Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 3, Jul 2020, Pages 282-291
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.753279
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.753279
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil

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Capule,M., David,C., Geronia,M., 2020. Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(3):282-291. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279
Capule,M.David,C.,& Geronia,M. (2020). Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(3):282-291. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279
Capule,M.David,C., and ,Geronia,M. "Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.3 (2020):282-291. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279
Capule,M.David,C., and ,Geronia,M. "Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jul 2020):282-291 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279
M,Capule.C,David.M,Geronia "Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.3, pp.282-291 (Jul 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279
Capule,Maria Carmela ;David,Carlos Primo ;Geronia,Mart Cyrel Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.3:282-291. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279

How to cite

Capule, M., David, C., Geronia, M., 2020. Estimating the long term leaching potential of PCBs in soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(3): 282-291. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753279

Author information

Maria Carmela Capule , Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
Carlos Primo David , National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines
Mart Cyrel Geronia , National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines

Publication information

Article first published online : 15 Jun 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 09 Jun 2020
Manuscript Received: 14 Mar 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.753279
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.753279

Abstract

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made organic chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons. PCBs were banned in 1979 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. Variations of PCBs were determined in soils and plants. Degradation of PCB Aroclors and congener patterns were investigated from known contaminated site at a former Military Air Base. PCB concentrations ranged between 17 - 1,040 µg L-1 at 0 - 0.5 m depth, between 36 - 898 µg L-1 at 1.0 - 1.5 m depth, between 20 - 73 µg L-1 at 4 m depth and 21 µg L-1 at 8 m depth. There is also a negative correlation between the mean of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of PCBs versus the sampling depth. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the correlation of the factors such as depth, Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient (Kow) and solubility affected Soil/Water Distribution Coefficient (Kd). Effects were found only when the soil depth is at 0.3 - 0.5 m (at 95% confidence level). Kd is positively correlated with Kow while Kd has some level of negative correlation with solubility. No effect was found at 1.0 - 1.5 m, 4.0 m, and 8.0 m. Organic Carbon/Water Partition Coefficient (Koc) showed high results exceeding the log Koc criteria of 4.5; as a result, this is now a matter of concern on the potential adverse effects of the substance on terrestrial organisms within its vicinity.

Keywords

Aroclor, leaching, polychlorinated biphenyls, vertical partitioning.

Corresponding author

References

Adenyinka, G.C., Moodley, B., 2004. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between aqueous solution and modeled individual soil particle grain sizes. Journal of Environmental Science 76: 100-110.

Armitage, J.M., Hanson, M., Axelman, J., Cousins, I.T., 2006. Levels and vertical distribution of PCBs in agricultural and natural soils from Sweden. Science of the Total Environment 371(1-3): 344-352.

ATSDR, 2000. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.pdf

Backe, C., Cousins, I.T., Larsson, P., 2004. PCB in soils and estimated soil–air exchange fluxes of selected PCB congeners in the south of Sweden. Environmental Pollution 128(1-2): 59-72.

Badea, S.L., Lundstedt, S., Liljelind, P., Tysklind, M., 2013. The influence of soil composition on the leachability of selected hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from soils using a batch leaching test. Journal of Hazardous Materials 254-255: 26-35.

Badea, S.L., Mustafa, M., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M., 2014. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter. Science of the Total Environment 499: 220-227.

Baek, S.Y., Choi, S.D., Park, H., Kang, J.H., Chang, Y.S., 2010. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant. Environmental Science & Technology 44(8): 3035-3040.

Bozlaker, A., Odabasi, M., Muezzinoglu, A., 2008. Dry deposition and soil–air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area. Environmental Pollution 156(3): 784-793.

CDC-EPMD, 1997. Clark Development Corporation Environmental Planning and Management Department (CDC-EPMD).  Monitoring of PCB Transformers report. Clark, Angeles City, Unpublished report. Philippines.

Cetin, B., Odabasi, M., 2007. Particle-phase dry deposition and air-soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey. Environmental Science and Technology 41(14): 4986-4992.

Cetin, B., Yatkin, S., Bayram, A., Odabasi, M., 2007. Ambient concentrations and source apportionment of PCBs and trace elements around an industrial area in Izmir, Turkey. Chemosphere 69(8): 1267-1277.

Choi, S.D., Baek, S.Y., Chang, Y.S., Wania, F., Ikonomou, M.G., Yoon, Y.J., Park, B.K., Hong, S., 2008. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides at the Korean Arctic and Antarctic Research Stations: Implications for long-range transport and local pollution. Environmental Science & Technology 42(19): 7125-7131.

