Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 2, Apr 2020, Pages 173 - 185
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.707667
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.707667
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia

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Hadigu,K., Gebrekirstos,A., Kibret,K., Tesfay,F., 2020. Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(2):173 - 185. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667
Hadigu,K.Gebrekirstos,A.Kibret,K.,& Tesfay,F. (2020). Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(2):173 - 185. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667
Hadigu,K.Gebrekirstos,A.Kibret,K., and ,Tesfay,F. "Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.2 (2020):173 - 185. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667
Hadigu,K.Gebrekirstos,A.Kibret,K., and ,Tesfay,F. "Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Apr 2020):173 - 185 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667
K,Hadigu.A,Gebrekirstos.K,Kibret.F,Tesfay "Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.2, pp.173 - 185 (Apr 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667
Hadigu,Kiros Meles ;Gebrekirstos,Aster ;Kibret,Kibebew ;Tesfay,Fikrey Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.2:173 - 185. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667

How to cite

Hadigu, K., Gebrekirstos, A., Kibret, K., Tesfay, F., 2020. Changes in selected soil properties across a chronosequence of exclosures in the central dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(2): 173 - 185. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.707667

Author information

Kiros Meles Hadigu , World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), ILRI Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Aster Gebrekirstos , World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Nairobi, Kenya
Kibebew Kibret , Haramaya University, School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Fikrey Tesfay , Haramaya University, School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Publication information

Article first published online : 24 Mar 2020
Manuscript Accepted : 12 Mar 2020
Manuscript Received: 19 Aug 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.707667
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.707667

Abstract

In Ethiopia, rehabilitation of the natural resource-base in degraded lands through area exclosures has become a necessary intervention, albeit empirical studies on the impact of these exclosures are limited. This study was conducted to investigate changes in selected soil properties along exclosures’ age and slope positions in Kewet district, central dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from three slope positions of three purposively selected exclosures of 5, 15 and 20 years old and one adjacent open grazing land from 0-10 cm soil depth for analysis of pertinent soil properties. The effect of exclosure age on bulk density, contents of sand, clay, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, CEC, and exchangeable Mg+ and K+ was significant (P<0.05). All exclosures had low bulk density (1.14-1.16 g cm-3) as compared to the grazing land. Higher available water content (173 mm m-1) was recorded in the old exclosure. Soil organic carbon ranged from 2.58% (young exclosure) to 3.37% (middle age exclosure). Soil total nitrogen increased from 0.24-0.34%, while available phosphorus increased from 27-34%, from young to the old exclosure respectively. However, the influence of exclosures’ age on other soil properties was not significant. The young exclosure had the highest CEC (57 cmolc kg-1), whereas the grazing land had the highest total nitrogen and exchangeable Ca2+. From this result, it can be concluded that area exclosures, if managed properly, can improve some of the dynamic soil properties of open degraded grazing lands in the dry lowlands of Ethiopia.

Keywords

Age, degradation, grazing land, restoration, slope position.

Corresponding author

References

Abebe, T., Feyssa, D.H., Kissi, E., 2014. Area exclosure as a strategy to restore soil fertility status in degraded land in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research 31(1): 482–494.

Aerts, R., Nyssen, J., Haile, M., 2009. On the difference between “exclosures” and “enclosures” in ecology and the environment. Journal of Arid Environments 73(8): 762–763.

Akbas, F., Gunal, H., Acir, N., 2017. Spatial variability of soil potassium and its relationship to land use and parent material. Soil and Water Research 12(4): 202–211.

Allison, L.E., Moodie, C.D., 1965. Carbonate. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1379–1396.

Appanah, S., Shono, K., Durst, P.B., 2015. Restoration of forests and degraded lands in Southeast Asia. Unasylva - An International Journal of Forestry and Forest Industries 66(245): 52–63.

Asmamaw, L.B., Mohammed, A.A., 2013. Effects of slope gradient and changes in land use/cover on selected soil physico-biochemical properties of the Gerado catchment, north-eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Studies 70(1): 111–125.

