Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 3, Jul 2020, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.753273
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.753273
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt

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Shahin,R., Khater,H., 2020. Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(3):275-281. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273
Shahin,R.,,& Khater,H. Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(3):275-281. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273
Shahin,R.,, and ,Khater,H."Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.3 (2020):275-281. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273
Shahin,R.,, and ,Khater,H. "Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jul 2020):275-281 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273
R,Shahin.H,Khater "Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.3, pp.275-281 (Jul 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273
Shahin,Reda Ragab ;Khater,Hassan Ahmed Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.3:275-281. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273

How to cite

Shahin, R., Khater, H., 2020. Quality and quantity of soil organic matter as affected by the period of organic farming in Sekem farm, Egypt. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(3): 275-281. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.753273

Author information

Reda Ragab Shahin , Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University Giza, Egypt Giza, Egypt
Hassan Ahmed Khater , Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University Giza, Egypt

Publication information

Article first published online : 15 Jun 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 09 Jun 2020
Manuscript Received: 03 Mar 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.753273
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.753273

Abstract

Sekem commercial organic farm was chosen for the present work; it is located at Belbeis 20 Km northeast of Cairo city which represented sandy soils. Five plots in Sekem farm were chosen to represent different periods of organic farming application, i.e. 0, 12, 15, 18 and 23 yrs. Surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil samples were collected in both winter and summer season. The collected soil samples were subjected to the dry sieve analysis to determine and separate the dry aggregate size of ˂0.25, 0.25-0.50, 0.50-1.00 and 1.00-2.00 mm diameter. The distributions of total organic carbon were studied in the whole soil and its aggregate fractions. The data showed that total organic carbon significantly increased by increasing the period of organic farming in the surface samples especially in the longest period of organic farming. Total organic carbon was concentrated in the finest aggregate fraction (˂0.25 mm) for both summer and winter seasons and it was also increased by increasing the period of organic farming. The investigation of the humic and fulvic separates using infrared (IR) spectrophotometry, showed the dominance of carboxylic bands in fulvic especially in the subsurface soil samples which indicated its acidic function. Humic separates showed a relative increased in the intensity of aromatic bands as compared to fulvic separates with increasing the period of organic farming.

Keywords

Quality, quantity, organic farming period, soil organic carbon.

Corresponding author

References

Abouelwafa, R., Amir, S., Souabi, S., Winterton, P., Ndira, V., Revel, J.C.,Hafidi, M., 2008. The fulvic acid fraction as it changes in the mature phase of vegetable oil-mill sludge and domestic waste composting. Bioresource Technology 99(14): 6112-6118.

Aoyama, M., Angers, D.A., N’Dayegamiye, A., 1999. Particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon in water-stable aggregates as affected by mineral fertilizer and manure applications. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79(2): 295-302.

Bellows, B., 2002. Protecting water quality on organic farms. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]: http://edepot.wur.nl/115572

Buyanovsky, G.A., Aslam, M., Wagner, G.H., 1994. Carbon turnover in soil physical fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(4): 1167–1173.

Celi, L., Schnitzer, M., Nègre, M., 1997. Analysis of carboxyl groups in soil humic acids by a wet chemical method, Fourier-Transform infrared spectrometry and solution-state carbon-13 nuclear mag¬netic resonance. A comparative study. Soil Science 162(3): 189-197.  

Desjardins, T., Andreux, F., Volkoff, B., Cerri, C.C., 1994. Organic carbon and 13C contents in soils and soil size-fractions, and their changes due to deforestation and pasture installation in eastern Amazonia. Geoderma 61(1-2): 103–118.

Eleerbrock, R.H., Höhn, A., Rogasik, J., 1999. Functional analysis of soil organic matter as affected by long‐term manurial treatment. European Journal of Soil Science 50(1): 65-71.

Gerzabek, M.H., Haberhauer, G., Kirchmann, H., 2001. Soil organic matter pools and carbon‐13 natural abundances in particle‐size fractions of a long‐term agricultural field experiment receiving organic amendments. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(2): 352–358.  

Gigliotti,  G.,  Businelli, D.,  Giusquiani, P.L.,  1999. Composition changes of soil humus after massive application of urban waste compost: a comparison between FT-IR spectroscopy and humification parameters. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 55: 23-28.

