Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 3, Jul 2020, Pages 254-263
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.735971
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.735971
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria

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Charchar,N., Bouchaala,L., Bouyahmed,H., Gherib,A., Lehout,A., 2020. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(3):254-263. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971
Charchar,N.,Bouchaala,L.Bouyahmed,H.Gherib,A.,& Lehout,A. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(3):254-263. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971
Charchar,N.,Bouchaala,L.Bouyahmed,H.Gherib,A., and ,Lehout,A."Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.3 (2020):254-263. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971
Charchar,N.,Bouchaala,L.Bouyahmed,H.Gherib,A., and ,Lehout,A. "Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jul 2020):254-263 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971
N,Charchar.L,Bouchaala.H,Bouyahmed.A,Gherib.A,Lehout "Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.3, pp.254-263 (Jul 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971
Charchar,Nabil ;Bouchaala,Laid ;Bouyahmed,Hani ;Gherib,Abd El-Fatteh ;Lehout,Amel Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.3:254-263. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971

How to cite

Charchar, N., Bouchaala, L., Bouyahmed, H., Gherib, A., Lehout, A., 2020. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial quality of an abandoned mining area Sidi Kamber, North-East of Algeria. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(3): 254-263. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.735971

Author information

Nabil Charchar , Center for Biotechnology Research (CRBt), Constantine, Algeria
Laid Bouchaala , Center for Biotechnology Research (CRBt), Constantine, Algeria
Hani Bouyahmed , Center for Biotechnology Research (CRBt), Constantine, Algeria
Abd El-Fatteh Gherib , Center for Biotechnology Research (CRBt), Constantine, Algeria
Amel Lehout , Center for Biotechnology Research (CRBt), Constantine, Algeria

Publication information

Article first published online : 11 May 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 09 May 2020
Manuscript Received: 18 Dec 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.735971
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.735971

Abstract

The ecological importance of soil bacteria is not limited to their number or biomass, although these parameters contribute greatly. Indeed, their main asset lies in their great genetic and functional diversity.This study aims to determine heavy metal contamination levels of the soils of an abandoned mining area of Sidi Kamber (Skikda), impact of heavy metals on bacterial communities and the possible risks that can affect the ecological balance of this area. Soil samples from three zones (Zone A, B and C) were collected from the top layer (0–20 cm) of mining area. Chemical analysis (pH, organic matter, total organic C, total N, available P, and cation exchange capacity, metal content of (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and bacterial analysis were carried in center for biotechnology research CRBt. Our results show that the mining area is characterized by an acid pH. Significant variations were observed for edaphic parameters (organic matter, total organic C, total N, available P and cation exchange capacity) between three sampling zones. The overall area was severely polluted with Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn with a total concentration far exceeding international standards. The bacterial load and diversity were relatively high with a significant variation between the three zones. The PCA analysis of the soil's characteristics indicates that the organic matter and the cation exchange capacity affect the distribution of the metallic trace elements in the soil and allowed us thus to a clear separation of the studied zones.

Keywords

Heavy metals, mining area, Sidi Kamber, bacterial diversity

Corresponding author

References

Alexander, M., 1977. Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd Edition.  JohnWiley Sons Inc, NewYork, USA. 331p.

Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Rowland, A.P., 1986. Chemical analysis. In: Methods in Plant Ecology. Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B. (Eds.). Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, UK. pp. 285–344.

Alloway, J.B., 2010. Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In: Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability. Alloway, J.B. (Ed.). Environmental Pollution 22, Springer, pp.11-50.

Babich, H., Stotzky, G., 1985. Heavy metal toxicity to microbe-mediated ecologic processes: A review and potential application to regulatory policies. Environmental Research 36(1): 111–137.

Baiz, D., 2000. Teneurs totales en « métaux lourds » dans les sols français : résultats généraux du programme ASPITET. Courrier de l'environnement de l'INRA No.39, février 2000 [in French]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01203415/file/C39Baize.pdf

Bamborough, L., Cummings, S., 2009. The impact of increasing heavy metal stress on the diversity and structure of the bacterial and actinobacterial communities of metallophytic grassland soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45:273–280.

Barrow, G.I., Feltham, R.K.A., 1993. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University. Press, New York, USA. 352 p.

Barrutia, O. Artetxe, U., Hernández, A., Olano, J.M., García-Plazaola, J.I., Garbisu, C., Becerril, J.M., 2011. Native plant communities in an abandoned Pb-Zn mining area of Northern Spain: Implications for phytoremediation and germplasm. International Journal of Phytoremediation 13(3): 256–270.