Fang, S., Cui, Q., Matherne, B., Hou, A., 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, accumulation rates in soil from atmospheric deposition and analysis of their affecting landscape variables along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai, China. Chemosphere 186: 884-892.

Fu, S., Cheng H.X., Liu, Y.H., Yang, Z.Z., Xu, X.B., 2009. Spatial character of polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and respirable particulate matter in Taiyuan, China. Chemosphere 74(11): 1477-1484.

Girvin, D.C., Scott, A.J., 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyl sorption by soils: Measurement of soil-water partition coefficients at equilibrium. Chemosphere 35(9): 2007-2025.

Glüge, J., Bogdal, C., Scheringer M., Hungerbühler, K., 2015. What determines PCB concentrations in soils in rural and urban areas? Insights from a multi-media fate model for Switzerland as a case study. Science of the Total Environment 550: 1152-1162.

Hansen, L.G., 1999. The ortho side of PCBs: occurrence and disposition. New York: Springer US.

Harrad, S.J., Sewart, A.P., Alcock, R., Boumphrey, R., Burnett, V., Duarte-Davidson, R., Halsall, C., Sanders, G., Waterhouse, K., Wild, S.R., Jones, K.C., 1994. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: Sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environmental Pollution 85(2): 131-146.

Hites, R., Eisenreich, S., 1987. Sources and fates of aquatic pollutants. American Chemical Society. Washington, D.C., US.

Hutzinger, O., Safe, S., Zitko, V., 1974. The Chemistry of PCBs. CRC Press, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio, US.

IARC, 2016. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Biphenyls. Volume 107. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, France. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/mono107.pdf.

Mackay, D., Shiu, W., Ma, K., Lee, S., 2006. Handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals. CRC Press. 2nd edition, Florida, U.S.A.

Malina, N., Mazlova, E.A., 2017. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia. Chemosphere 185: 227-236.

Melnyk, A., Dettlaff, A., Kuklińska, K., Namieśnik, J., Wolska, L., 2015. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. Science of the Total Environment 530-531: 18-27.

Neira, C., Vales, M., Mendoza, G., Hoh, E., Levin, L., 2018. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California. Marine Pollution Bulletin 126: 204-214.

Nguyen, T.N.T., Kwon, H.O., Lee, Y.S., Kim, L., Lee, S.E., Choi, S.D., 2016. Spatial distribution and source identification of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in soil collected from the coastal multi-industrial city of Ulsan, South Korea for three consecutive years Chemosphere 163: 184-191.

Notarianni, V., Calliera, M., Tremolada, P., Finizio, A., Vighi, M., 1998. PCB distribution in soil and vegetation from different areas in Northern Italy. Chemosphere 37(14-15): 2839-2845.

Paladio-Melosantos, M., Solidum, Scott, W., Quiambao, R., Umbal, J., Rodolfo, K., Tubianosa, B., Delos Reyes, P., Alonso, R., Ruelo, H., 1996. Tephra Falls of the 1991 Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, In: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Newhall, C., Punongbayan, R., (Eds.)., University of Washington Press, pp. 345-372.

Steuer, J.J., 2000. A mass-balance approach for assessing PCB movement during remediation of a PCB-contaminated deposit on the Fox River, Wisconsin. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2000-4245, Wisconsin, United States. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/2000/4245/report.pdf

US EPA, 1992. SW-846 Test Method 1311: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Washington D.C., U.S.A. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/1311.pdf

US EPA, 1996. PCBs: Cancer Dose-Response Assessment and Application to Environmental Mixtures. EPA/600/P-96/001F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Washington D.C., U.S.A. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: http://epa.gov/epahome/pdf.html

Vane, C.H., Kim, A.W., Beriro, D.J., Cave, M.R., Knights, K., Moss-Hayes, V., Nathanail, P.C., 2014. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK. Applied Geochemistry 51: 303-314.

Vicinie, A., Palermo, M., Matko, L., 2011. A review of the applicability of various elutriate tests and refinements of these methodologies. Proceedings of the Western Dredging Association (WEDA XXXI) Technical Conference & Texas A&M University Dredging Seminar.  June 5-8, 2011. Nashville, Tennessee, US.

Wang, H., Du, J., Leung, H., Leung, A.O.W., Liang, P., Giesy, J.P., Wong, C.K.S., Wong, M.H., 2010. Distribution and source apportionments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mariculture sediments from the Pearl River Delta, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63(5-12): 516-522.

Wang, T., Wang, Y., Fu, J., Wang, P., Li, Y., Zhang, Q., Jiang, G., 2010. Characteristic accumulation and soil penetration of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wastewater irrigated farmlands. Chemosphere 81(8): 1045-1051.

Wang, X., Wang, D., Qin, X., Xu, X., 2008. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 20(9): 1090-1096.

