, Whey powder, Soil biological properties

Corresponding author

References

Allison, F.E., 1968. Soil aggregation - Some facts and fallacies as seen by a microbiologist. Soil Science 106(2): 136-143.

Anderson, J.P.E., 1982. Soil respiration. In. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2- Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 831-871.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10(3): 215-221.

Anonymous, 1998. Mineral matter analysis. CEM Corporation, 3100 Smith Form Road Mtthews, NC. USA.

Beck, T.H., 1971. Die messung der katalaseaktivität von böden. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 130(1): 68-81.

Edwards, A.P., Bremner, J.M., 1967. Microaggregates in soils. European Journal of Soil Science 18(1): 64-73.

Hillel, D. ,1982. Introduction to Soil physics. Academic Press, New York. USA. 364p.

Jones Jr, J.B., 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Test and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Washington DC, USA. 363p.

Jones, S.B., Robbins, C.W. , Hansen, C.L., 1993. Sodic soil reclamation using cottage cheese (acid) whey. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 7(1): 51-61.

Kelling, K.A., Peterson, A.E., 1981. Using whey on agricultural land-A disposal alternative. Extension Bulletin A3098, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Konar, A., Arioglu, H., 1987. Research Notes : Turkey : Effect of cheese whey as a fertilizer on the increase of soybean nodules. Soybean Genetics Newsletter: Vol. 14, Article 32. Available at [Access date: 10.08.2019]: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/soybeangenetics/vol14/iss1/32

Lehrsch, G.A., Robbins, C.W., Hansen, C.L., 1994. Cottage cheese (acid) whey effects on sodic soil aggregate stability. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 8(1): 19-31.

Lehrsch, G.A., Sojka, R.E., Jolley, P.M., 1993. Freezing effects on aggregate stability of soils amended with lime and gypsum. In: Soil surface sealing. Poesen, J.W.A., Nearing, M.A. (Ed.). Catena Supplement, No. 24. Catena Verlag, Germany. pp. 115-127. Available at [Access date: 10.08.2019]: https://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/781/

Morissey, P.A., 1985. Lactose chemical and physicochemical properties. In: Fox, P.F. (Ed.). Developments in Dairy Chemistry-3. Lactose and Minor Constituents, Springer. pp. 1-34.

Morris, S., 1985. Whey, Feed or Fertilizer. Proceed of the Ruakura Farmer’s Conference, New Zealand. 37: 113-116.

Naik, Y.K., Khare, A., Choudhary, P.L., Goel, B.K., Shrivastava, A., 2009. Studies on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of whey based watermelon beverage. Asian Journal of Research Chemistry 2(1): 57-59.

Özrenk, E., Demir, S., Tüfenkçi, S., 2003. The effects of whey application and inoculations of Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium cicer on the some growth parameters of chickpea. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 13(2): 127-132. [in Turkish]

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Academic Press Inc.

Peterson, A.E., Walker, W.G., Watson, K.S., 1979. Effect of whey applications on chemical properties of soils and crops. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 27(4): 654-658.

Radford, J.B., Galpin, D.B., Parkin, M.F., 1986. Utilization of whey as a fertilizer replacement for dairy pasture. New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology 21: 65-72.

Reddy, G.V., Deshmukh, V.R., Joshi, R.N., Kayama, R., 1987. Utilization of alfalfa (mediacago sativa l.) whey as a fertilizer in irrigation. Japanese Journal of Grassland Science 33(1): 32-37.

Robbins, C.W., Hansen, C.L., Roginske, M.F., Sorensen, D.L., 1996. Phosphorus  status of calcareous and sodic soils treated with cheese whey. Transactions of the ASAE 40(1): 143-148.

Robbins, C.W., Lehrsch, G.A., 1992. Effects of acidic cottage cheese whey on chemical and physical properties of a sodic soil. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 6(2): 127-134.

Ryder, D.N., 1980. Economic considerations of whey processing. International Journal of Dairy Technology 33(2): 73-77.

Sharratt, W.J., Peterson, A.E., Calbert, H.E., 1962. Effects of whey on soil and plant growth. Agronomy Journal 54(4): 359-361.

Sienkiewicz, T., Riedel, C.L., 1990. Whey and whey utilization : possibilities for utilization in agriculture and foodstuffs production. Gelsenkirchen-Buer: Verlag Th. Mann, Berlin, Germany. 379p.

