Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 4, Sep 2019, Pages 329 - 339
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.599760
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.599760
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis

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Günal,H., Bayram,Ö., Günal,E., Erdem,H., 2019. Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(4):329 - 339. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760
Günal,H.,Bayram,Ö.Günal,E.,& Erdem,H. Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(4):329 - 339. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760
Günal,H.,Bayram,Ö.Günal,E., and ,Erdem,H."Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.4 (2019):329 - 339. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760
Günal,H.,Bayram,Ö.Günal,E., and ,Erdem,H. "Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Sep 2019):329 - 339 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760
H,Günal.Ö,Bayram.E,Günal.H,Erdem "Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.4, pp.329 - 339 (Sep 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760
Günal,Hikmet ;Bayram,Ömer ;Günal,Elif ;Erdem,Halil Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.4:329 - 339. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760

How to cite

Günal, H., Bayram, Ö., Günal, E., Erdem, H., 2019. Characterization of soil amendment potential of 18 different biochar types produced by slow pyrolysis. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(4): 329 - 339. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.599760

Author information

Hikmet Günal , Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Tokat, Turkey Tokat, Turkey
Ömer Bayram , Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Tokat, Turkey
Elif Günal , Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Tokat, Turkey
Halil Erdem , Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Tokat, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 01 Aug 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 23 Jul 2019
Manuscript Received: 11 Jan 2019
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.599760
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.599760

Abstract

Feedstock type is the most dominant factor influencing the physical characteristics and chemical composition of biochar. The main purpose of this study was to characterize and compare some of the physical and chemical properties of biochars produced by slow pyrolysis of 18 feedstocks, which are locally available agricultural residues. Moreover, elucidating the potential agronomic benefits of these biochars was the other objective of the study. Biochars were produced at 500 oC in an ingeniously developed reactor. The biochars were characterized for specific surface area (SSA), field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP), plant available water content (AW), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations. Considerable variation of characteristics among biochars indicates the dominant impact of feedstock type on physical properties and chemical composition of biochars. Total C contents were highly variable with values up to 91.9% for pine sawdust. Phosphorus and K in feedstocks were concentrated in the biochars and were two to four times higher in the biochars. The CEC of biochars varied from 79.5 cmol kg-1 (pepper residues) to 5.77 cmol kg-1 (poplar sawdust). The CEC and SSA had a significant negative correlation (P

Keywords

Agricultural residues, feedstock type, biochar, physical and chemical properties, soil quality

Corresponding author

References

Al‐Wabel, M.I., Hussain, Q., Usman, A.R., Ahmad, M., Abduljabbar, A., Sallam, A.S. Ok, Y.S., 2018. Impact of biochar properties on soil conditions and agricultural sustainability: A review. Land Degradation & Development 29(7), 2124-2161.

Barton, C.F., 1948. Photometric analysis of phosphate rock. Analytical Chemistry 20(11): 1068-1073.

Brewer, C.E., Schmidt‐Rohr, K., Satrio, J.A., Brown, R.C. 2009. Characterization of biochar from fast pyrolysis and gasification systems. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 28(3): 386-396.

Brewer, C.E. Unger, R., Rohr, K.S., Brown, R.C., 2011. Criteria to select biochars for field studies based on biochar chemical properties. Bioenergy Research 4(4): 312-323.

Brewer, C.E.  (2012). Biochar characterization and engineering. PhD. Dissertation, University of Iowa. USA.

Cantrell, K.B., Hunt, P.G., Uchimiya, M., Novak, J.M., Ro, K.S., 2012. Impact of pyrolysis temperature and manure source on physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Bioresource Technology 107: 419-428.

Chan, K.Y., Xu, Z., 2009. Biochar: Nutrient properties and their enhancement. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., (Eds).  Earthscan, London, UK. pp.67-84.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of soil analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Black, C.A. (Ed.).  Agronomy No. 9. ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 891–901.

Cheng, C., Lehmann, J., 2009. Ageing of black carbon along a temperature gradient, Chemosphere 75(8): 1021–1027.