Batty, L.C., 2005. The potential importance of mine sites for biodiversity. Mine Water and the Environment 24: 101–103.

Beddai, O.F., 1976, Minéralisation de Sidi-Kamber. Rapport N°2, Laboratoire de Géologie appliquée, Université de. Constantine. [in French].

Boukhalfa, C., 2007. Heavy metals in the water and sediments of oued Es-Souk, Algeria a river receiving acid effluent from an abandoned mine. African Journal of Aquatic Science 32(3): 245–249.

Bouskill, N., Barker-Finkel, J, Galloway, T.S., Handy, R.D., Ford, T.E., 2010. Temporal bacterial diversity associated with metal-contaminated river sediments. Ecotoxicology 19: 317-328.

CCME, 2007. Canada Council of Ministers of the Environment. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health: summary tables. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://www.ccme.ca/

Chander, K., Brookes, P.C., 1991. Effects of heavy metals from past applications of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and organic matter accumulation in a sandy loam and silty loam U.K. soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23(10): 927–932.

Chodak, M., Gołębiewski, M., Morawska-Płoskonka, J., Kuduk, K., Niklińska, M., 2013. Diversity of microorganisms from forest soils differently polluted with heavy metals. Applied Soil Ecology  64: 7–14.

Claus, D., Berkeley, R.C.W., 1986. Genus Pseudomonas. In: Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S., Sharpe, M.E. (Eds.). Vol 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. pp 140–219.

Diaby, N., Dold, B, Pfeifer, H.R, Holliger, C., Johnson, D.B., Hallberg, K.B., 2007. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste. Environmental Microbiology 9(2): 298–307.

Dong,  X.Z.,  Cai, M.Y., 2001. Determinative Manual for Routine Bacteriology. Scientific Press, Beijing, China.

Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. In: Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment. Doran, J.W., Coleman, D.C., Bezdicek, B.A., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication No. 35, ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp.3–21.

Edraki, M., Baumgartl, T., Manlapig, E., Bradshaw, D., Frank, D.M., Moran, C.J.,2014. Designing mine tailings for better environmental, social and economic outcomes: a review of alternative approaches. Journal of Cleaner Production 84: 411–420.

Ellis, R.J., Morgan, P., Weightman, A.J., Fry, J.C., 2003. Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 3223-3230.

Epelde, L., Becerril, J.M., Barrutia, O., González-Oreja, J.A., Garbisu, C., 2010. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil. Environmental Pollution 158(5): 1576-1583.

Giller, K.E., Witter, E., McGrath, S.P., 1998. Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(10-11): 1398–1414.

Grunda, B., 1985. Processes of decomposition and the microorganisms in soil milieu of a floodplain forest. (In Czech) Final Research Report, VŠZ Brno, Czechoslovakia.

Hohl, H., Varma, A., 2010. Soil: The living matrix. In: Soil Heavy Metals. Soil Biology. Vol 19. I. Sherameti, I., Varma, A. (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp.1-18.

Holt, J.G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T., Williams, S.T., 1994. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. 799p.

Kandeler, E., Tscherko, D, Bruce, K.D., Stemmer, M., Hobbs, P.J., Bardgett, R.D., Amelung, W., 2000. Structure and function of the soil microbial community in microhabitats of a heavy metal polluted soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32: 390-400.

Kock, D., Schippers, A., 2008. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 5211-5219.

Kozdrój, J., van Elsas, J.D., 2001. Structural diversity of microorganisms in chemically perturbed soil assessed by molecular and cytochemical approaches. Journal of Microbiological Methods 43(3): 197-212.

Lehout, A., Charchar, N., Nourine, H., Bouyahmed, H., 2017. The effect of heavy metals on plant communities distribution in an abandonend mining area (Northeast-Algeria). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 13(1): 37-45.

Liao, J.F., 1990. Chemical proprieties of the mangrove solonchak in the northeast part of Hainan Island. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universititis Sunyatsensi (Suppl.) 9: 67-72.

Lin, P., Su, L., Lin Q.Y., 1987. Studies on the mangrove ecosystems of the Jiulong river estuary in China. II. Accumulation and biological cycle of potassium and sodium elements in Kandelia candel community. Acta Ecologia Sinica 7: 102–110.

Manskaia, S.M., Drozdova, T.V., 1968. Geochemistry of organic substances. Elsevier Science & Technology. 347 p.