Gonzalez, J.M., Laird, D.A., 2003. Carbon sequestration in clay mineral fractions from 14C‐labeled plant residues. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67(6): 1715–1720.   

Grant, R.F., Juma, N.G., Robertson, J.A., Izaurralde, R.C., McGill, W.B., 2001. Long-term changes in soil carbon under different fertilizer, manure, and rotation: Testing the mathematical model ecosys. with data from the Breton plots. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(1): 205–214.

Guignard, C., Lemée, L., Amblès, A., 2005. Lipid constituents of peat humic acids and humin. Distinction from directly extractable bitumen components using TMAH and TEAAc thermochemolysis. Organic Geochemistry 36(2): 287-297.

Hayes, M.H.B., 2006. Solvent systems for the isolation of organic components from soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(3): 986–994.   

IFOAM and FiBL, 2006. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick. The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends. pp. 27–35. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]: https://orgprints.org/5161/

Lguirati, A., Ait Baddi, G., El Mousadik, A., Gilard, V., Revel, J.C ., Hafidi, M., 2005. Analysis of humic acids from aerated and non-aerated urban landfill composts. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 56(1): 8-16.

Mikha, M.M., Rice, C.W., 2004. Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(3): 809–816.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 593–579.

Pettit, R..E., 2000. Organic carbon, humus, humate, humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]:  http://www.naturalagsolutions.com/uploads/1/4/7/2/14721182/_organicmatter.pdf

Plaza, C., Senesi, N., Brunetti, G.,  Mondelli, D., 2007. Evolution of the fulvic acid fractions during co-composting of olive oil mill wastewater sludge and tree cuttings. Bioresource Technology 98(10): 1964-1971. 

Robincon, J.W., 1996. Introduction. In: Atomic Spectroscopy. Robincon, J.W. (Ed.). Second edition, Revised and Expanded. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA. pp. 1-64.

Rochette, P., Gregorich, E.G., 1998. Dynamics of soil microbial biomass C, soluble organic C, and CO2 evolution after three years of manure application. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78(2): 283-290.

Sánchez-Monedero, M.A., Cegarra, J.,  García, D.,  Roig, A., 2002. Chemical and structural evolution of humic acids during organic waste composting. Biodegradation 13: 361-371.

Sørensen, L.H., 1972. Stabilization of newly formed amino-acid metabolites in soil by clay minerals. Soil Science 114(1): 5–11.

Whalen, J.K., Chang, C., 2002. Macroaggregate characteristics in cultivated soils after 25 annual  manure applications. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(5): 1637–1647.

Abstract

Sekem commercial organic farm was chosen for the present work; it is located at Belbeis 20 Km northeast of Cairo city which represented sandy soils. Five plots in Sekem farm were chosen to represent different periods of organic farming application, i.e. 0, 12, 15, 18 and 23 yrs. Surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil samples were collected in both winter and summer season. The collected soil samples were subjected to the dry sieve analysis to determine and separate the dry aggregate size of ˂0.25, 0.25-0.50, 0.50-1.00 and 1.00-2.00 mm diameter. The distributions of total organic carbon were studied in the whole soil and its aggregate fractions. The data showed that total organic carbon significantly increased by increasing the period of organic farming in the surface samples especially in the longest period of organic farming. Total organic carbon was concentrated in the finest aggregate fraction (˂0.25 mm) for both summer and winter seasons and it was also increased by increasing the period of organic farming. The investigation of the humic and fulvic separates using infrared (IR) spectrophotometry, showed the dominance of carboxylic bands in fulvic especially in the subsurface soil samples which indicated its acidic function. Humic separates showed a relative increased in the intensity of aromatic bands as compared to fulvic separates with increasing the period of organic farming.

Keywords: Quality, quantity, organic farming period, soil organic carbon.

References

Abouelwafa, R., Amir, S., Souabi, S., Winterton, P., Ndira, V., Revel, J.C.,Hafidi, M., 2008. The fulvic acid fraction as it changes in the mature phase of vegetable oil-mill sludge and domestic waste composting. Bioresource Technology 99(14): 6112-6118.

