Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 9, Issue 1, Jan 2020, Pages 34 - 42
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.642212
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.642212
Copyright © 2020 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil

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Mahaman Sanoussi,S., Dougbedji,F., Matthew,E., Okhimamhe,A., Ibrahim,A., Sule,I., 2020. Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 9(1):34 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212
Mahaman Sanoussi,S.,Dougbedji,F.Matthew,E.Okhimamhe,A.Ibrahim,A.,& Sule,I. Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9(1):34 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212
Mahaman Sanoussi,S.,Dougbedji,F.Matthew,E.Okhimamhe,A.Ibrahim,A., and ,Sule,I."Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 9.1 (2020):34 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212
Mahaman Sanoussi,S.,Dougbedji,F.Matthew,E.Okhimamhe,A.Ibrahim,A., and ,Sule,I. "Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,9(Jan 2020):34 - 42 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212
S,Mahaman Sanoussi.F,Dougbedji.E,Matthew.A,Okhimamhe.A,Ibrahim.I,Sule "Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.9, no.1, pp.34 - 42 (Jan 2020), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212
Mahaman Sanoussi,Sani Issa ;Dougbedji,Fatondji ;Matthew,Ezenwa ;Okhimamhe,A.A. ;Ibrahim,Ali ;Sule,Isiah Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2020),9.1:34 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212

How to cite

Mahaman Sanoussi, S., Dougbedji, F., Matthew, E., Okhimamhe, A., Ibrahim, A., Sule, I., 2020. Assessing soil nutrient change under long-term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a sahelian sandy soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 9(1): 34 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.642212

Author information

Sani Issa Mahaman Sanoussi , Master Research Programme on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL, Federal University of Technology, Gidan Kwano Campus, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Fatondji Dougbedji , International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Sahelian Centre Sadore, Niamey, Niger
Ezenwa Matthew , Department of Soil Science, Federal University of Technology, Gidan Kwano Campus, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
A.A. Okhimamhe , Master Research Programme on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL, Federal University of Technology, Gidan Kwano Campus, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Ali Ibrahim , International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Sahelian Centre Sadore, Niamey, Niger
Isiah Sule , Master Research Programme on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL, Federal University of Technology, Gidan Kwano Campus, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Publication information

Article first published online : 04 Nov 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 23 Oct 2019
Manuscript Received: 28 Feb 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.642212
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.642212

Abstract

In the Sahel, mineral fertilizer micro-dosing technique is known for its benefits to provide higher nutrient uptake and higher crop yields. A study was set up at ICRISAT research station at Sadoré in Niger, which aims at evaluating the sustainability of the technology in the long-term with emphasis on soil nutrients dynamics. The study has started since 2008 and was laid-out in a randomized complete block design that involved two pearl millet varieties, three planting densities, and four nutrients management options. For this study, a sub-set of the treatments from this long-term experiment was used. The nutrient management factor, which includes 4 levels was considered. The most important findings obtained indicated that the change in soil nutrient was markedly different on the planting hills and that from between hill. The change in soil pH-H2O values on the planting was -7.06 % for the control plots and -9.57 % for the plots applied with NPK. The total nitrogen content has dropped in the two different plots. The amplitude of drop has lowered with the application of NPK micro-dosing on the planting hills with respectively -5.11 % and -12.45 % in the control plots and the micro-dose plots. Positive change in available P was significantly observed (P≤0.05) in soil between hill with 1.08% in the control plots and 15.97 % in the amended plots. Both grain yield and total dry matter showed similar trend in which decreased yield was obvious over the time. In 2008, an average grain yield of 732 kg. ha-1 and 989 kg. ha-1 was obtained respectively for the control plots and 6g per hill of NPK plots. Whereas in 2016, 146 kg. ha-1 and 218 kg. ha-1 were produced respectively for the control plots and the mineral fertilizer micro-dosing plots. These findings indicated that in the Sahel low-input based millet cropping systems, for the mineral fertilizer micro-dosing technology to be sustainable in the long term, the improvement and maintenance of soil fertility should be considered as the cornerstone.

Keywords

Fertilizer micro-dosing, sustainability, nutrient mining, long-term, Sahel.

Corresponding author

References

Adams, A.M., Gillespie, A.W., Kar, G., Koala, S., Ouattara, B., Kimaro, A.A., Bationo, A., Akponikpè, P.B.I., Schoenau, J.J. Peak, D., 2016. Long term effects of reduced fertilizer rates on millet yields and soil properties in the West-African Sahel. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 106(1): 17-29.