Wania, F., Mackay, D., 1996. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 30(9): 390A-396A.

Weston International, 1997. Weston International Soil & Water Baseline Study Report. Soil and Water Baseline Study Report. Executive Summary Prepared for Clark Development Corporation. August 1997. Weston International, 1 Weston Way West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA.

Zhang, H., Li, X., Luo, Y., Li, Q., 2011. Depth distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils of the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Geoderma 160(3-4): 408-413.

Abstract

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made organic chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons. PCBs were banned in 1979 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. Variations of PCBs were determined in soils and plants. Degradation of PCB Aroclors and congener patterns were investigated from known contaminated site at a former Military Air Base. PCB concentrations ranged between 17 - 1,040 µg L-1 at 0 - 0.5 m depth, between 36 - 898 µg L-1 at 1.0 - 1.5 m depth, between 20 - 73 µg L-1 at 4 m depth and 21 µg L-1 at 8 m depth. There is also a negative correlation between the mean of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of PCBs versus the sampling depth. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the correlation of the factors such as depth, Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient (Kow) and solubility affected Soil/Water Distribution Coefficient (Kd). Effects were found only when the soil depth is at 0.3 - 0.5 m (at 95% confidence level). Kd is positively correlated with Kow while Kd has some level of negative correlation with solubility. No effect was found at 1.0 - 1.5 m, 4.0 m, and 8.0 m. Organic Carbon/Water Partition Coefficient (Koc) showed high results exceeding the log Koc criteria of 4.5; as a result, this is now a matter of concern on the potential adverse effects of the substance on terrestrial organisms within its vicinity.

Keywords: Aroclor, leaching, polychlorinated biphenyls, vertical partitioning.

References

Adenyinka, G.C., Moodley, B., 2004. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between aqueous solution and modeled individual soil particle grain sizes. Journal of Environmental Science 76: 100-110.

Armitage, J.M., Hanson, M., Axelman, J., Cousins, I.T., 2006. Levels and vertical distribution of PCBs in agricultural and natural soils from Sweden. Science of the Total Environment 371(1-3): 344-352.

ATSDR, 2000. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.pdf

Backe, C., Cousins, I.T., Larsson, P., 2004. PCB in soils and estimated soil–air exchange fluxes of selected PCB congeners in the south of Sweden. Environmental Pollution 128(1-2): 59-72.

Badea, S.L., Lundstedt, S., Liljelind, P., Tysklind, M., 2013. The influence of soil composition on the leachability of selected hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from soils using a batch leaching test. Journal of Hazardous Materials 254-255: 26-35.

Badea, S.L., Mustafa, M., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M., 2014. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter. Science of the Total Environment 499: 220-227.

Baek, S.Y., Choi, S.D., Park, H., Kang, J.H., Chang, Y.S., 2010. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant. Environmental Science & Technology 44(8): 3035-3040.

Bozlaker, A., Odabasi, M., Muezzinoglu, A., 2008. Dry deposition and soil–air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area. Environmental Pollution 156(3): 784-793.

CDC-EPMD, 1997. Clark Development Corporation Environmental Planning and Management Department (CDC-EPMD).  Monitoring of PCB Transformers report. Clark, Angeles City, Unpublished report. Philippines.

Cetin, B., Odabasi, M., 2007. Particle-phase dry deposition and air-soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey. Environmental Science and Technology 41(14): 4986-4992.

Cetin, B., Yatkin, S., Bayram, A., Odabasi, M., 2007. Ambient concentrations and source apportionment of PCBs and trace elements around an industrial area in Izmir, Turkey. Chemosphere 69(8): 1267-1277.

Choi, S.D., Baek, S.Y., Chang, Y.S., Wania, F., Ikonomou, M.G., Yoon, Y.J., Park, B.K., Hong, S., 2008. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides at the Korean Arctic and Antarctic Research Stations: Implications for long-range transport and local pollution. Environmental Science & Technology 42(19): 7125-7131.

Fang, S., Cui, Q., Matherne, B., Hou, A., 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, accumulation rates in soil from atmospheric deposition and analysis of their affecting landscape variables along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai, China. Chemosphere 186: 884-892.

Fu, S., Cheng H.X., Liu, Y.H., Yang, Z.Z., Xu, X.B., 2009. Spatial character of polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and respirable particulate matter in Taiyuan, China. Chemosphere 74(11): 1477-1484.

Girvin, D.C., Scott, A.J., 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyl sorption by soils: Measurement of soil-water partition coefficients at equilibrium. Chemosphere 35(9): 2007-2025.