Aoyama, M., Angers, D.A., N’Dayegamiye, A., 1999. Particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon in water-stable aggregates as affected by mineral fertilizer and manure applications. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79(2): 295-302.

Bellows, B., 2002. Protecting water quality on organic farms. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]: http://edepot.wur.nl/115572

Buyanovsky, G.A., Aslam, M., Wagner, G.H., 1994. Carbon turnover in soil physical fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(4): 1167–1173.

Celi, L., Schnitzer, M., Nègre, M., 1997. Analysis of carboxyl groups in soil humic acids by a wet chemical method, Fourier-Transform infrared spectrometry and solution-state carbon-13 nuclear mag¬netic resonance. A comparative study. Soil Science 162(3): 189-197.  

Desjardins, T., Andreux, F., Volkoff, B., Cerri, C.C., 1994. Organic carbon and 13C contents in soils and soil size-fractions, and their changes due to deforestation and pasture installation in eastern Amazonia. Geoderma 61(1-2): 103–118.

Eleerbrock, R.H., Höhn, A., Rogasik, J., 1999. Functional analysis of soil organic matter as affected by long‐term manurial treatment. European Journal of Soil Science 50(1): 65-71.

Gerzabek, M.H., Haberhauer, G., Kirchmann, H., 2001. Soil organic matter pools and carbon‐13 natural abundances in particle‐size fractions of a long‐term agricultural field experiment receiving organic amendments. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(2): 352–358.  

Gigliotti,  G.,  Businelli, D.,  Giusquiani, P.L.,  1999. Composition changes of soil humus after massive application of urban waste compost: a comparison between FT-IR spectroscopy and humification parameters. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 55: 23-28.

Gonzalez, J.M., Laird, D.A., 2003. Carbon sequestration in clay mineral fractions from 14C‐labeled plant residues. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67(6): 1715–1720.   

Grant, R.F., Juma, N.G., Robertson, J.A., Izaurralde, R.C., McGill, W.B., 2001. Long-term changes in soil carbon under different fertilizer, manure, and rotation: Testing the mathematical model ecosys. with data from the Breton plots. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(1): 205–214.

Guignard, C., Lemée, L., Amblès, A., 2005. Lipid constituents of peat humic acids and humin. Distinction from directly extractable bitumen components using TMAH and TEAAc thermochemolysis. Organic Geochemistry 36(2): 287-297.

Hayes, M.H.B., 2006. Solvent systems for the isolation of organic components from soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(3): 986–994.   

IFOAM and FiBL, 2006. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick. The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends. pp. 27–35. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]: https://orgprints.org/5161/

Lguirati, A., Ait Baddi, G., El Mousadik, A., Gilard, V., Revel, J.C ., Hafidi, M., 2005. Analysis of humic acids from aerated and non-aerated urban landfill composts. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 56(1): 8-16.

Mikha, M.M., Rice, C.W., 2004. Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(3): 809–816.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 593–579.

Pettit, R..E., 2000. Organic carbon, humus, humate, humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin. Available at [Access date: 03.03.2019]:  http://www.naturalagsolutions.com/uploads/1/4/7/2/14721182/_organicmatter.pdf

Plaza, C., Senesi, N., Brunetti, G.,  Mondelli, D., 2007. Evolution of the fulvic acid fractions during co-composting of olive oil mill wastewater sludge and tree cuttings. Bioresource Technology 98(10): 1964-1971. 

Robincon, J.W., 1996. Introduction. In: Atomic Spectroscopy. Robincon, J.W. (Ed.). Second edition, Revised and Expanded. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA. pp. 1-64.

Rochette, P., Gregorich, E.G., 1998. Dynamics of soil microbial biomass C, soluble organic C, and CO2 evolution after three years of manure application. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78(2): 283-290.

Sánchez-Monedero, M.A., Cegarra, J.,  García, D.,  Roig, A., 2002. Chemical and structural evolution of humic acids during organic waste composting. Biodegradation 13: 361-371.

Sørensen, L.H., 1972. Stabilization of newly formed amino-acid metabolites in soil by clay minerals. Soil Science 114(1): 5–11.

Whalen, J.K., Chang, C., 2002. Macroaggregate characteristics in cultivated soils after 25 annual  manure applications. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(5): 1637–1647.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science