Akponikpè, P., 2008. Millet response to water and soil fertility management in the Sahelian Niger : Experiments and Modeling. PhD Thesis Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain. 200 p.

Akponikpè, P., Gérard, B., Bielders, C., 2014. Soil water crop modeling for decision support in millet- based systems in the Sahel : A Challenge, African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(7): 1700–1713.

Aune, J.B., Ousman, A., 2011. Effect of seed priming and microdosing of fertilizer on sorghum and pearl millet in Western Sudan. Experimental Agriculture  47(3): 419–430.

Bagayoko, M., Maman, N., Palé, S, Sirifi, S., Taonda, S.J.B., Traore, S., Mason, S.C., 2011. Microdose and N and P fertilizer application rates for pearl millet in West Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(5):1141–1150.

Bandoum, Y., 2005. Effets de la fertilisation par micro dose sur la productivité du mil, les bilans des nutriments et de l'eau du sol au Niger. Mémoire de fin d'étude de Maitrise en Sciences Agronomiques. Faculté d'Agronomie, Université Abdou Moumouni, Niger pp. 1-57.

Bationo, A., Mokwunye, A.U., 1991. Role of manures and crop residue in alleviating soilfertility constraints to crop production: With special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanianzones of West Africa. Fertilizer Research 29(1): 117–125.

Bationo, A., Lompo, F., Koala, S. 1998. Research on nutrient flows and balance in west Africa: State-of-the-Art. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 71(1-3): 19-35.

Bationo, A., Ntare, B., 2000. Rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on pearl millet, cowpea and groundnut yield and soil chemical properties in a sandy soil in the semi-arid tropics, West Africa. The Journal of Agricultural Science 134(3): 277-284.

Bationo, A., Buerkert, A., 2001. Soil organic carbon management for sustainable land use in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 61(1-2): 131-142.

Bationo, A., Mokwunye, U., Vlek, P. L., Koala, S., Shapiro, B. I. 2003. Soil fertility management for sustainable land use in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone. In: Soil fertility management in Africa: A regional perspective, Gichuru, M.P., Bationo, A., Bekunda, M.A., Goma, H.C., Mafongoya, P.L., Mugendi, D.N., Murwira, H.K., Nandwa, S.M., Nyathi, P., Swift, M.J., (Eds.). Academy Science Publishers (ASP); Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT); Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 253–292.

Bationo, A., Kihara, J., Ouattara, B., Vanlauwe B., 2005. Technologies for sustainable management of sandy Sahelian soils. In: Management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture. “A holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics” FAO, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Available at [access date: 08.02.2019]: http://www.fao.org/3/AG125E00.htm#Contents

Bationo, A., Kihara, J., Adesina, A., 2012. Beyond biophysical recommendations: towards a new paradigm. In: Improving soil fertility recommendations in Africa using the decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT). Kihara, J., Fatondji, D., Jones, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Tabo, R., Bationo, A. (Eds.). Springer Dordrecht pp. 169–184.

Bielders, C., 2015. Microdose fertilisation : A step on the ladder towards crop intensification in the Sahel ? Earth and Life Institute, 1–11.

Blessing, O.C., Ibrahim, A., Safo, E.Y., Yeboah, E., Robert, C., Logah, V., Monica, U.I., 2017. Fertilizer micro-dosing in West African low-input cereals cropping: Benefits, challenges and improvement strategies. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12(14): 1169–1176.

Buerkert, A., 1995.  Effects of Crops Residues, Phosphorus, and Spatial Soil Variability on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of PearI Millet (Pennisetum glaueum (L.) R. Br.) in Southwest Niger. PhD Thesis. Universität Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. 284p.

Buerkert, A., Hiernaux, P., 1998. Nutrients in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone: Losses, transfers and the role of external inputs. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 161(4): 365–383.

Camara, B., Camara, F., Berthe, A., Oswald, A., 2013: Micro-dosing of fertilizer: A technology for farmers’ needs and resources. International Journal of AgriScience 3(5): 387–399.

de Rouw, A., Rajot, J-L., 2004. Nutrient availability and pearl millet production in Sahelian farming systems based on manuring or fallowing. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104(2): 249-262.

Fatondji, D., Martius, C., Bielders, C., Vlek, P.L.G., Bationo, A., Gerard, B., 2006. Effect of planting technique and amendment type on pearl millet yield, nutrient uptake, and water use on degraded land in Niger. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 76(2-3): 203-217.