Mishra, B.K., Nayak, C.R., 2009. Environmental implication of chromite mining in Sukinda valley. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent trends in monitoring and bioremediation of mine and industrial environment. 10-11 January 2009. North Orissa University, Odisha, India.

Navarro, E., Baun, A., Behra, R., Hartmann,N.B., Filser, J., Miao, A.J., Quigg, A., Santschi, P.H., Sigg L., 2008. Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicology 17(5): 372-386.

Nielsen, N.M., Winding, A., Binnerup, S., Hansen, B.M., Kroer, N., 2002. Microorganisms as indicators of soil health. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Denmark. Technical Report No 388. 85p. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR388.pdf

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

Oumdjbeur, A., 1986. Assessment of the physico-chemical quality of the waters of the Guénitra dam catchment area (Skikda Province, Algeria). PhD Thesis. Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Savoie, France. 132 p.

Pansu, M., Gautheyrou, J., 2006. Handbook of soil analysis. Mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 993p.

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Abstract

The  ecological  importance  of  soil  bacteria  is  not  limited  to  their  number  or  biomass, although these parameters contribute greatly. Indeed, their main asset lies in their great genetic and functional diversity.This study aims to determine heavy metal contamination levels of the soils of an abandoned mining area of Sidi Kamber (Skikda), impact of heavy metals on bacterial communities and the possible risks that can affect the ecological balance of this area. Soil samples from three zones (Zone A, B and C) were collected from the top layer (0–20 cm) of mining area. Chemical analysis (pH, organic matter, total organic C, total N, available P, and cation exchange capacity, metal content of (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni)  and bacterial analysis were carried in center for biotechnology research CRBt. Our results show that the mining area is characterized by an acid pH. Significant variations were observed for edaphic parameters (organic matter, total organic C, total N, available P and cation exchange capacity) between three sampling zones. The overall area was severely polluted with Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn with a total concentration far exceeding international standards. The bacterial load and diversity were relatively high with a significant variation between the three zones. The PCA analysis of the soil's characteristics indicates that the organic matter and the cation exchange capacity affect the distribution of the metallic trace elements in the soil and allowed us thus to a clear separation of the studied zones.

Keywords: Heavy metals, mining area, Sidi Kamber, bacterial diversity.

References

Alexander, M., 1977. Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd Edition.  JohnWiley Sons Inc, NewYork, USA. 331p.

Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Rowland, A.P., 1986. Chemical analysis. In: Methods in Plant Ecology. Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B. (Eds.). Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, UK. pp. 285–344.

Alloway, J.B., 2010. Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In: Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability. Alloway, J.B. (Ed.). Environmental Pollution 22, Springer, pp.11-50.

Babich, H., Stotzky, G., 1985. Heavy metal toxicity to microbe-mediated ecologic processes: A review and potential application to regulatory policies. Environmental Research 36(1): 111–137.

Baiz, D., 2000. Teneurs totales en « métaux lourds » dans les sols français : résultats généraux du programme ASPITET. Courrier de l'environnement de l'INRA No.39, février 2000 [in French]. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01203415/file/C39Baize.pdf

Bamborough, L., Cummings, S., 2009. The impact of increasing heavy metal stress on the diversity and structure of the bacterial and actinobacterial communities of metallophytic grassland soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45:273–280.

Barrow, G.I., Feltham, R.K.A., 1993. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University. Press, New York, USA. 352 p.

Barrutia, O. Artetxe, U., Hernández, A., Olano, J.M., García-Plazaola, J.I., Garbisu, C., Becerril, J.M., 2011. Native plant communities in an abandoned Pb-Zn mining area of Northern Spain: Implications for phytoremediation and germplasm. International Journal of Phytoremediation 13(3): 256–270.

Batty, L.C., 2005. The potential importance of mine sites for biodiversity. Mine Water and the Environment 24: 101–103.

Beddai, O.F., 1976, Minéralisation de Sidi-Kamber. Rapport N°2, Laboratoire de Géologie appliquée, Université de. Constantine. [in French].

Boukhalfa, C., 2007. Heavy metals in the water and sediments of oued Es-Souk, Algeria a river receiving acid effluent from an abandoned mine. African Journal of Aquatic Science 32(3): 245–249.

Bouskill, N., Barker-Finkel, J, Galloway, T.S., Handy, R.D., Ford, T.E., 2010. Temporal bacterial diversity associated with metal-contaminated river sediments. Ecotoxicology 19: 317-328.

