Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 4, Oct 2020, Pages 298-305
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.758380
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.758380
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey

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Doğan,B., Gülser,C., 2020. Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(4):298-305. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380
Doğan,B.,& Gülser,C. (2020). Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(4):298-305. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380
Doğan,B., and ,Gülser,C. "Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.4 (2020):298-305. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380
Doğan,B., and ,Gülser,C. "Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Oct 2020):298-305 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380
B,Doğan.C,Gülser "Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.4, pp.298-305 (Oct 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380
Doğan,Belgin ;Gülser,Coşkun Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.4:298-305. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380

How to cite

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2020. Soil quality assessment for olive groves areas of Menderes District, Izmir-Turkey. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(4): 298-305. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.758380

Author information

Belgin Doğan , Menderes Rural Directorate of Agriculture, Izmir, Turkey
Coşkun Gülser , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 26 Jun 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 22 Jun 2020
Manuscript Received: 09 Nov 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.758380
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.758380

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine assessment of soil quality for olive groves areas of Akçaköy, Çatalca, Efemçukuru, Görece and Yeniköy villages in Menderes district of Izmir-Turkey. The surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from 19 olive groves areas of Menderes District. Soil physical and chemical quality indicators were analyzed and classified in 4 suitability classes for olive production. In olive groves areas, soil reaction (pH) gave positive correlations with clay, exch. Ca, CaCO3 contents, and significant negative correlations with sand, available Fe, Mn and Zn contents. Soil organic matter (OM) content showed significant positive correlations with EC, P, exch. Ca and a significant negative correlation with bulk density. Electrical conductivity (EC) values gave significant positive correlations with clay, OM, exch. Ca contents. Soil quality index values for the olive groves areas ranged between 0.44 and 0.77 with a mean of 0.60. The olive groves areas at Akçaköy and Çatalca villages of Menderes District were generally suitable for olive production. According to the soil quality index (SQI) values, only one of the 19 olive groves areas was found in very suitable (S1:1.00-0.75) class, the other areas were classified as 8 in suitable (S2:0.75-060), 6 in marginal suitable (S3:0.60-0.50) and 4 in non-suitable (N:<0.50) for olive growth. The most restricting soil factors for olive growth generally became low OM, low nutrient contents and high clay and sand contents than that of suggested levels. The SQI values had significant positive relations with silt content of the soils while they gave negative correlations with clay and sand contents. It indicates that moderate or loamy soil textural classes are important for high olive production. The SQI values also gave a significant positive correlation with olive yields. Evaluation of soil physical and chemical properties with a SQI value is important for assessment of olive groves areas in sustainable soil management system.

Keywords

Soil quality, olive, yield, soil properties

Corresponding author

References

Álvarez, S., Soriano, M.A., Landa, B.B., Gómez, J.A., 2007. Soil properties in organic olive groves compared with that in natural areas in a mountainous landscape in southern Spain.  Soil Use and Management 23(4): 404–416.

Anonymous 2018: 2018 Yili Zeytin ve Zeytinyaği Raporu. T.C. Ticaret Bakanliği Esnaf, Sanatkarlar Ve Koperatifçilik Genel Müdürlüğü. Available at [access date : 09.11.2019]:

          https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5d41e59913b87639ac9e02e8/3acedb62acea083bd15a9f1dfa551bcc.pdf

Bayram, S., Gülser, F., 2018. The determination of nutrition status of tomatoes grown in Van province and soil properties of common fields. Yuzuncu Yil University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 28(3): 358-367. [in Turkish].

Calabrese, G., Perrino, E.V., Ladisa, G., Aly, A., Solomon, M.T., Mazdaric, S., Benedetti, A., Ceglie, F.G., 2015. Short-term effects of different soil management practices on biodiversity and soil quality of Mediterranean ancient olive orchards. Organic Agriculture 5(3): 209-223.

Candemir, F. Gülser, C., 2011. Effects of different agricultural wastes on some soil quality indexes in clay and loamy sand fields, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(1) 13-28,

Chatzistathis, Th., Therios, I., Alifragis, D., Dimassi, K., 2010. Effect of sampling time and soil type on Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations of olive (Olea europaea L., cv.‘Koroneiki’) leaves. Scientia Horticulturae 126(2): 291-296.