Gaston, S., Dahiratou, I.D., Moussa, B., Dougbedji, F., 2016. Contribution of previous legumes to soil fertility and millet yields in West African Sahel. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11(28): 2486–2498.

Hayashi, K., Abdoulaye, T., Gerard, B., Bationo, A., 2008. Evaluation of application timing in fertilizer micro-dosing technology on millet production in Niger, West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 80(3): 257-265.

Houba, V., van der Lee, J., Novozamsky, I., 1995. Soil analysis procedures; Other Procedures (Soil And Plant Analysis, Part 5B). Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 217p.

Housseini, M.L.R., 2013. Effet de la fertilisation par microdose sur la productivité de des teneurs  et les bilans partiels des nutriments. Memoire de fin d'études en vue de l'obtention du  diplome de Master 2 en Gestion de Fertilité des Sols. Universite Polytechnique de Bobo- Dioulasso pp. 1-64.

Ibrahim, A., Pasternak, D., Fatondji, D., 2015a. Impact of depth of placement of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing on growth , yield and partial nutrient balance in pearl millet cropping system in the Sahel. The Journal of Agricultural Science 153(8): 1412-1421.

Ibrahim, A., Clement, R., Fatondji, D., Opoku, A., 2015b. Hill placement of manure and fertilizer micro-dosing improves yield and water use efficiency in the Sahelian low input millet-based cropping system. Field Crops Research 180: 29–36.

Ibrahim, A., Abaidoo, R.C., Fatondji, D., Opoku, A., 2016. Fertilizer micro-dosing increases crop yield in the Sahelian low-input cropping system: A success with a shadow. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 62(3): 277-288.

ICRISAT, 2009. Fertilizer microdosing: boosting production in unproductive lands. documentation. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India. Available at [access date: 08.02.2019]: http://oar.icrisat.org/5666/1/Microdosing_Flyer_2009.pdf

Idrissa, A.M., 2010. La simulation des composantes du rendement du mil sous la fertilisation par micro dose en utilisant le modèle DSSAT. Mémoire de fin d’études En vue de l’obtention du diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Etat en Sciences Agronomiques. Université Ibn Khaldoun de Tiaret Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques et Veterinaires, Alger. 62p.

Manyame, C., 2006. On-farm yield and water use response of pearl millet to different management practices in Niger. PhD Thesis. Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University. 126p.

Michels, K., Bielders, C.L., 2006. Pearl millet growth on an erosion-affected soil in the Sahel. Experimental Agriculture 42(1): 1-17.

Mkhabelaa, M.S., Warman, P.R., 2005. The influence of municipal solid waste compost on yield, soil phosphorus availability and uptake by two vegetable crops grown in a Pugwash sandy loam soil in Nova Scotia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 106(1): 57- 67.

Sani, I.M.S, 2018. Soil nutrient dynamics under long term application of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing to pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] on a Sahelian sandy soil of Niger Republic. Master of Techonology Thesis. Federal University of Technology Minna (FUT Minna). Niger State, Nigeria. 129p.

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Suzuki, K., Mastunaga, R.., Hayashi, K.., Mastumoto, N., Tobita, S.., Bationo, A.., Okada, K., 2016. Long-term effects of fertilizer and organic matter application on millet in Niger. Agronomy Journal 108(2): 873-883.

Suzuki, K., Matsunaga, R., Hayashi, K., Matsumoto, N., Tobita, S., Bationo, A., Okada, K., 2017. Effects of long-term application of mineral and organic fertilizers on dynamics of nitrogen pools in the sandy soil of the Sahel region, Niger. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 242: 76–88.

Tabo, R., Bationo, A., Diallo, M.K., Hassane, O., Koala, S. 2005. Fertilizer micro-dosing for the prosperity of small-scale farmers in the Sahel: Final report - Fertilisation par micro-dose pour la prospérité du petit paysan au Sahel: Rapport Final. Niamey, Niger: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 28 p. Available at [access date: 08.02.2019]: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/17024  

