Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 3, Jul 2020, Pages 194-201
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.719167
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.719167
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition

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Kars,N., Dengiz,O., 2020. Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(3):194-201. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167
Kars,N.,& Dengiz,O. (2020). Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(3):194-201. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167
Kars,N., and ,Dengiz,O. "Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.3 (2020):194-201. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167
Kars,N., and ,Dengiz,O. "Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jul 2020):194-201 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167
N,Kars.O,Dengiz "Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.3, pp.194-201 (Jul 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167
Kars,Nalan ;Dengiz,Orhan Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.3:194-201. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167

How to cite

Kars, N., Dengiz, O., 2020. Assessment of potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements for organic farming in micro catchments under humid ecological condition. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(3): 194-201. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.719167

Author information

Nalan Kars , Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute, Samsun, Turkey
Orhan Dengiz , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty ofAgriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 13 Apr 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 10 Apr 2020
Manuscript Received: 11 Oct 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.719167
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.719167

Abstract

Soil pollution, influenced by both the natural and anthropogenic factors, significantly reduces environmental quality. This research was carried out in some micro catchments located on Ordu province of Black Sea Region-Turkey in order to determine potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements (HMs) for organic farming. For this purpose, 166 soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from the study area and some physical and chemical and HM concentrations (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) analysis were done. In this study, it was determined; i-) some physical and chemical properties of catchments’ soils, ii-) HM contents and the correlation relation between physico-chemical properties of soil and HM concentrations and iii-) potential ecological risk index (PERI). PERI was calculated using the data obtained to evaluate the environmental risks of HMs in the region. The results showed that Cu concentration in 3%, Cr in 0.6% and Ni in 4.8% of the soil samples exceeded the threshold levels whereas, the concentrations of other HMs were lower than the critical values. Statistically, it was also found significantly positive relationships between sand content and Cu of soils whereas, it was determined significantly negative relationships between EC and Cu. In addition, according to the obtained PERI results, while 54% of total soil samples were low while, 42% of them were moderate class. Only 4% of them were classified as significant ecological risk level. Moreover, according to mean potential ecological risk index of these HMs, it can be ordered as Cd>Pb>Cu>Ni> Zn>Cr.

Keywords

Heavy metal, potential ecological risk, micro catchment, humid ecological condition, Black Sea Region.

Corresponding author

References

Amira, W., Leghouchi, E., 2018. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments and their bioaccumulation in phragmites australis frome Nil river (Jijel- Algeria). Global NEST Journal 20(2): 226-233.

Bai, J., Xiao, R., Cui, B., Zhang, K., Wang, Q., Liu, X., Gao, H., Huang, L., 2011. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from the young and old reclaimed regions in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Environmental Pollution 159(3): 817-824.

Baniamam, M., Moradi, A.M., Bakhtiari, A.R., Fatemi, M.,  Khanghah, K., 2019. Distribution and pollution level of nickel and vanadium in sediments from south part of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(5): 765-771. 

Bat, L., Arıcı, E., Öztekin, A., 2019. Heavy metals health risk appraisal in benthic fish species of the Black Sea. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(1): 163-168.

Bayraklı, B., Dengiz, O., 2019. Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province.  Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(3): 249-256.

Bing, H., Wu, Y., Liu, E., Yang, X., 2013. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment and its human impact in lacustrine sediments from four lakes in the mid-low reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 25(7): 1300-1309.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Cemek, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2006. Spatial variability and monitoring of Pb contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 117(1-3): 357-375.

Chaudhari, P.R., Gupta, R., Gajghate, D.G., Wate, S.R., 2012. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 2487-2496.

Cheng, H., Li, M., Zhao, C., Yang, K., Li, K., Peng, M., Yang, Z., Liu, F., Liu, Y., Bai, R., Cui, Y., Huang, Z., Li, L., Liao, Q., Luo, J., Jia, S., Pang, X., Yang, J., Yin, G., 2015. Concentrations of toxic metals and ecological risk assessment for sediments of major freshwater lakes in China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 157: 15-26.  