Chu, G., Zhao, J., Huang, Y., Zhou, D., Liu, Y., Wu, M., Peng, H., Zhao, Q., Pan, B., Steinberg, C.E., 2018. Phosphoric acid pretreatment enhances the specific surface areas of biochars by generation of micropores. Environmental Pollution 240: 1-9.

Citak, S., Sonmez, S., Okturen, F., 2006. The possibility of using plant originated residues in agriculture. Derim 23(1): 40-53. [in Turkish]

Cerato, A.B., Lutenegger, A.J., 2002. Determination of surface area of fine-grained soils by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method. Geotechnical Testing Journal 25(3): 315-321.

Cui, X., Hao, H., Zhang, C., He, Z., Yang, X., 2016. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars. Science of the Total Environment 539: 566-575.

Di Blasi, C., Tanzı, V., Lanzetta, M., 1997. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy. Biomass and Bioenergy 12(5): 321–331.

Di Donato, P., Fiorentino, G., Anzelmo, G., Tommonaro, G., Nicolaus, B., Poli, A., 2011. Re-use of vegetable wastes as cheap substrates for extremophile biomass production. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2(2): 103-111.

Downie, A., Crosky, A., Munroe, P., 2009. Physical properties of biochar. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., (Eds).  Earthscan, London, UK. pp.13-32.

Fidel, R.B., 2012. Evaluation and ımplementation of methods for quantifying organic and ınorganic components of biochar alkalinity. MSc Thesis, Paper 12752, Iowa State University. USA.

Gaskin, J.W., Steiner, C., Harris, K., Das, K.C., Bibens, B. 2008. Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Transactions of the ASABE 51(6): 2061-2069.

Gaskin, J.W., Speir, R.A., Harris, K., Das, K.C., Lee, R.D., Morris, L.A., Fisher, D.S., 2010. Effect of peanut hull and pine chip biochar on soil nutrients, corn nutrient status, and yield. Agronomy Journal 102(2): 623–633.

Ghezzehei, T.A., Sarkhot, D.V., Berhe, A.A., 2014. Biochar can be used to capture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil physico-chemical properties. Solid Earth 5(2): 953-962.

Gray, M., Johnson, M.G., Dragila, M.I., Kleber, M. 2014. Water uptake in biochars: The roles of porosity and hydrophobicity. Biomass and Bioenergy 61: 196-205.

Guerro, M., Ruzi, M.P., Alzuet, M.U., Bilbao, R., Miller, A., 2005. Pyrolysis of eucalyptus at different heating rates: studies of char characterization and oxidative reactivity. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 74(1-2): 307-314.

Günal, H., Korucu, T., Birkas, M., Özgöz, E. Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, R. 2015. Threats to sustainability of soil functions in Central and Southeast Europe. Sustainability 7(2): 2161-2188.

Günal, E., Erdem, H. Çelik, İ., 2018. Effects of three different biochars amendment on water retention of silty loam and loamy soils. Agricultural Water Management 208: 232-244.

Herbert, L., Hosek, I., Kripalani, R., 2012. The characterization and comparison of biochar produced from a decentralized reactor using forced air and natural draft pyrolysis. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Materials Engineering Department.

Hossain, M.K., Strezov, V., Chan, K.Y., Ziolkowski, A., Nelson, P.F., 2011. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal of Environmental Management 92(1): 223-228.

Jeffery, S., Meinders, M.B., Stoof, C.R., Bezemer, T.M., van de Voorde, T.F., Mommer, L., van Groenigen, J.W., 2015. Biochar application does not improve the soil hydrological function of a sandy soil. Geoderma 251-252: 47-54.

Kanthle, A.K., Lenka, N.K., Tedia, K., 2018. Land use and biochar effect on nitrate leaching in a Typic Haplustert of central India. Catena 167: 422-428.

Laird, D.A., Fleming, P., Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Wang, B., Karlen, D.L., 2010. Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158(3-4): 443-449.

Lee, Y., Park, J., Ryu, C., Gang, K.S., Yang, W., Park, Y.K., Jung, J., Hyun, S., 2013. Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500 °C. Bioresource Technology 148: 196-201.

Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M., 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11(2): 403–427.

Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., 2009. Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, UK.

Lim, T.J., Spokas, K.A., Feyereisen, G., Novak, J.M., 2016. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties. Chemosphere 142: 136-144.