Chatzistathis, Th., Therios, I., Alifragis, D., 2009. Growth, chemical composition of vegetative tissues, total per plant uptake and utilization efficiency of Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P by the olive cultivar ‘Chondrolia Chalkidikis’, when cultivated in three soils with different physicochemical properties. In: Abstracts of the 3rd International Olivebioteq Seminar, Sfax, Tunisia, 15–19 December 2009.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. p. 545– 566.

Demir Z., Gülser, C. 2015.Effects of rice husk compost application on soil quality parameters in greenhouse conditions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 4(3):185-190.

Demiralay, İ., 1993. Toprak fiziksel analiz yöntemleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi yayınları, Erzurum, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2019. Assessment of soil quality for vineyard fields: A case study in Menderes District of Izmir, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(2): 176-183.

Du Preez, T. 2005. Orchard planning and soil preparation for quality olive farming, Techno Park, Stellenbosch. 5p. Available at [access date : 11.05.2011]: http://www.saolive.co.za/downloads/FieldDay-Orchardplanningtalk.pdf

Ekberli, İ, Kerimova, E., 2005. Changes in some physico-chemical parameters in irrigated clay soils of Shirvan plain Azerbaijan. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 20(3): 54-59 [in Turkish].

Ekberli, İ., Kerimova, E., 2008. Functional relationships between fertility and some soil parameters. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(3): 2320-2326.

El-Kholy, M., 2010. Chapter 3 Soil. In: Olive Gap Manual, Good Agricultural Practices for the Near East for the Near East and North Africa Countries. Al Ibrahem, A., Gregoriou, C., Ksantini, M., Shdiefat, S., Boulouha, B., El-Kholy, M., Serafids, N. (Eds.) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office Cairo, Egypt.

Fernández-Escobar, R., 2010. Fertilization. In: Production Techniques in Olive Growing. Sbitri, M.O, Serafini, F.(Eds.), International Olive Council, Madrid-Spain.

Ferreira Llamas, J., 1984. Basis of fertilization in olive cultivation and the olive tree's vegetative cycle and nutritional needs. In: International Course on the Fertilization and Intensive Cultivation of the Olive, Cordoba (Spain), 18 Apr 1983.

Fountas, S., Aggelopoulou, K., Bouloulis, C., Nanos, G. D., Wulfsohn, D., Gemtos, T. A., Paraskevopoulos, A., Galanis, M. 2011. Site-specific management in an olive tree plantation. Precision Agriculture 12(2): 179-195.

Gálvez, M., Para, M.A., Navarro, C. 2004. Relating tree vigour to the soil and landscape characteristics of an olive orchard in a marly area of southern Spain. Scientia Horticulturae 101: 291–303.

Gülser, C., 2004. A comparison of some physical and chemical soil quality indicators influenced by different crop species. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7(6): 905-911.

Gülser, C., 2006. Effect of forage cropping treatments on soil structure and relationships with fractal dimensions. Geoderma, 131(1-2): 33-44.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in Soil Quality by Compost and Hazelnut Husk Applications in a Hazelnut Orchard, Compost Science & Utilization, 23(3): 135-141,

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri III. Toprak Analizleri. Ankara Üniversitesi  Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim Araş. ve Geliştirme Vak. Yay.No:3. Ankara, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., Selçuk, R., 2018. Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 115-120.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., 2015. Some heavy metal contents related with different physiographic units and land use in Van lake basin. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 2(2): 37-42.

Karlen, D.L., M.J. Mausbach, J.W. Doran, R.G. Kline, R. F. Harris, and G.E. Schuman. 1997. Soil quality: A concept, definition, and framework for evaluation (A Guest Editorial). Soil Science Society American Journal 61(1): 4–10.

Kars, N., Ekberli, I., 2020. The relation between yield indices of maize plant and soil physicochemical characteristics. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(1): 52 - 59.