Aynekulu, E., Mekuria, W., Tsegaye, D., Feyissa, K., Angassa, A., Leeuw, J.De, Shepherd, K., 2017. Long-term livestock exclosure did not affect soil carbon in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Geoderma 307: 1–7.

Birhane, E., Aregawi, K., Giday, K., 2017. Changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi spore density and root colonization of woody plants in response to exclosure age and slope position in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 142: 1–10.

Bizuayehu, S., Tefera, B., 2013. Assessment on the socioeconomics aspects of area enclosures in North Shewa Zone: The case of Kewote and Basona Worena woredas. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Regional Conference on Completed Research Activities of 2010 and 2011. Amhara Agricultural Research Institute. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. pp. 72-85.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute A., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy-Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 363–375.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464–465.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1996. Nitrogen-Total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3 Chemical Methods. Bigham J.M., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1085–1121.

Cerdà, A., 1998. The influence of geomorphological position and vegetation cover on the erosional and hydrological processes on a Mediterranean hillslope. Hydrological Processes 12(4): 661–671.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 891–901.

Damene, S., Tamene, L., Vlek, P.L.G., 2013. Performance of exclosure in restoring soil fertility: A case of Gubalafto district in North Wello Zone, northern highlands of Ethiopia. Catena 101: 136–142.

Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Raes, D., Haile, M., Muys, B., Deckers, S., 2006a. Runoff on slopes with restoring vegetation: A case study from the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology 331(1–2): 219–241.

Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Rossi, J., Poesen, J., Haile, M., Raes, D., Muys, B., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, S., 2006b. Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma 132(3–4): 291–314.

FAO, 2015. Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA)-Country Report, Ethiopia. Rome, Italy. Available at [Access date: 19.08.2019]: http://www.fao.org/3/a-az209e.pdf

Feyisa, K., Beyene, S., Angassa, A., Said, M. Y., de Leeuw, J., Abebe, A., Megersa, B., 2017. Effects of enclosure management on carbon sequestration, soil properties and vegetation attributes in East African rangelands. Catena 159: 9–19.

Gebrehiwot, T., van der Veen, A., 2013. Climate change vulnerability in Ethiopia: disaggregation of Tigray Region. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(4): 607–629.

Girmay, G., Singh, B. R., Mitiku, H., Borresen, T., Lal, R., 2008. Carbon stocks in Ethiopian soils in relation to land use and soil management. Land Degradation and Development 19(4): 351–367.

Haile, M., Herweg, K., Stillhardt, B., 2006. Sustainable Land Management – A New Approach to Soil and Water Conservation in Ethiopia. Mekelle University, Ethiopia. 305p.

Hurni, H., Solomon, A., Amare, B., Berhanu, D., Ludi, E., Portner, B., Birru, Y., Gete, Z., 2010. Land degradation and sustainable land management in the highlands of Ethiopia. In: Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships, Hurni, H., Wiesmann, U. (Eds). Vol. 5. Bern: Geographica Bernensia: Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, pp. 187–207.

Khalil, M.I., Hossain, M.B., Schmidhalter, U., 2005. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in different upland soils of the subtropics treated with organic materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37(8): 1507–1518.

Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123(1–2): 1–22.

Lal, R., Shukla, M.K., 2004. Principles of Soil Physics. New York, USA. 699p.

Landon, J.R., 2014. Booker tropical soil manual: A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. Routledge, New York, USA. 531p.

Lemenih, M., Kassa, H., 2014. Re-greening Ethiopia: history, challenges and lessons. Forests 5(8): 1896–1909.

Liu, X., Zhou, F., Hu, G., Shao, S., He, H., Zhang, W., Zhang, X., Li, L., 2019. Dynamic contribution of microbial residues to soil organic matter accumulation influenced by maize straw mulching. Geoderma 333: 35–42.

Mekuria, W., Langan, S., Noble, A., Johnston, R., 2017. Soil restoration after seven years of exclosure management in northwestern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 28(4): 1287–1297.