CCME, 2007. Canada Council of Ministers of the Environment. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health: summary tables. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://www.ccme.ca/

Chander, K., Brookes, P.C., 1991. Effects of heavy metals from past applications of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and organic matter accumulation in a sandy loam and silty loam U.K. soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23(10): 927–932.

Chodak, M., Gołębiewski, M., Morawska-Płoskonka, J., Kuduk, K., Niklińska, M., 2013. Diversity of microorganisms from forest soils differently polluted with heavy metals. Applied Soil Ecology  64: 7–14.

Claus, D., Berkeley, R.C.W., 1986. Genus Pseudomonas. In: Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S., Sharpe, M.E. (Eds.). Vol 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. pp 140–219.

Diaby, N., Dold, B, Pfeifer, H.R, Holliger, C., Johnson, D.B., Hallberg, K.B., 2007. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste. Environmental Microbiology 9(2): 298–307.

Dong,  X.Z.,  Cai, M.Y., 2001. Determinative Manual for Routine Bacteriology. Scientific Press, Beijing, China.

Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. In: Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment. Doran, J.W., Coleman, D.C., Bezdicek, B.A., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication No. 35, ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp.3–21.

Edraki, M., Baumgartl, T., Manlapig, E., Bradshaw, D., Frank, D.M., Moran, C.J.,2014. Designing mine tailings for better environmental, social and economic outcomes: a review of alternative approaches. Journal of Cleaner Production 84: 411–420.

Ellis, R.J., Morgan, P., Weightman, A.J., Fry, J.C., 2003. Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 3223-3230.

Epelde, L., Becerril, J.M., Barrutia, O., González-Oreja, J.A., Garbisu, C., 2010. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil. Environmental Pollution 158(5): 1576-1583.

Giller, K.E., Witter, E., McGrath, S.P., 1998. Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(10-11): 1398–1414.

Grunda, B., 1985. Processes of decomposition and the microorganisms in soil milieu of a floodplain forest. (In Czech) Final Research Report, VŠZ Brno, Czechoslovakia.

Hohl, H., Varma, A., 2010. Soil: The living matrix. In: Soil Heavy Metals. Soil Biology. Vol 19. I. Sherameti, I., Varma, A. (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp.1-18.

Holt, J.G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T., Williams, S.T., 1994. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th Edition. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. 799p.

Kandeler, E., Tscherko, D, Bruce, K.D., Stemmer, M., Hobbs, P.J., Bardgett, R.D., Amelung, W., 2000. Structure and function of the soil microbial community in microhabitats of a heavy metal polluted soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32: 390-400.

Kock, D., Schippers, A., 2008. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 5211-5219.

Kozdrój, J., van Elsas, J.D., 2001. Structural diversity of microorganisms in chemically perturbed soil assessed by molecular and cytochemical approaches. Journal of Microbiological Methods 43(3): 197-212.

Lehout, A., Charchar, N., Nourine, H., Bouyahmed, H., 2017. The effect of heavy metals on plant communities distribution in an abandonend mining area (Northeast-Algeria). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 13(1): 37-45.

Liao, J.F., 1990. Chemical proprieties of the mangrove solonchak in the northeast part of Hainan Island. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universititis Sunyatsensi (Suppl.) 9: 67-72.

Lin, P., Su, L., Lin Q.Y., 1987. Studies on the mangrove ecosystems of the Jiulong river estuary in China. II. Accumulation and biological cycle of potassium and sodium elements in Kandelia candel community. Acta Ecologia Sinica 7: 102–110.

Manskaia, S.M., Drozdova, T.V., 1968. Geochemistry of organic substances. Elsevier Science & Technology. 347 p.

Mishra, B.K., Nayak, C.R., 2009. Environmental implication of chromite mining in Sukinda valley. Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent trends in monitoring and bioremediation of mine and industrial environment. 10-11 January 2009. North Orissa University, Odisha, India.

Navarro, E., Baun, A., Behra, R., Hartmann,N.B., Filser, J., Miao, A.J., Quigg, A., Santschi, P.H., Sigg L., 2008. Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicology 17(5): 372-386.

Nielsen, N.M., Winding, A., Binnerup, S., Hansen, B.M., Kroer, N., 2002. Microorganisms as indicators of soil health. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Denmark. Technical Report No 388. 85p. Available at [access date: 11.12.2018]: https://www2.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_Publikationer/3_fagrapporter/rapporter/FR388.pdf

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

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