Glüge, J., Bogdal, C., Scheringer M., Hungerbühler, K., 2015. What determines PCB concentrations in soils in rural and urban areas? Insights from a multi-media fate model for Switzerland as a case study. Science of the Total Environment 550: 1152-1162.

Hansen, L.G., 1999. The ortho side of PCBs: occurrence and disposition. New York: Springer US.

Harrad, S.J., Sewart, A.P., Alcock, R., Boumphrey, R., Burnett, V., Duarte-Davidson, R., Halsall, C., Sanders, G., Waterhouse, K., Wild, S.R., Jones, K.C., 1994. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: Sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environmental Pollution 85(2): 131-146.

Hites, R., Eisenreich, S., 1987. Sources and fates of aquatic pollutants. American Chemical Society. Washington, D.C., US.

Hutzinger, O., Safe, S., Zitko, V., 1974. The Chemistry of PCBs. CRC Press, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio, US.

IARC, 2016. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Biphenyls. Volume 107. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, France. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/mono107.pdf.

Mackay, D., Shiu, W., Ma, K., Lee, S., 2006. Handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals. CRC Press. 2nd edition, Florida, U.S.A.

Malina, N., Mazlova, E.A., 2017. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia. Chemosphere 185: 227-236.

Melnyk, A., Dettlaff, A., Kuklińska, K., Namieśnik, J., Wolska, L., 2015. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. Science of the Total Environment 530-531: 18-27.

Neira, C., Vales, M., Mendoza, G., Hoh, E., Levin, L., 2018. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California. Marine Pollution Bulletin 126: 204-214.

Nguyen, T.N.T., Kwon, H.O., Lee, Y.S., Kim, L., Lee, S.E., Choi, S.D., 2016. Spatial distribution and source identification of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in soil collected from the coastal multi-industrial city of Ulsan, South Korea for three consecutive years Chemosphere 163: 184-191.

Notarianni, V., Calliera, M., Tremolada, P., Finizio, A., Vighi, M., 1998. PCB distribution in soil and vegetation from different areas in Northern Italy. Chemosphere 37(14-15): 2839-2845.

Paladio-Melosantos, M., Solidum, Scott, W., Quiambao, R., Umbal, J., Rodolfo, K., Tubianosa, B., Delos Reyes, P., Alonso, R., Ruelo, H., 1996. Tephra Falls of the 1991 Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, In: Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Newhall, C., Punongbayan, R., (Eds.)., University of Washington Press, pp. 345-372.

Steuer, J.J., 2000. A mass-balance approach for assessing PCB movement during remediation of a PCB-contaminated deposit on the Fox River, Wisconsin. Water-Resources Investigations Report 2000-4245, Wisconsin, United States. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/2000/4245/report.pdf

US EPA, 1992. SW-846 Test Method 1311: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Washington D.C., U.S.A. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/1311.pdf

US EPA, 1996. PCBs: Cancer Dose-Response Assessment and Application to Environmental Mixtures. EPA/600/P-96/001F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Washington D.C., U.S.A. Available at [Access date: 14.03.2019]: http://epa.gov/epahome/pdf.html

Vane, C.H., Kim, A.W., Beriro, D.J., Cave, M.R., Knights, K., Moss-Hayes, V., Nathanail, P.C., 2014. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK. Applied Geochemistry 51: 303-314.

Vicinie, A., Palermo, M., Matko, L., 2011. A review of the applicability of various elutriate tests and refinements of these methodologies. Proceedings of the Western Dredging Association (WEDA XXXI) Technical Conference & Texas A&M University Dredging Seminar.  June 5-8, 2011. Nashville, Tennessee, US.

Wang, H., Du, J., Leung, H., Leung, A.O.W., Liang, P., Giesy, J.P., Wong, C.K.S., Wong, M.H., 2010. Distribution and source apportionments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mariculture sediments from the Pearl River Delta, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63(5-12): 516-522.

Wang, T., Wang, Y., Fu, J., Wang, P., Li, Y., Zhang, Q., Jiang, G., 2010. Characteristic accumulation and soil penetration of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wastewater irrigated farmlands. Chemosphere 81(8): 1045-1051.

Wang, X., Wang, D., Qin, X., Xu, X., 2008. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 20(9): 1090-1096.

Wania, F., Mackay, D., 1996. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology 30(9): 390A-396A.

Weston International, 1997. Weston International Soil & Water Baseline Study Report. Soil and Water Baseline Study Report. Executive Summary Prepared for Clark Development Corporation. August 1997. Weston International, 1 Weston Way West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA.

Zhang, H., Li, X., Luo, Y., Li, Q., 2011. Depth distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils of the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Geoderma 160(3-4): 408-413.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science