Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 1, Jan 2020, Pages 66 - 74
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.647020
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.647020
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline

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Demiral,M., Melgar,J., Contreras,B., Kusakabe,A., Uygun,M., Kaya,S., 2020. Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(1):66 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020
Demiral,M.,Melgar,J.Contreras,B.Kusakabe,A.Uygun,M.,& Kaya,S. Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(1):66 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020
Demiral,M.,Melgar,J.Contreras,B.Kusakabe,A.Uygun,M., and ,Kaya,S."Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.1 (2020):66 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020
Demiral,M.,Melgar,J.Contreras,B.Kusakabe,A.Uygun,M., and ,Kaya,S. "Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jan 2020):66 - 74 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020
M,Demiral.J,Melgar.B,Contreras.A,Kusakabe.M,Uygun.S,Kaya "Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.1, pp.66 - 74 (Jan 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020
Demiral,Mehmet Ali ;Melgar,Juan Carlos ;Contreras,Beatriz ;Kusakabe,Ayako ;Uygun,Murat ;Kaya,Seçil Küçük Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.1:66 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020

How to cite

Demiral, M., Melgar, J., Contreras, B., Kusakabe, A., Uygun, M., Kaya, S., 2020. Responses of salt-stressed citrus plants to foliar-applied proline. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(1): 66 - 74. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.647020

Author information

Mehmet Ali Demiral , Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Aydın, Turkey
Juan Carlos Melgar , Clemson University, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson, South Carolina, USA
Beatriz Contreras , Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Citrus Center, Weslaco, Texas, USA
Ayako Kusakabe , The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology, Tucson, Arizona, USA
Murat Uygun , Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Aydın, Turkey
Seçil Küçük Kaya , Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Aydın, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 16 Nov 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 01 Nov 2019
Manuscript Received: 09 Mar 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.647020
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.647020

Abstract

In this study, one-year old grapefruit trees grafted onto sour Orange (SO) and C22 rootstocks were exposed to NaCl-induced salinity (approx. 6 dS m-1) in pot culture for two months under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with eight replicates. The trees were irrigated with saline solution containing 0.1% liquid fertilizer “Miracle-Gro Liqua Feed 9-4-9” (N-P2O5-K2O) enriched with micronutrients. The experimental treatments consisted of three levels (4 mM, 8 mM, 12 mM) of foliar applied proline along with control application. Distilled water served as the control. During the experiment the seedlings were sprayed totally five times with ten days intervals. At the end of the treatment physiologically mature leaves, free of damage or defects, were sampled. Dried and ground leaf samples were used for chemical (Na and Cl) and biochemical (DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolic content, proline) analysis. Spesific leaf area, leaf water relations and leaf gas exchange of the plants were also determined. Foliar PRO application decreased Na and Cl concentrations of the leaves, and improved spesific leaf area in the final dose. Water leaf relations, photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters were affected positively even though some differences were determined between the cultivars.

Keywords

Salinity, proline, NaCl, C22, SO.

Corresponding author

References

Agastian, P., Kingsley, S.J., Vivekanandan, M., 2000. Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthetica 38(2): 287-290.

Ashraf, M., 2004. Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 199(5): 361-376.

Bates, S.L., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1): 205-207.

Boskou, D., Visioli, F., 2003. Biophenols in table olives. In: Bioavailability of Micronutrients and Minor Dietary Compounds. Metabolic and Technical Aspects. Vaquero, M.P., Garcia-Arias, T., Garbajal, A. (Eds.). Research Signpost, Trivadrum, India. pp. 161-169.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology 28(1): 25-30.

Brown, J.G., Jackson, R.K., 1955. A note on the potentiometric determination of chloride. Proceedings of the Society for Horticultural Science 65: 187-193.

Chen. Z., Cuin. T.A., Zhou, M., Twomey, A., Naidu, B.P., Shabala, S., 2007. Compatible solute accumulation and stress-mitigating effects in barley genotypes contrasting in their salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 58(15-16): 4245-4255.

da Silva Sá, F.V., de Lima, G.S., dos Santos, J. B., Gheyi, H.R., dos Anjos Soares, L.A., Cavalcante, L.F., de Paiva, E. P., de Pádua Souza, L., 2016. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) under saline stress and exogenous application of proline.  African Journal of Biotechnology 15(36): 1970-1976.

de Lacerda, C.F., Cambraia, J., Oliva, M.A., Ruiz, H.A., Prisco, J.T., 2003. Solute accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49(2): 107-120.

Demiral, M.A., Aktas Uygun, D., Uygun, M., Kasırğa, E., Karagözler, A.A., 2011. Biochemical response of Olea europaea cv. Gemlik to short-term salt stress. Turkish Journal of Biology 35: 433-442.