Khormali, F., Ayoubi, S., Kananro Foomani, F., Fatemi, A., 2012. Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran. International Journal of Plant Production 1(1): 99-111.

Lake, H.R., Mehrjardi, R.T., Akbarzadeh, A., Ramezanpour, H., 2009. Qualitative and quantitative land suitability evaluation for olive (Olea europaea L.) production in Roodbar region, Iran. Agricultural Journal 4(2): 52-62.

Leake, S., 2001. Soils for olive planting: choosing and improving. Sydney, Sydney Environ. & Soil Laboratory Pty Ltd. Available at [access date:09.11.2019]: http://www.sesl.com.au/uploads/articles/Soils_for_Olive_Planting.pdf

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA Test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society America Journal 42(3): 421-428..

López-Granados, F., Jurado-Expósito, M., Álamo, S., Garcı́a-Torres, L., 2004. Leaf nutrient spatial variability and site-specific fertilization maps within olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 209-222.

Loveland, P., Webb, J., 2003. Is there a critical level of organic matter in the agricultural soils of temperate regions: a review. Soil and Tillage Research 70(1): 1–18.

Mandal, D.K., Kandare, N.C., Mandal, C., Challa, O., 2002. Assessment of quantitative land evaluation methods and suitability mapping for cotton growing soils of Nagpur District. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 50: 74-80.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

 Palese, A. M., Vignozzi, N., Celano, G., Agnelli, A. E., Pagliai, M., Xiloyannis, C. 2014. Influence of soil management on soil physical characteristics and water storage in a mature rainfed olive orchard. Soil and Tillage Research 144: 96-109.

Sofo, A., Palese, A. M., Casacchia, T., Celano, G., Ricciuti, P., Curci, M., Crecchio, C., Xiloyannis, C. 2010. Genetic, functional, and metabolic responses of soil microbiota in a sustainable olive orchard. Soil Science 175(2): 81-88.

Soil Quality Institute Staff. 1999. Soil Quality Test Kit Guide. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Institute, USA. Available at [access date: 09.11.2019]:  https://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/WI/Soil_Quality_Test_Kit_Guide.pdf

Tombesi, A., Tombesi, S., 2007.  Orchard planning and planting. In: Production Techniques in Olive Growing Sbitri, M.O,, Serafini, F.(Eds.), International Olive Council, Madrid-Spain.

TUIK, 2020. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. [in Turkish]. Available at [access date: 09.11.2019]:  http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine assessment of soil quality for olive groves areas of Akçaköy, Çatalca, Efemçukuru, Görece and Yeniköy villages in Menderes district of Izmir-Turkey. The surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from 19 olive groves areas of Menderes District. Soil physical and chemical quality indicators were analyzed and classified in 4 suitability classes for olive production. In olive groves areas, soil reaction (pH) gave positive correlations with clay, exch. Ca, CaCO3 contents, and significant negative correlations with sand, available Fe, Mn and Zn contents.  Soil organic matter (OM) content showed significant positive correlations with EC, P, exch. Ca and a significant negative correlation with bulk density. Electrical conductivity (EC) values gave significant positive correlations with clay, OM, exch. Ca contents. Soil quality index values for the olive groves areas ranged between 0.44 and 0.77 with a mean of 0.60. The olive groves areas at Akçaköy and Çatalca villages of Menderes District were generally suitable for olive production. According to the soil quality index (SQI) values, only one of the 19 olive groves areas was found in very suitable (S1:1.00-0.75) class, the other areas were classified as 8 in suitable (S2:0.75-060), 6 in marginal suitable (S3:0.60-0.50) and 4 in non-suitable (N:<0.50) for olive growth. The most restricting soil factors for olive growth generally became low OM, low nutrient contents and high clay and sand contents than that of suggested levels.  The SQI values had significant positive relations with silt content of the soils while they gave negative correlations with clay and sand contents.  It indicates that moderate or loamy soil textural classes are important for high olive production.  The SQI values also gave a significant positive correlation with olive yields. Evaluation of soil physical and chemical properties with a SQI value is important for assessment of olive groves areas in sustainable soil management system.

Keywords: Soil quality, olive, yield, soil properties.