Mekuria, W., Veldkamp, E., Haile, M., Nyssen, J., Muys, B., Gebrehiwot, K., 2007. Effectiveness of exclosures to restore degraded soils as a result of overgrazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 69(2): 270–284.

Mekuria, W., Wondie, M., Amare, T., Wubet, A., Feyisa, T., Yitaferu, B., 2018. Restoration of degraded landscapes for ecosystem services in North-Western Ethiopia. Heliyon 4(8): e00764.

Moges, A., Holden, N. M., 2008. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and agricultural land use: A case study of umbulo catchment in Southern Ethiopia. Environmental Management 42(5): 753–763.

Mohammadi, K., Heidari, G., Khalesro, S., Sohrabi, Y., 2011. Soil management, microorganisms and organic matter interactions: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(86): 19840–19849.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 593–579.

Nešić, L., Vasin, J., Belić, M., Ćirić, V., Gligorijević, J., Milunović, K., Sekulić, P., 2015. The colloid fraction and cation-exchange capacity in the soils of Vojvodina, Serbia. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 52(1): 18–23.

Nkonya, E., Mirzabaev, A., von Braun, J., 2015. Economics of land degradation and improvement - A global assessment for sustainable development. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland. 695p.

Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Haile, M., Deckers, J., 2008. Dynamics of soil erosion rates and controlling factors in the Northern Ethiopian highlands - Towards a sediment budget. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33(5): 695–711.

Nyssen, J., Simegn, G., Taha, N., 2009. An upland farming system under transformation: Proximate causes of land use change in Bela-Welleh catchment (Wag, Northern Ethiopian Highlands). Soil and Tillage Research 103(2): 231–238.

Olsen, S.R., Dean, L.A., 1965. Phosphorus. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1035–1049.

Parfitt, R.L., Giltrap, D.J., Whitton, J.S., 1995. Contribution of organic matter and clay minerals to the cation exchange capacity of soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 26(9–10): 1343–1355.

Paris, S., 1986. Reconnaissance Soil Survey and Land Evaluation for Irrigation Purposes of an area near Robit Shewa. National Water Resource Commission, Water Resource Development Authority of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Qasim, S., Gul, S., Shah, M.H., Hussain, F., Ahmad, S., Islam, M., Rehman, G., Yaqoob, M., Shah, S.Q., 2017. Influence of grazing exclosure on vegetation biomass and soil quality. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 5(1): 62–68.

Raiesi, F., Riahi, M., 2014.  The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks and dynamics, and ecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecological Indicators 41: 145–154.

Rhoades, J.D., 1996. Salinity: electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In: Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3. Chemical Methods. Bigham J.M., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 417–435.

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Yayneshet, T., Eik, L.O., Moe, S.R., 2009. Seasonal variations in the chemical composition and dry matter degradability of exclosure forages in the semi-arid region of northern Ethiopia. Animal Feed Science and Technology 148(1): 12–33.

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Abstract

In Ethiopia, rehabilitation of the natural resource-base in degraded lands through area exclosures has become a necessary intervention, albeit empirical studies on the impact of these exclosures are limited. This study was conducted to investigate changes in selected soil properties along exclosures’ age and slope positions in Kewet district, central dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from three slope positions of three purposively selected exclosures of 5, 15 and 20 years old and one adjacent open grazing land from 0-10 cm soil depth for analysis of pertinent soil properties. The effect of exclosure age on bulk density, contents of sand, clay, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, CEC, and exchangeable Mg+ and K+ was significant (P<0.05). All exclosures had low bulk density (1.14-1.16 g cm-3) as compared to the grazing land. Higher available water content (173 mm m-1) was recorded in the old exclosure. Soil organic carbon ranged from 2.58% (young exclosure) to 3.37% (middle age exclosure). Soil total nitrogen increased from 0.24-0.34%, while available phosphorus increased from 27-34%, from young to the old exclosure respectively. However, the influence of exclosures’ age on other soil properties was not significant. The young exclosure had the highest CEC (57 cmolc kg-1), whereas the grazing land had the highest total nitrogen and exchangeable Ca2+. From this result, it can be concluded that area exclosures, if managed properly, can improve some of the dynamic soil properties of open degraded grazing lands in the dry lowlands of Ethiopia.