Decena, S.C.P., Arguellas, M.S., Robel, L.L., 2018. Assessing heavy metal contamination in surface sediments in an urban river in the Philippines. Polish Journal of Environmental Study 27(5): 1983-1995.

Demir, Y., Canbolat, M.Y., Demir, A.D., 2016. Assessment of some heavy metals of change that processed and unprocessed in lands throughout soil profile. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 26(4): 614-620 [in Turkish].

DOKAP., 2018. DOKAP Bölgesi organik tarım havzalarının belirlenmesi. organik tarım havzalarının haritalanması ve toprak analiz raporu. T.C. Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bak. Doğu Karadeniz Projesi Bölge Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı, 288p. [in Turkish]. Available at [Access date: 11,10,2019]: https://www.dokap.gov.tr/Upload/Genel/dokap-rapor-haritalandirma-toprak-analizi-14122018-pdfpdf-966323-rd_53.pdf

Effendi, H., Kawaroe, M., Lestaria, D.F., 2016. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediment of Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan. Procedia Environmental Sciences 33:  574-582.

El Nemr, A., 2011. Impact, monitoring and management of environmental pollution. Nova Science Publishers incorporated, New York, 638 p.

El Nemr, A., Khaled, A., Moneer A.A., El Sikaily, A., 2012. Risk probability due to heavy metals in bivalve from Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 38(2): 67-75.

Gabrielyan, A.V., Shahnazaryan, G.Z., Minasyan, S.H.2018. Distribution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the Voghji River Basin Impacted by Mining Activities. Journal of Chemistry Article ID 7172426.

Gao, W., Du, Y., Gao, S., Ingels, J., Wang, D., 2016. Heavy metal accumulation reflecting natural sedimentary processes and anthropogenic activities in two contrasting coastal wetland ecosystems, eastern China. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16(3): 1093-1108.

GDRS., 1984. General Directory of Rural Service. Land Resource Inventory for Ordu. Ankara, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Hakanson, L., 1980. An ecological risk index aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research 14(8): 975-1001.

Hasan, A.B., Kabir, S., Reza, A.H.M.S., Zaman, M.N., Ahsan, A., Rashid, M., 2013. Enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of trace metals in sediments of the ship breaking area of Sitakund Upazilla (Bhatiary–Kumira), Chittagong, Bangladesh. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 125: 130-137.

Islam, M.S., Ahmed M.K., Al-Mamun, H.A., Masunag, A. S., 2015. Potential ecological risk of hazardous elements in different land-use urban soils of Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment 512-513: 94-102.

Kloke, A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten fur tolerierbare gesa mtgehalte einiger elemente in kulturboden. Mitteilungen VDLUFA 1(3): 9-11.

Kükrer, S., Erginal, AE., Şeker, S., Karabıyıkoğlu, M., 2015. Distribution and environmental risk evaluation of heavy metal in core sediments from Lake Çıldır. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 453-462.

Long, E.R, MacDonald, D.D, Smith, S.C., Calder, F.D., 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentration in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management 19(1): 81– 97.

Mihálikova, M.,  Özyazıcı, M.A.,  Dengiz, O., 2016. Mapping soil water retention on agricultural lands in central and eastern parts of the Black Sea Region in Turkey. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 142(12): 05016008-1.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Nizami, G., Rehman, S., 2018. Assessment of heavy metals and their effects on quality of water of rivers of Uttar Pradesh, India: A review. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 2(2): 65- 71.

Omran, E.E., 2016. Environmental modelling of heavy metals using pollution indices and multivariate techniques in the soils of Bahr El Baqar, Egypt. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment 2: 119.

Özyazıcı, M.A., Dengiz, O., Özyazıcı, G., 2017. Spatial distribution of heavy metals density in cultivated soils of Central and East Parts of Black Sea Region in Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6 (3):  197 – 205.