Dixon, R.A., Paiva, N.L.,, 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell 7(7): 1085-1097.

Flowers, T.J., Troke, P.F., Yeo, A.R., 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28: 89-121.

Itai, C., Paleg L.G., 1982. Responses of water-stressed Hordeum distichum L. and Cucumis sativus to proline and betaine. Plant Science Letters 25(3): 329-335.

Jain, R.K., Dhawan, R.S., Sharma, D.R., Chowdhury, J.B., 1987. Salt-tolerance and proline accumulation: a comparative study in salt-tolerant and wild type cultured cells of eggplant. Plant Cell Reports 6(5): 382-384.

Jamil, M., ur Rehman, S., Lee, K.J., Kim, J.M., Hyun-Soon, K., Rha, E.S., 2007. Salinity reduced growth PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish. Scientia Agricola 64(2): 111–118.

Ksouri, R., Megdiche, W., Debez, A., Falleh, H., Grignon, C., Abdelly, C., 2007. Salinity effects on polyphenol content and antioxidant activities in leaves of the halophyte Cakile maritima. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45(3-4): 244-249.

Lawlor, D.W., 2002. Limitation to photosynthesis in water‐stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany 89(7): 871–885.

Lin, C.C., Kao, C.H., 2001. Cell wall peroxidase against ferulic acid, lignin and NaCl-reduced root growth of rice seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 158(5): 667-671.

Little, T.M., Hills, F.J., 1978. Agricultural experimentation: design and analysis. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, USA, 350p.

Maas, E.V., Nieman, R.H., 1978. Physiology of plant tolerance to salinity. In: Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Jung, G.A., (Ed.). Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication, Madison, USA. pp. 277–299.

Marcelis, L.F.M., Hooijdonk, J.V., 1999. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plant and Soil 215(1): 57–64.

Moftah, A.H., Michel, B.E., 1987. The effect of sodium chloride on solute potential and proline accumulation in soybean leaves. Plant Physiology 83(2): 238-240.

Molyneux, P., 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 26(2): 211-219.

Mousa, A.K., 2010. Growth and biochemical constituents of olives as influenced by irrigation with treated industrial wastewater. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33(1): 1-14.

Naczk, M., Shahidi, F., 2004. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A 1054(1-2): 95-111.

Noreen, Z.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, N.A., 2010. Salt-induced regulation of some key antioxidant enzymes and physio-biochemical phenomena in five diverse cultivars of turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 196(4): 273–285.

Oyaizu, M., 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction. Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 44(6): 307-315.

Ramajulu, S., Sudhakar, C., 2000. Proline metabolism during dehydration in two mulberry genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 157(1): 81-85.

Rhodes, D., Hanson, A.D., 1993. Quarternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44: 357-384.

Scholander, P.F., Bradstreet, E.D., Hemmingsen, E.A., Hammel, H.T., 1965. Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science 148(3668): 339-346.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178.

Tester, M., Davenport, R., 2003. Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91(5): 503-527.

Westerman, R.L., 1990. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society of America (SSAA). Book Series, Vol. 3, Issue 3. SSSA Publications, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.784p.

Abstract

In this study, one-year old grapefruit trees grafted onto sour Orange (SO) and C22 rootstocks were exposed to NaCl-induced salinity (approx. 6 dS m-1) in pot culture for two months under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with eight replicates. The trees were irrigated with saline solution containing 0.1% liquid fertilizer “Miracle-Gro Liqua Feed 9-4-9” (N-P2O5-K2O) enriched with micronutrients. The experimental treatments consisted of three levels (4 mM, 8 mM, 12 mM) of foliar applied proline along with control application. Distilled water served as the control. During the experiment the seedlings were sprayed totally five times with ten days intervals. At the end of the treatment physiologically mature leaves, free of damage or defects, were sampled. Dried and ground leaf samples were used for chemical (Na and Cl) and biochemical (DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolic content, proline) analysis. Spesific leaf area, leaf water relations and leaf gas exchange of the plants were also determined. Foliar PRO application decreased Na and Cl concentrations of the leaves, and improved spesific leaf area in the final dose. Water leaf relations, photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters were affected positively even though some differences were determined between the cultivars.

Keywords: Salinity, proline, NaCl, C22, SO.

References

Agastian, P., Kingsley, S.J., Vivekanandan, M., 2000. Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthetica 38(2): 287-290.

Ashraf, M., 2004. Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 199(5): 361-376.

Bates, S.L., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1): 205-207.