Keywords: Age, degradation, grazing land, restoration, slope position.

References

Abebe, T., Feyssa, D.H., Kissi, E., 2014. Area exclosure as a strategy to restore soil fertility status in degraded land in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research 31(1): 482–494.

Aerts, R., Nyssen, J., Haile, M., 2009. On the difference between “exclosures” and “enclosures” in ecology and the environment. Journal of Arid Environments 73(8): 762–763.

Akbas, F., Gunal, H., Acir, N., 2017. Spatial variability of soil potassium and its relationship to land use and parent material. Soil and Water Research 12(4): 202–211.

Allison, L.E., Moodie, C.D., 1965. Carbonate. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1379–1396.

Appanah, S., Shono, K., Durst, P.B., 2015. Restoration of forests and degraded lands in Southeast Asia. Unasylva - An International Journal of Forestry and Forest Industries 66(245): 52–63.

Asmamaw, L.B., Mohammed, A.A., 2013. Effects of slope gradient and changes in land use/cover on selected soil physico-biochemical properties of the Gerado catchment, north-eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Studies 70(1): 111–125.

Aynekulu, E., Mekuria, W., Tsegaye, D., Feyissa, K., Angassa, A., Leeuw, J.De, Shepherd, K., 2017. Long-term livestock exclosure did not affect soil carbon in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Geoderma 307: 1–7.

Birhane, E., Aregawi, K., Giday, K., 2017. Changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi spore density and root colonization of woody plants in response to exclosure age and slope position in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 142: 1–10.

Bizuayehu, S., Tefera, B., 2013. Assessment on the socioeconomics aspects of area enclosures in North Shewa Zone: The case of Kewote and Basona Worena woredas. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Regional Conference on Completed Research Activities of 2010 and 2011. Amhara Agricultural Research Institute. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. pp. 72-85.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute A., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy-Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 363–375.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464–465.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1996. Nitrogen-Total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3 Chemical Methods. Bigham J.M., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1085–1121.

Cerdà, A., 1998. The influence of geomorphological position and vegetation cover on the erosional and hydrological processes on a Mediterranean hillslope. Hydrological Processes 12(4): 661–671.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 891–901.

Damene, S., Tamene, L., Vlek, P.L.G., 2013. Performance of exclosure in restoring soil fertility: A case of Gubalafto district in North Wello Zone, northern highlands of Ethiopia. Catena 101: 136–142.

Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Raes, D., Haile, M., Muys, B., Deckers, S., 2006a. Runoff on slopes with restoring vegetation: A case study from the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology 331(1–2): 219–241.

Descheemaeker, K., Nyssen, J., Rossi, J., Poesen, J., Haile, M., Raes, D., Muys, B., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, S., 2006b. Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma 132(3–4): 291–314.

FAO, 2015. Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA)-Country Report, Ethiopia. Rome, Italy. Available at [Access date: 19.08.2019]: http://www.fao.org/3/a-az209e.pdf

Feyisa, K., Beyene, S., Angassa, A., Said, M. Y., de Leeuw, J., Abebe, A., Megersa, B., 2017. Effects of enclosure management on carbon sequestration, soil properties and vegetation attributes in East African rangelands. Catena 159: 9–19.

Gebrehiwot, T., van der Veen, A., 2013. Climate change vulnerability in Ethiopia: disaggregation of Tigray Region. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(4): 607–629.

Girmay, G., Singh, B. R., Mitiku, H., Borresen, T., Lal, R., 2008. Carbon stocks in Ethiopian soils in relation to land use and soil management. Land Degradation and Development 19(4): 351–367.

Haile, M., Herweg, K., Stillhardt, B., 2006. Sustainable Land Management – A New Approach to Soil and Water Conservation in Ethiopia. Mekelle University, Ethiopia. 305p.