Pesantes, A.A., Carpio, E.P., Vitvar, T., López, M.M.M., Menéndez-Aguado, J.M., 2019.  A multi-ındex analysis approach to heavy metal pollution assessment in river sediments in the Ponce Enríquez Area, Ecuador. Water 11: 590-602.

Rashed, M.N., 2010. Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. Journal of Hazardous Materials 178(1-3): 739-746.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil science: Methods and applications. Longman Scientific & Technical, Longman Group UK Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UK. 350 p.

Sun, Y.B., Zhou, Q.X., Xie, X.K., Liu, R., 2010. Spatial, sources and risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of urban soils in typical regions of Shenyang, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 174(1-3): 455-462.

Tam, N.F.Y., Wong, Y.S., 2000. Spatial variation of Heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Journal of Environmental Pollution 110(2): 195-205.

Tang, J., Chai, L., Li, H., Yang, Z., Yang, W., 2018. A 10-year statistical analysis of heavy metals in river and sediment in Hengyang Segment, Xiangjiang River Basin, China. Sustainability 10(4): 2-28.

Taylor, S.R., 1964. Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28(8): 1273-1285.

Tjahjono, A., Suwarno, D., 2018. The spatial distribution of heavy metal lead and cadmium pollution and coliform abundance of waters and surface sediment in Demak. Journal of Ecological Engineering 19(4): 43-54.

TMS., 2015. Turkish Meteorological Service. [in Turkish]. Available at [Access date: 11,10,2019]: https://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=ORDU

Tume, P., Bech, J., Longan, L., Tume, L., Reverter, F., Sepulveda, B., 2006. Trace elements in natural surface soils in Sant Climent (Catalonia, Spain). Ecological Engineering 27(2): 145-152.

Walkley, A.J., Black, I.A., 1934. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Wilcke, W., Kretzschmar, S., Bundt, M., Saborío, G., Zech, W. 2000. Depth distribution of aluminum and heavy metals in soils of Costa Rican coffee cultivation areas. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 163(5): 499-502.

Yang, J., Chen, L., Liu, L.Z., Shi, W.L., Meng, X.Z., 2014. Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in lake sediment from public parks in Shanghai. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 102: 129–135.

Yang, Z.P., Lu, W.X., Long, Y.Q., Bao, X.H., Yang, Q.C., 2011. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108(1): 27-38.

Abstract

Soil pollution, influenced by both the natural and anthropogenic factors, significantly reduces environmental quality. This research was carried out in some micro catchments located on Ordu province of Black Sea Region-Turkey in order to determine potential ecological risk index based on heavy metal elements (HMs) for organic farming. For this purpose, 166 soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from the study area and some physical and chemical and HM concentrations (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) analysis were done. In this study, it was determined; i-) some physical and chemical properties of catchments’ soils, ii-) HM contents and the correlation relation between physico-chemical properties of soil and HM concentrations and iii-) potential ecological risk index (PERI). PERI was calculated using the data obtained to evaluate the environmental risks of HMs in the region. The results showed that Cu concentration in 3%, Cr in 0.6% and Ni in 4.8% of the soil samples exceeded the threshold levels whereas, the concentrations of other HMs were lower than the critical values. Statistically, it was also found significantly positive relationships between sand content and Cu of soils whereas, it was determined significantly negative relationships between EC and Cu. In addition, according to the obtained PERI results, while 54% of total soil samples were low while, 42% of them were moderate class. Only 4% of them were classified as significant ecological risk level. Moreover, according to mean potential ecological risk index of these HMs, it can be ordered as Cd>Pb>Cu>Ni> Zn>Cr.

Keywords: Heavy metal, potential ecological risk, micro catchment, humid ecological condition, Black Sea Region.

References

Amira, W., Leghouchi, E., 2018. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments and their bioaccumulation in phragmites australis frome Nil river (Jijel- Algeria). Global NEST Journal 20(2): 226-233.