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Abstract

In the Sahel, mineral fertilizer micro-dosing technique is known for its benefits to provide higher nutrient uptake and higher crop yields. A study was set up at ICRISAT research station at Sadoré in Niger, which aims at evaluating the sustainability of the technology in the long-term with emphasis on soil nutrients dynamics. The study has started since 2008 and was laid-out in a randomized complete block design that involved two pearl millet varieties, three planting densities, and four nutrients management options. For this study, a sub-set of the treatments from this long-term experiment was used. The nutrient management factor, which includes 4 levels was considered. The most important findings obtained indicated that the change in soil nutrient was markedly different on the planting hills and that from between hill. The change in soil pH-H2O values on the planting was -7.06 % for the control plots and -9.57 % for the plots applied with NPK. The total nitrogen content has dropped in the two different plots. The amplitude of drop has lowered with the application of NPK micro-dosing on the planting hills with respectively -5.11 % and -12.45 % in the control plots and the micro-dose plots. Positive change in available P was significantly observed (P≤0.05) in soil between hill with 1.08% in the control plots and 15.97 % in the amended plots. Both grain yield and total dry matter showed similar trend in which decreased yield was obvious over the time. In 2008, an average grain yield of 732 kg. ha-1 and 989 kg. ha-1 was obtained respectively for the control plots and 6g per hill of NPK plots. Whereas in 2016, 146 kg. ha-1 and 218 kg. ha-1 were produced respectively for the control plots and the mineral fertilizer micro-dosing plots. These findings indicated that in the Sahel low-input based millet cropping systems, for the mineral fertilizer micro-dosing technology to be sustainable in the long term, the improvement and maintenance of soil fertility should be considered as the cornerstone.

Keywords: Fertilizer micro-dosing, sustainability, nutrient mining, long-term, Sahel.

References

Adams, A.M., Gillespie, A.W., Kar, G., Koala, S., Ouattara, B., Kimaro, A.A., Bationo, A., Akponikpè, P.B.I., Schoenau, J.J. Peak, D., 2016. Long term effects of reduced fertilizer rates on millet yields and soil properties in the West-African Sahel. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 106(1): 17-29.

Akponikpè, P., 2008. Millet response to water and soil fertility management in the Sahelian Niger : Experiments and Modeling. PhD Thesis Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain. 200 p.

Akponikpè, P., Gérard, B., Bielders, C., 2014. Soil water crop modeling for decision support in millet- based systems in the Sahel : A Challenge, African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(7): 1700–1713.

Aune, J.B., Ousman, A., 2011. Effect of seed priming and microdosing of fertilizer on sorghum and pearl millet in Western Sudan. Experimental Agriculture  47(3): 419–430.

Bagayoko, M., Maman, N., Palé, S, Sirifi, S., Taonda, S.J.B., Traore, S., Mason, S.C., 2011. Microdose and N and P fertilizer application rates for pearl millet in West Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(5):1141–1150.

Bandoum, Y., 2005. Effets de la fertilisation par micro dose sur la productivité du mil, les bilans des nutriments et de l'eau du sol au Niger. Mémoire de fin d'étude de Maitrise en Sciences Agronomiques. Faculté d'Agronomie, Université Abdou Moumouni, Niger pp. 1-57.

Bationo, A., Mokwunye, A.U., 1991. Role of manures and crop residue in alleviating soilfertility constraints to crop production: With special reference to the Sahelian and Sudanianzones of West Africa. Fertilizer Research 29(1): 117–125.

Bationo, A., Lompo, F., Koala, S. 1998. Research on nutrient flows and balance in west Africa: State-of-the-Art. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 71(1-3): 19-35.

Bationo, A., Ntare, B., 2000. Rotation and nitrogen fertilizer effects on pearl millet, cowpea and groundnut yield and soil chemical properties in a sandy soil in the semi-arid tropics, West Africa. The Journal of Agricultural Science 134(3): 277-284.

Bationo, A., Buerkert, A., 2001. Soil organic carbon management for sustainable land use in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 61(1-2): 131-142.

Bationo, A., Mokwunye, U., Vlek, P. L., Koala, S., Shapiro, B. I. 2003. Soil fertility management for sustainable land use in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone. In: Soil fertility management in Africa: A regional perspective, Gichuru, M.P., Bationo, A., Bekunda, M.A., Goma, H.C., Mafongoya, P.L., Mugendi, D.N., Murwira, H.K., Nandwa, S.M., Nyathi, P., Swift, M.J., (Eds.). Academy Science Publishers (ASP); Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT); Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF), Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 253–292.