Liu, X.H., Han, F.P., Zhang, X.C., 2012. Effect of biochar on soil aggregates in the Loess Plateau: Results from incubation experiments. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 14(6): 975-979.

Mukome, F.N.D., Zhang, X., Silva, L.C.R., Six, J., Parikh, S.J., 2013. Use of chemical and physical characteristics to investigate trends in biochar feedstocks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61(9): 2196-2204.

Rajkovich, S., Enders, A., Hanley, K., Hyland, C., Zimmerman, A.R., Lehmann, J., 2012. Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48(3): 271-284.

Oldfield, T.L., Sikirica, N., Mondini, C., López, G., Kuikman, P.J., Holden, N.M., 2018. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend as options to recover nutrients and sequester carbon. Journal of Environmental Management 218: 465-476.

Schellekens, J., Silva, C.A., Buurman, P., Rittl, T.F., Domingues, R.R., Justi, M., Vidal-Torrado, P., Trugilho, P.F., 2018. Molecular characterization of biochar from five Brazilian agricultural residues obtained at different charring temperatures. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 130: 106-117.

Silber, A., Levkovitch, I., Graber, E.R., 2010. pH-dependent mineral release and surface properties of corn straw biochar: agronomic implications. Environmental Science & Technology 44(24): 9318-9323.

Smith, P., 2016. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies. Global Change Biology 22(3): 1315-1324.

Sposito, G. 1989. The chemistry of soils. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, USA.

Vaccari, F.P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F., Miglietta, F., 2011. Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 34(4): 231-238.

Wang, B., Lehmann, J., Hanley, K., Hestrin, R., Enders, A. 2015. Adsorption and desorption of ammonium by maple wood biochar as a function of oxidation and pH. Chemosphere 138: 120-126.

Weber, K. Quicker, P., 2018. Properties of biochar. Fuel 217: 240-261.

Yuan, J.H., Xu, R.K., Zhang, H., 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresources Technology 102(3): 3488-3497.

Abstract

Feedstock type is the most dominant factor influencing the physical characteristics and chemical composition of biochar. The main purpose of this study was to characterize and compare some of the physical and chemical properties of biochars produced by slow pyrolysis of 18 feedstocks, which are locally available agricultural residues. Moreover, elucidating the potential agronomic benefits of these biochars was the other objective of the study. Biochars were produced at 500 oC in an ingeniously developed reactor. The biochars were characterized for specific surface area (SSA), field capacity (FC), wilting point (WP), plant available water content (AW), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations. Considerable variation of characteristics among biochars indicates the dominant impact of feedstock type on physical properties and chemical composition of biochars. Total C contents were highly variable with values up to 91.9% for pine sawdust. Phosphorus and K in feedstocks were concentrated in the biochars and were two to four times higher in the biochars. The CEC of biochars varied from 79.5 cmol kg-1 (pepper residues) to 5.77 cmol kg-1 (poplar sawdust). The CEC and SSA had a significant negative correlation (P<0.01, r= -0.70) that probably be attributed to the loss of functional groups during pyrolysis. The results revealed that depending on the feedstock, some biochars have potential to serve as nutrient sources as well as an additive to improve soil quality.

Keywords: Agricultural residues, feedstock type, biochar, physical and chemical properties, soil quality. 

References

Al‐Wabel, M.I., Hussain, Q., Usman, A.R., Ahmad, M., Abduljabbar, A., Sallam, A.S. Ok, Y.S., 2018. Impact of biochar properties on soil conditions and agricultural sustainability: A review. Land Degradation & Development 29(7), 2124-2161.

Barton, C.F., 1948. Photometric analysis of phosphate rock. Analytical Chemistry 20(11): 1068-1073.

Brewer, C.E., Schmidt‐Rohr, K., Satrio, J.A., Brown, R.C. 2009. Characterization of biochar from fast pyrolysis and gasification systems. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 28(3): 386-396.

Brewer, C.E. Unger, R., Rohr, K.S., Brown, R.C., 2011. Criteria to select biochars for field studies based on biochar chemical properties. Bioenergy Research 4(4): 312-323.