Bai, J., Xiao, R., Cui, B., Zhang, K., Wang, Q., Liu, X., Gao, H., Huang, L., 2011. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from the young and old reclaimed regions in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Environmental Pollution 159(3): 817-824.

Baniamam, M., Moradi, A.M., Bakhtiari, A.R., Fatemi, M.,  Khanghah, K., 2019. Distribution and pollution level of nickel and vanadium in sediments from south part of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(5): 765-771. 

Bat, L., Arıcı, E., Öztekin, A., 2019. Heavy metals health risk appraisal in benthic fish species of the Black Sea. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(1): 163-168.

Bayraklı, B., Dengiz, O., 2019. Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province.  Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(3): 249-256.

Bing, H., Wu, Y., Liu, E., Yang, X., 2013. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment and its human impact in lacustrine sediments from four lakes in the mid-low reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 25(7): 1300-1309.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Cemek, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2006. Spatial variability and monitoring of Pb contamination of farming soils affected by industry. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 117(1-3): 357-375.

Chaudhari, P.R., Gupta, R., Gajghate, D.G., Wate, S.R., 2012. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 2487-2496.

Cheng, H., Li, M., Zhao, C., Yang, K., Li, K., Peng, M., Yang, Z., Liu, F., Liu, Y., Bai, R., Cui, Y., Huang, Z., Li, L., Liao, Q., Luo, J., Jia, S., Pang, X., Yang, J., Yin, G., 2015. Concentrations of toxic metals and ecological risk assessment for sediments of major freshwater lakes in China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 157: 15-26.  

Decena, S.C.P., Arguellas, M.S., Robel, L.L., 2018. Assessing heavy metal contamination in surface sediments in an urban river in the Philippines. Polish Journal of Environmental Study 27(5): 1983-1995.

Demir, Y., Canbolat, M.Y., Demir, A.D., 2016. Assessment of some heavy metals of change that processed and unprocessed in lands throughout soil profile. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 26(4): 614-620 [in Turkish].

DOKAP., 2018. DOKAP Bölgesi organik tarım havzalarının belirlenmesi. organik tarım havzalarının haritalanması ve toprak analiz raporu. T.C. Sanayi ve Teknoloji Bak. Doğu Karadeniz Projesi Bölge Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı, 288p. [in Turkish]. Available at [Access date: 11,10,2019]: https://www.dokap.gov.tr/Upload/Genel/dokap-rapor-haritalandirma-toprak-analizi-14122018-pdfpdf-966323-rd_53.pdf

Effendi, H., Kawaroe, M., Lestaria, D.F., 2016. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface sediment of Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan. Procedia Environmental Sciences 33:  574-582.

El Nemr, A., 2011. Impact, monitoring and management of environmental pollution. Nova Science Publishers incorporated, New York, 638 p.

El Nemr, A., Khaled, A., Moneer A.A., El Sikaily, A., 2012. Risk probability due to heavy metals in bivalve from Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 38(2): 67-75.

Gabrielyan, A.V., Shahnazaryan, G.Z., Minasyan, S.H.2018. Distribution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the Voghji River Basin Impacted by Mining Activities. Journal of Chemistry Article ID 7172426.

Gao, W., Du, Y., Gao, S., Ingels, J., Wang, D., 2016. Heavy metal accumulation reflecting natural sedimentary processes and anthropogenic activities in two contrasting coastal wetland ecosystems, eastern China. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16(3): 1093-1108.

GDRS., 1984. General Directory of Rural Service. Land Resource Inventory for Ordu. Ankara, Turkey. [in Turkish].

Hakanson, L., 1980. An ecological risk index aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research 14(8): 975-1001.

Hasan, A.B., Kabir, S., Reza, A.H.M.S., Zaman, M.N., Ahsan, A., Rashid, M., 2013. Enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of trace metals in sediments of the ship breaking area of Sitakund Upazilla (Bhatiary–Kumira), Chittagong, Bangladesh. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 125: 130-137.