Bationo, A., Kihara, J., Ouattara, B., Vanlauwe B., 2005. Technologies for sustainable management of sandy Sahelian soils. In: Management of tropical sandy soils for sustainable agriculture. “A holistic approach for sustainable development of problem soils in the tropics” FAO, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Available at [access date: 08.02.2019]: http://www.fao.org/3/AG125E00.htm#Contents

Bationo, A., Kihara, J., Adesina, A., 2012. Beyond biophysical recommendations: towards a new paradigm. In: Improving soil fertility recommendations in Africa using the decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT). Kihara, J., Fatondji, D., Jones, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Tabo, R., Bationo, A. (Eds.). Springer Dordrecht pp. 169–184.

Bielders, C., 2015. Microdose fertilisation : A step on the ladder towards crop intensification in the Sahel ? Earth and Life Institute, 1–11.

Blessing, O.C., Ibrahim, A., Safo, E.Y., Yeboah, E., Robert, C., Logah, V., Monica, U.I., 2017. Fertilizer micro-dosing in West African low-input cereals cropping: Benefits, challenges and improvement strategies. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12(14): 1169–1176.

Buerkert, A., 1995.  Effects of Crops Residues, Phosphorus, and Spatial Soil Variability on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of PearI Millet (Pennisetum glaueum (L.) R. Br.) in Southwest Niger. PhD Thesis. Universität Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. 284p.

Buerkert, A., Hiernaux, P., 1998. Nutrients in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone: Losses, transfers and the role of external inputs. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 161(4): 365–383.

Camara, B., Camara, F., Berthe, A., Oswald, A., 2013: Micro-dosing of fertilizer: A technology for farmers’ needs and resources. International Journal of AgriScience 3(5): 387–399.

de Rouw, A., Rajot, J-L., 2004. Nutrient availability and pearl millet production in Sahelian farming systems based on manuring or fallowing. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104(2): 249-262.

Fatondji, D., Martius, C., Bielders, C., Vlek, P.L.G., Bationo, A., Gerard, B., 2006. Effect of planting technique and amendment type on pearl millet yield, nutrient uptake, and water use on degraded land in Niger. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 76(2-3): 203-217.

Gaston, S., Dahiratou, I.D., Moussa, B., Dougbedji, F., 2016. Contribution of previous legumes to soil fertility and millet yields in West African Sahel. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11(28): 2486–2498.

Hayashi, K., Abdoulaye, T., Gerard, B., Bationo, A., 2008. Evaluation of application timing in fertilizer micro-dosing technology on millet production in Niger, West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 80(3): 257-265.

Houba, V., van der Lee, J., Novozamsky, I., 1995. Soil analysis procedures; Other Procedures (Soil And Plant Analysis, Part 5B). Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 217p.

Housseini, M.L.R., 2013. Effet de la fertilisation par microdose sur la productivité de des teneurs  et les bilans partiels des nutriments. Memoire de fin d'études en vue de l'obtention du  diplome de Master 2 en Gestion de Fertilité des Sols. Universite Polytechnique de Bobo- Dioulasso pp. 1-64.

Ibrahim, A., Pasternak, D., Fatondji, D., 2015a. Impact of depth of placement of mineral fertilizer micro-dosing on growth , yield and partial nutrient balance in pearl millet cropping system in the Sahel. The Journal of Agricultural Science 153(8): 1412-1421.

Ibrahim, A., Clement, R., Fatondji, D., Opoku, A., 2015b. Hill placement of manure and fertilizer micro-dosing improves yield and water use efficiency in the Sahelian low input millet-based cropping system. Field Crops Research 180: 29–36.

Ibrahim, A., Abaidoo, R.C., Fatondji, D., Opoku, A., 2016. Fertilizer micro-dosing increases crop yield in the Sahelian low-input cropping system: A success with a shadow. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 62(3): 277-288.

ICRISAT, 2009. Fertilizer microdosing: boosting production in unproductive lands. documentation. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh India. Available at [access date: 08.02.2019]: http://oar.icrisat.org/5666/1/Microdosing_Flyer_2009.pdf

Idrissa, A.M., 2010. La simulation des composantes du rendement du mil sous la fertilisation par micro dose en utilisant le modèle DSSAT. Mémoire de fin d’études En vue de l’obtention du diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Etat en Sciences Agronomiques. Université Ibn Khaldoun de Tiaret Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques et Veterinaires, Alger. 62p.

Manyame, C., 2006. On-farm yield and water use response of pearl millet to different management practices in Niger. PhD Thesis. Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University. 126p.

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