References

Álvarez, S., Soriano, M.A., Landa, B.B., Gómez, J.A., 2007. Soil properties in organic olive groves compared with that in natural areas in a mountainous landscape in southern Spain.  Soil Use and Management 23(4): 404–416.

Anonymous 2018: 2018 Yili Zeytin ve Zeytinyaği Raporu. T.C. Ticaret Bakanliği Esnaf, Sanatkarlar Ve Koperatifçilik Genel Müdürlüğü. Available at [access date : 09.11.2019]:

          https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5d41e59913b87639ac9e02e8/3acedb62acea083bd15a9f1dfa551bcc.pdf

Bayram, S., Gülser, F., 2018. The determination of nutrition status of tomatoes grown in Van province and soil properties of common fields. Yuzuncu Yil University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 28(3): 358-367. [in Turkish].

Calabrese, G., Perrino, E.V., Ladisa, G., Aly, A., Solomon, M.T., Mazdaric, S., Benedetti, A., Ceglie, F.G., 2015. Short-term effects of different soil management practices on biodiversity and soil quality of Mediterranean ancient olive orchards. Organic Agriculture 5(3): 209-223.

Candemir, F. Gülser, C., 2011. Effects of different agricultural wastes on some soil quality indexes in clay and loamy sand fields, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42(1) 13-28,

Chatzistathis, Th., Therios, I., Alifragis, D., Dimassi, K., 2010. Effect of sampling time and soil type on Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations of olive (Olea europaea L., cv.‘Koroneiki’) leaves. Scientia Horticulturae 126(2): 291-296.

Chatzistathis, Th., Therios, I., Alifragis, D., 2009. Growth, chemical composition of vegetative tissues, total per plant uptake and utilization efficiency of Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P by the olive cultivar ‘Chondrolia Chalkidikis’, when cultivated in three soils with different physicochemical properties. In: Abstracts of the 3rd International Olivebioteq Seminar, Sfax, Tunisia, 15–19 December 2009.

Day, P.R., 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I, Black, C.A. (Ed.). Agronomy No. 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. p. 545– 566.

Demir Z., Gülser, C. 2015.Effects of rice husk compost application on soil quality parameters in greenhouse conditions. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 4(3):185-190.

Demiralay, İ., 1993. Toprak fiziksel analiz yöntemleri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi yayınları, Erzurum, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Doğan, B., Gülser, C., 2019. Assessment of soil quality for vineyard fields: A case study in Menderes District of Izmir, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(2): 176-183.

Du Preez, T. 2005. Orchard planning and soil preparation for quality olive farming, Techno Park, Stellenbosch. 5p. Available at [access date : 11.05.2011]: http://www.saolive.co.za/downloads/FieldDay-Orchardplanningtalk.pdf

Ekberli, İ, Kerimova, E., 2005. Changes in some physico-chemical parameters in irrigated clay soils of Shirvan plain Azerbaijan. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 20(3): 54-59 [in Turkish].

Ekberli, İ., Kerimova, E., 2008. Functional relationships between fertility and some soil parameters. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(3): 2320-2326.

El-Kholy, M., 2010. Chapter 3 Soil. In: Olive Gap Manual, Good Agricultural Practices for the Near East for the Near East and North Africa Countries. Al Ibrahem, A., Gregoriou, C., Ksantini, M., Shdiefat, S., Boulouha, B., El-Kholy, M., Serafids, N. (Eds.) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office Cairo, Egypt.

Fernández-Escobar, R., 2010. Fertilization. In: Production Techniques in Olive Growing. Sbitri, M.O, Serafini, F.(Eds.), International Olive Council, Madrid-Spain.

Ferreira Llamas, J., 1984. Basis of fertilization in olive cultivation and the olive tree's vegetative cycle and nutritional needs. In: International Course on the Fertilization and Intensive Cultivation of the Olive, Cordoba (Spain), 18 Apr 1983.

Fountas, S., Aggelopoulou, K., Bouloulis, C., Nanos, G. D., Wulfsohn, D., Gemtos, T. A., Paraskevopoulos, A., Galanis, M. 2011. Site-specific management in an olive tree plantation. Precision Agriculture 12(2): 179-195.