Sonnleitner, R., Lorbeer, E., Schinner, F., 2003a. Monitoring of changes in physical and microbiological properties of a Chernozem amended with different organic substrates. Plant and Soil 253: 391-402.

Sonnleitner, R., Lorbeer, E., Schinner, F., 2003b. Effects of straw, vegetable oil and whey on physical and microbiological properties of a chernozem. Applied Soil Ecology 22(3): 195-204.

TUIK, 2012. Süt Ürünleri Üretim İstatistikleri. [in Turkish]

Watson, K.S., 1978. Continuing impact of the environmental era on the dairy industry. Proocedings Whey Products Conference Minneapolis-Minnesota, pp.30-52.

Watson, K.S., Peterson, A.E., Powell, R.D., 1977. Benefits of spreading whey on agricultural land. Water Pollution Control Federation 49(1): 24-34.

Wendorff, W., 2012. Uses of Whey in the Farmstead Setting. Wisconsin Department of Agriculture. Trade and Consumer Protection, The Dairy Business Innovation Center. Madison, USA.

Wrolstad, R.E., Smith, D.E., 2014. Color Analysis. In: Food Analysis. Nielsen S.S. (Ed.). Springer NY, USA. pp.573-586.

Yurtsever, N., 1984. Experimental statistical methods. T.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Pub.No: 121. Ankara, Turkey, 623p. [in Turkish]

Abstract

Whey is an industrial dairy by-product. Whey proteins present in whey are valuable functional ingredients with a variety of applications. Because of high investment and management costs, many medium and small-scale cheese manufacturing plants choose the way to waste whey by discharging it to land without refining while large companies prefer to evaluate it. In this experiment were investigated the effects of whey application on some growth parameters of test plant and soil biological properties. For this purpose, greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different whey powder solution (6% dry matter) such as no demineralized whey powder (NDWP), 50% demineralized whey powder (50% DWP) and whey protein powder (WPP) on maize growth and biological properties of soils using increasing application rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ml/kg) as three replication. At the end of the study generally, all whey treatments influenced the soil microbiological properties in comparison with the control, indicating activation by microorganisms. The addition of different doses of different whey solutions caused a rapid and significant increase in microbial biomass C, soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity and catalase activity in soil; this increase was especially noticeable in soils treated with NDWP and 50% DWP. Similarly, addition of 50% DWP to the soil increased values of plant height, fresh plant weight and fresh root weight compared to the control and other whey. Whey has a positive effect on soil biological properties. In conclusion, we can say that this waste product, which has high nutrient element content, could be used in fertilization practices especially as a nitrogen source and multi-perspective studies need to be carried out on this topic.

Keywords: Microbial biomass, Soil respiration, Whey powder, Soil biological properties.

References

Allison, F.E., 1968. Soil aggregation - Some facts and fallacies as seen by a microbiologist. Soil Science 106(2): 136-143.

Anderson, J.P.E., 1982. Soil respiration. In. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2- Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 831-871.

Anderson, J.P.E., Domsch, K.H., 1978. A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10(3): 215-221.

Anonymous, 1998. Mineral matter analysis. CEM Corporation, 3100 Smith Form Road Mtthews, NC. USA.

Beck, T.H., 1971. Die messung der katalaseaktivität von böden. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 130(1): 68-81.

Edwards, A.P., Bremner, J.M., 1967. Microaggregates in soils. European Journal of Soil Science 18(1): 64-73.

Hillel, D. ,1982. Introduction to Soil physics. Academic Press, New York. USA. 364p.

Jones Jr, J.B., 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Test and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Washington DC, USA. 363p.

Jones, S.B., Robbins, C.W. , Hansen, C.L., 1993. Sodic soil reclamation using cottage cheese (acid) whey. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 7(1): 51-61.

Kelling, K.A., Peterson, A.E., 1981. Using whey on agricultural land-A disposal alternative. Extension Bulletin A3098, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Konar, A., Arioglu, H., 1987. Research Notes : Turkey : Effect of cheese whey as a fertilizer on the increase of soybean nodules. Soybean Genetics Newsletter: Vol. 14, Article 32. Available at [Access date: 10.08.2019]: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/soybeangenetics/vol14/iss1/32

Lehrsch, G.A., Robbins, C.W., Hansen, C.L., 1994. Cottage cheese (acid) whey effects on sodic soil aggregate stability. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 8(1): 19-31.