Islam, M.S., Ahmed M.K., Al-Mamun, H.A., Masunag, A. S., 2015. Potential ecological risk of hazardous elements in different land-use urban soils of Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment 512-513: 94-102.

Kloke, A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten fur tolerierbare gesa mtgehalte einiger elemente in kulturboden. Mitteilungen VDLUFA 1(3): 9-11.

Kükrer, S., Erginal, AE., Şeker, S., Karabıyıkoğlu, M., 2015. Distribution and environmental risk evaluation of heavy metal in core sediments from Lake Çıldır. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 453-462.

Long, E.R, MacDonald, D.D, Smith, S.C., Calder, F.D., 1995. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentration in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management 19(1): 81– 97.

Mihálikova, M.,  Özyazıcı, M.A.,  Dengiz, O., 2016. Mapping soil water retention on agricultural lands in central and eastern parts of the Black Sea Region in Turkey. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 142(12): 05016008-1.

Nelson, R.E., 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 181-198.

Nizami, G., Rehman, S., 2018. Assessment of heavy metals and their effects on quality of water of rivers of Uttar Pradesh, India: A review. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 2(2): 65- 71.

Omran, E.E., 2016. Environmental modelling of heavy metals using pollution indices and multivariate techniques in the soils of Bahr El Baqar, Egypt. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment 2: 119.

Özyazıcı, M.A., Dengiz, O., Özyazıcı, G., 2017. Spatial distribution of heavy metals density in cultivated soils of Central and East Parts of Black Sea Region in Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6 (3):  197 – 205.

Pesantes, A.A., Carpio, E.P., Vitvar, T., López, M.M.M., Menéndez-Aguado, J.M., 2019.  A multi-ındex analysis approach to heavy metal pollution assessment in river sediments in the Ponce Enríquez Area, Ecuador. Water 11: 590-602.

Rashed, M.N., 2010. Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. Journal of Hazardous Materials 178(1-3): 739-746.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil science: Methods and applications. Longman Scientific & Technical, Longman Group UK Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UK. 350 p.

Sun, Y.B., Zhou, Q.X., Xie, X.K., Liu, R., 2010. Spatial, sources and risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of urban soils in typical regions of Shenyang, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 174(1-3): 455-462.

Tam, N.F.Y., Wong, Y.S., 2000. Spatial variation of Heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Journal of Environmental Pollution 110(2): 195-205.

Tang, J., Chai, L., Li, H., Yang, Z., Yang, W., 2018. A 10-year statistical analysis of heavy metals in river and sediment in Hengyang Segment, Xiangjiang River Basin, China. Sustainability 10(4): 2-28.

Taylor, S.R., 1964. Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28(8): 1273-1285.

Tjahjono, A., Suwarno, D., 2018. The spatial distribution of heavy metal lead and cadmium pollution and coliform abundance of waters and surface sediment in Demak. Journal of Ecological Engineering 19(4): 43-54.

TMS., 2015. Turkish Meteorological Service. [in Turkish]. Available at [Access date: 11,10,2019]: https://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=ORDU

Tume, P., Bech, J., Longan, L., Tume, L., Reverter, F., Sepulveda, B., 2006. Trace elements in natural surface soils in Sant Climent (Catalonia, Spain). Ecological Engineering 27(2): 145-152.

Walkley, A.J., Black, I.A., 1934. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Wilcke, W., Kretzschmar, S., Bundt, M., Saborío, G., Zech, W. 2000. Depth distribution of aluminum and heavy metals in soils of Costa Rican coffee cultivation areas. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 163(5): 499-502.

Yang, J., Chen, L., Liu, L.Z., Shi, W.L., Meng, X.Z., 2014. Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in lake sediment from public parks in Shanghai. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 102: 129–135.

Yang, Z.P., Lu, W.X., Long, Y.Q., Bao, X.H., Yang, Q.C., 2011. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108(1): 27-38.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science