Hurni, H., Solomon, A., Amare, B., Berhanu, D., Ludi, E., Portner, B., Birru, Y., Gete, Z., 2010. Land degradation and sustainable land management in the highlands of Ethiopia. In: Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships, Hurni, H., Wiesmann, U. (Eds). Vol. 5. Bern: Geographica Bernensia: Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, pp. 187–207.

Khalil, M.I., Hossain, M.B., Schmidhalter, U., 2005. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in different upland soils of the subtropics treated with organic materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37(8): 1507–1518.

Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123(1–2): 1–22.

Lal, R., Shukla, M.K., 2004. Principles of Soil Physics. New York, USA. 699p.

Landon, J.R., 2014. Booker tropical soil manual: A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. Routledge, New York, USA. 531p.

Lemenih, M., Kassa, H., 2014. Re-greening Ethiopia: history, challenges and lessons. Forests 5(8): 1896–1909.

Liu, X., Zhou, F., Hu, G., Shao, S., He, H., Zhang, W., Zhang, X., Li, L., 2019. Dynamic contribution of microbial residues to soil organic matter accumulation influenced by maize straw mulching. Geoderma 333: 35–42.

Mekuria, W., Langan, S., Noble, A., Johnston, R., 2017. Soil restoration after seven years of exclosure management in northwestern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 28(4): 1287–1297.

Mekuria, W., Veldkamp, E., Haile, M., Nyssen, J., Muys, B., Gebrehiwot, K., 2007. Effectiveness of exclosures to restore degraded soils as a result of overgrazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 69(2): 270–284.

Mekuria, W., Wondie, M., Amare, T., Wubet, A., Feyisa, T., Yitaferu, B., 2018. Restoration of degraded landscapes for ecosystem services in North-Western Ethiopia. Heliyon 4(8): e00764.

Moges, A., Holden, N. M., 2008. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and agricultural land use: A case study of umbulo catchment in Southern Ethiopia. Environmental Management 42(5): 753–763.

Mohammadi, K., Heidari, G., Khalesro, S., Sohrabi, Y., 2011. Soil management, microorganisms and organic matter interactions: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(86): 19840–19849.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 593–579.

Nešić, L., Vasin, J., Belić, M., Ćirić, V., Gligorijević, J., Milunović, K., Sekulić, P., 2015. The colloid fraction and cation-exchange capacity in the soils of Vojvodina, Serbia. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 52(1): 18–23.

Nkonya, E., Mirzabaev, A., von Braun, J., 2015. Economics of land degradation and improvement - A global assessment for sustainable development. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland. 695p.

Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Haile, M., Deckers, J., 2008. Dynamics of soil erosion rates and controlling factors in the Northern Ethiopian highlands - Towards a sediment budget. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33(5): 695–711.

Nyssen, J., Simegn, G., Taha, N., 2009. An upland farming system under transformation: Proximate causes of land use change in Bela-Welleh catchment (Wag, Northern Ethiopian Highlands). Soil and Tillage Research 103(2): 231–238.

Olsen, S.R., Dean, L.A., 1965. Phosphorus. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Norman, A.G., (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy - Soil Science Society of America, WI, USA. pp. 1035–1049.

Parfitt, R.L., Giltrap, D.J., Whitton, J.S., 1995. Contribution of organic matter and clay minerals to the cation exchange capacity of soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 26(9–10): 1343–1355.

Paris, S., 1986. Reconnaissance Soil Survey and Land Evaluation for Irrigation Purposes of an area near Robit Shewa. National Water Resource Commission, Water Resource Development Authority of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Qasim, S., Gul, S., Shah, M.H., Hussain, F., Ahmad, S., Islam, M., Rehman, G., Yaqoob, M., Shah, S.Q., 2017. Influence of grazing exclosure on vegetation biomass and soil quality. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 5(1): 62–68.

Raiesi, F., Riahi, M., 2014.  The influence of grazing exclosure on soil C stocks and dynamics, and ecological indicators in upland arid and semi-arid rangelands. Ecological Indicators 41: 145–154.

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