Gálvez, M., Para, M.A., Navarro, C. 2004. Relating tree vigour to the soil and landscape characteristics of an olive orchard in a marly area of southern Spain. Scientia Horticulturae 101: 291–303.

Gülser, C., 2004. A comparison of some physical and chemical soil quality indicators influenced by different crop species. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 7(6): 905-911.

Gülser, C., 2006. Effect of forage cropping treatments on soil structure and relationships with fractal dimensions. Geoderma, 131(1-2): 33-44.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in Soil Quality by Compost and Hazelnut Husk Applications in a Hazelnut Orchard, Compost Science & Utilization, 23(3): 135-141,

Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri III. Toprak Analizleri. Ankara Üniversitesi  Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim Araş. ve Geliştirme Vak. Yay.No:3. Ankara, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., Selçuk, R., 2018. Relationships between soil properties, topography and land use in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 115-120.

Karaca, S., Gülser, F., 2015. Some heavy metal contents related with different physiographic units and land use in Van lake basin. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 2(2): 37-42.

Karlen, D.L., M.J. Mausbach, J.W. Doran, R.G. Kline, R. F. Harris, and G.E. Schuman. 1997. Soil quality: A concept, definition, and framework for evaluation (A Guest Editorial). Soil Science Society American Journal 61(1): 4–10.

Kars, N., Ekberli, I., 2020. The relation between yield indices of maize plant and soil physicochemical characteristics. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(1): 52 - 59.

Khormali, F., Ayoubi, S., Kananro Foomani, F., Fatemi, A., 2012. Tea yield and soil properties as affected by slope position and aspect in Lahijan area, Iran. International Journal of Plant Production 1(1): 99-111.

Lake, H.R., Mehrjardi, R.T., Akbarzadeh, A., Ramezanpour, H., 2009. Qualitative and quantitative land suitability evaluation for olive (Olea europaea L.) production in Roodbar region, Iran. Agricultural Journal 4(2): 52-62.

Leake, S., 2001. Soils for olive planting: choosing and improving. Sydney, Sydney Environ. & Soil Laboratory Pty Ltd. Available at [access date:09.11.2019]: http://www.sesl.com.au/uploads/articles/Soils_for_Olive_Planting.pdf

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA Test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society America Journal 42(3): 421-428..

López-Granados, F., Jurado-Expósito, M., Álamo, S., Garcı́a-Torres, L., 2004. Leaf nutrient spatial variability and site-specific fertilization maps within olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 209-222.

Loveland, P., Webb, J., 2003. Is there a critical level of organic matter in the agricultural soils of temperate regions: a review. Soil and Tillage Research 70(1): 1–18.

Mandal, D.K., Kandare, N.C., Mandal, C., Challa, O., 2002. Assessment of quantitative land evaluation methods and suitability mapping for cotton growing soils of Nagpur District. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 50: 74-80.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

 Palese, A. M., Vignozzi, N., Celano, G., Agnelli, A. E., Pagliai, M., Xiloyannis, C. 2014. Influence of soil management on soil physical characteristics and water storage in a mature rainfed olive orchard. Soil and Tillage Research 144: 96-109.

Sofo, A., Palese, A. M., Casacchia, T., Celano, G., Ricciuti, P., Curci, M., Crecchio, C., Xiloyannis, C. 2010. Genetic, functional, and metabolic responses of soil microbiota in a sustainable olive orchard. Soil Science 175(2): 81-88.

Soil Quality Institute Staff. 1999. Soil Quality Test Kit Guide. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Institute, USA. Available at [access date: 09.11.2019]:  https://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/WI/Soil_Quality_Test_Kit_Guide.pdf

Tombesi, A., Tombesi, S., 2007.  Orchard planning and planting. In: Production Techniques in Olive Growing Sbitri, M.O,, Serafini, F.(Eds.), International Olive Council, Madrid-Spain.

TUIK, 2020. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. [in Turkish]. Available at [access date: 09.11.2019]:  http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science