Boskou, D., Visioli, F., 2003. Biophenols in table olives. In: Bioavailability of Micronutrients and Minor Dietary Compounds. Metabolic and Technical Aspects. Vaquero, M.P., Garcia-Arias, T., Garbajal, A. (Eds.). Research Signpost, Trivadrum, India. pp. 161-169.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology 28(1): 25-30.

Brown, J.G., Jackson, R.K., 1955. A note on the potentiometric determination of chloride. Proceedings of the Society for Horticultural Science 65: 187-193.

Chen. Z., Cuin. T.A., Zhou, M., Twomey, A., Naidu, B.P., Shabala, S., 2007. Compatible solute accumulation and stress-mitigating effects in barley genotypes contrasting in their salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 58(15-16): 4245-4255.

da Silva Sá, F.V., de Lima, G.S., dos Santos, J. B., Gheyi, H.R., dos Anjos Soares, L.A., Cavalcante, L.F., de Paiva, E. P., de Pádua Souza, L., 2016. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) under saline stress and exogenous application of proline.  African Journal of Biotechnology 15(36): 1970-1976.

de Lacerda, C.F., Cambraia, J., Oliva, M.A., Ruiz, H.A., Prisco, J.T., 2003. Solute accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49(2): 107-120.

Demiral, M.A., Aktas Uygun, D., Uygun, M., Kasırğa, E., Karagözler, A.A., 2011. Biochemical response of Olea europaea cv. Gemlik to short-term salt stress. Turkish Journal of Biology 35: 433-442.

Dixon, R.A., Paiva, N.L.,, 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell 7(7): 1085-1097.

Flowers, T.J., Troke, P.F., Yeo, A.R., 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28: 89-121.

Itai, C., Paleg L.G., 1982. Responses of water-stressed Hordeum distichum L. and Cucumis sativus to proline and betaine. Plant Science Letters 25(3): 329-335.

Jain, R.K., Dhawan, R.S., Sharma, D.R., Chowdhury, J.B., 1987. Salt-tolerance and proline accumulation: a comparative study in salt-tolerant and wild type cultured cells of eggplant. Plant Cell Reports 6(5): 382-384.

Jamil, M., ur Rehman, S., Lee, K.J., Kim, J.M., Hyun-Soon, K., Rha, E.S., 2007. Salinity reduced growth PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish. Scientia Agricola 64(2): 111–118.

Ksouri, R., Megdiche, W., Debez, A., Falleh, H., Grignon, C., Abdelly, C., 2007. Salinity effects on polyphenol content and antioxidant activities in leaves of the halophyte Cakile maritima. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45(3-4): 244-249.

Lawlor, D.W., 2002. Limitation to photosynthesis in water‐stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany 89(7): 871–885.

Lin, C.C., Kao, C.H., 2001. Cell wall peroxidase against ferulic acid, lignin and NaCl-reduced root growth of rice seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 158(5): 667-671.

Little, T.M., Hills, F.J., 1978. Agricultural experimentation: design and analysis. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, USA, 350p.

Maas, E.V., Nieman, R.H., 1978. Physiology of plant tolerance to salinity. In: Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Jung, G.A., (Ed.). Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication, Madison, USA. pp. 277–299.

Marcelis, L.F.M., Hooijdonk, J.V., 1999. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plant and Soil 215(1): 57–64.

Moftah, A.H., Michel, B.E., 1987. The effect of sodium chloride on solute potential and proline accumulation in soybean leaves. Plant Physiology 83(2): 238-240.

Molyneux, P., 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 26(2): 211-219.

Mousa, A.K., 2010. Growth and biochemical constituents of olives as influenced by irrigation with treated industrial wastewater. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33(1): 1-14.

Naczk, M., Shahidi, F., 2004. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A 1054(1-2): 95-111.

Noreen, Z.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, N.A., 2010. Salt-induced regulation of some key antioxidant enzymes and physio-biochemical phenomena in five diverse cultivars of turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 196(4): 273–285.

Oyaizu, M., 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction. Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 44(6): 307-315.

Ramajulu, S., Sudhakar, C., 2000. Proline metabolism during dehydration in two mulberry genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 157(1): 81-85.

Rhodes, D., Hanson, A.D., 1993. Quarternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44: 357-384.

Scholander, P.F., Bradstreet, E.D., Hemmingsen, E.A., Hammel, H.T., 1965. Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science 148(3668): 339-346.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178.

Tester, M., Davenport, R., 2003. Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91(5): 503-527.

Westerman, R.L., 1990. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society of America (SSAA). Book Series, Vol. 3, Issue 3. SSSA Publications, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.784p.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science