Lehrsch, G.A., Sojka, R.E., Jolley, P.M., 1993. Freezing effects on aggregate stability of soils amended with lime and gypsum. In: Soil surface sealing. Poesen, J.W.A., Nearing, M.A. (Ed.). Catena Supplement, No. 24. Catena Verlag, Germany. pp. 115-127. Available at [Access date: 10.08.2019]: https://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/781/

Morissey, P.A., 1985. Lactose chemical and physicochemical properties. In: Fox, P.F. (Ed.). Developments in Dairy Chemistry-3. Lactose and Minor Constituents, Springer. pp. 1-34.

Morris, S., 1985. Whey, Feed or Fertilizer. Proceed of the Ruakura Farmer’s Conference, New Zealand. 37: 113-116.

Naik, Y.K., Khare, A., Choudhary, P.L., Goel, B.K., Shrivastava, A., 2009. Studies on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of whey based watermelon beverage. Asian Journal of Research Chemistry 2(1): 57-59.

Özrenk, E., Demir, S., Tüfenkçi, S., 2003. The effects of whey application and inoculations of Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium cicer on the some growth parameters of chickpea. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 13(2): 127-132. [in Turkish]

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., Brendecke, J.W., 1995. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. Academic Press Inc.

Peterson, A.E., Walker, W.G., Watson, K.S., 1979. Effect of whey applications on chemical properties of soils and crops. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 27(4): 654-658.

Radford, J.B., Galpin, D.B., Parkin, M.F., 1986. Utilization of whey as a fertilizer replacement for dairy pasture. New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology 21: 65-72.

Reddy, G.V., Deshmukh, V.R., Joshi, R.N., Kayama, R., 1987. Utilization of alfalfa (mediacago sativa l.) whey as a fertilizer in irrigation. Japanese Journal of Grassland Science 33(1): 32-37.

Robbins, C.W., Hansen, C.L., Roginske, M.F., Sorensen, D.L., 1996. Phosphorus  status of calcareous and sodic soils treated with cheese whey. Transactions of the ASAE 40(1): 143-148.

Robbins, C.W., Lehrsch, G.A., 1992. Effects of acidic cottage cheese whey on chemical and physical properties of a sodic soil. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 6(2): 127-134.

Ryder, D.N., 1980. Economic considerations of whey processing. International Journal of Dairy Technology 33(2): 73-77.

Sharratt, W.J., Peterson, A.E., Calbert, H.E., 1962. Effects of whey on soil and plant growth. Agronomy Journal 54(4): 359-361.

Sienkiewicz, T., Riedel, C.L., 1990. Whey and whey utilization : possibilities for utilization in agriculture and foodstuffs production. Gelsenkirchen-Buer: Verlag Th. Mann, Berlin, Germany. 379p.

Sonnleitner, R., Lorbeer, E., Schinner, F., 2003a. Monitoring of changes in physical and microbiological properties of a Chernozem amended with different organic substrates. Plant and Soil 253: 391-402.

Sonnleitner, R., Lorbeer, E., Schinner, F., 2003b. Effects of straw, vegetable oil and whey on physical and microbiological properties of a chernozem. Applied Soil Ecology 22(3): 195-204.

TUIK, 2012. Süt Ürünleri Üretim İstatistikleri. [in Turkish]

Watson, K.S., 1978. Continuing impact of the environmental era on the dairy industry. Proocedings Whey Products Conference Minneapolis-Minnesota, pp.30-52.

Watson, K.S., Peterson, A.E., Powell, R.D., 1977. Benefits of spreading whey on agricultural land. Water Pollution Control Federation 49(1): 24-34.

Wendorff, W., 2012. Uses of Whey in the Farmstead Setting. Wisconsin Department of Agriculture. Trade and Consumer Protection, The Dairy Business Innovation Center. Madison, USA.

Wrolstad, R.E., Smith, D.E., 2014. Color Analysis. In: Food Analysis. Nielsen S.S. (Ed.). Springer NY, USA. pp.573-586.

Yurtsever, N., 1984. Experimental statistical methods. T.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Pub.No: 121. Ankara, Turkey, 623p. [in Turkish]



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science