Brewer, C.E.  (2012). Biochar characterization and engineering. PhD. Dissertation, University of Iowa. USA.

Cantrell, K.B., Hunt, P.G., Uchimiya, M., Novak, J.M., Ro, K.S., 2012. Impact of pyrolysis temperature and manure source on physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Bioresource Technology 107: 419-428.

Chan, K.Y., Xu, Z., 2009. Biochar: Nutrient properties and their enhancement. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., (Eds).  Earthscan, London, UK. pp.67-84.

Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of soil analysis Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Black, C.A. (Ed.).  Agronomy No. 9. ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 891–901.

Cheng, C., Lehmann, J., 2009. Ageing of black carbon along a temperature gradient, Chemosphere 75(8): 1021–1027.

Chu, G., Zhao, J., Huang, Y., Zhou, D., Liu, Y., Wu, M., Peng, H., Zhao, Q., Pan, B., Steinberg, C.E., 2018. Phosphoric acid pretreatment enhances the specific surface areas of biochars by generation of micropores. Environmental Pollution 240: 1-9.

Citak, S., Sonmez, S., Okturen, F., 2006. The possibility of using plant originated residues in agriculture. Derim 23(1): 40-53. [in Turkish]

Cerato, A.B., Lutenegger, A.J., 2002. Determination of surface area of fine-grained soils by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) method. Geotechnical Testing Journal 25(3): 315-321.

Cui, X., Hao, H., Zhang, C., He, Z., Yang, X., 2016. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars. Science of the Total Environment 539: 566-575.

Di Blasi, C., Tanzı, V., Lanzetta, M., 1997. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy. Biomass and Bioenergy 12(5): 321–331.

Di Donato, P., Fiorentino, G., Anzelmo, G., Tommonaro, G., Nicolaus, B., Poli, A., 2011. Re-use of vegetable wastes as cheap substrates for extremophile biomass production. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2(2): 103-111.

Downie, A., Crosky, A., Munroe, P., 2009. Physical properties of biochar. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., (Eds).  Earthscan, London, UK. pp.13-32.

Fidel, R.B., 2012. Evaluation and ımplementation of methods for quantifying organic and ınorganic components of biochar alkalinity. MSc Thesis, Paper 12752, Iowa State University. USA.

Gaskin, J.W., Steiner, C., Harris, K., Das, K.C., Bibens, B. 2008. Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Transactions of the ASABE 51(6): 2061-2069.

Gaskin, J.W., Speir, R.A., Harris, K., Das, K.C., Lee, R.D., Morris, L.A., Fisher, D.S., 2010. Effect of peanut hull and pine chip biochar on soil nutrients, corn nutrient status, and yield. Agronomy Journal 102(2): 623–633.

Ghezzehei, T.A., Sarkhot, D.V., Berhe, A.A., 2014. Biochar can be used to capture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil physico-chemical properties. Solid Earth 5(2): 953-962.

Gray, M., Johnson, M.G., Dragila, M.I., Kleber, M. 2014. Water uptake in biochars: The roles of porosity and hydrophobicity. Biomass and Bioenergy 61: 196-205.

Guerro, M., Ruzi, M.P., Alzuet, M.U., Bilbao, R., Miller, A., 2005. Pyrolysis of eucalyptus at different heating rates: studies of char characterization and oxidative reactivity. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 74(1-2): 307-314.

Günal, H., Korucu, T., Birkas, M., Özgöz, E. Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir, R. 2015. Threats to sustainability of soil functions in Central and Southeast Europe. Sustainability 7(2): 2161-2188.

Günal, E., Erdem, H. Çelik, İ., 2018. Effects of three different biochars amendment on water retention of silty loam and loamy soils. Agricultural Water Management 208: 232-244.

Herbert, L., Hosek, I., Kripalani, R., 2012. The characterization and comparison of biochar produced from a decentralized reactor using forced air and natural draft pyrolysis. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Materials Engineering Department.

Hossain, M.K., Strezov, V., Chan, K.Y., Ziolkowski, A., Nelson, P.F., 2011. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal of Environmental Management 92(1): 223-228.

Jeffery, S., Meinders, M.B., Stoof, C.R., Bezemer, T.M., van de Voorde, T.F., Mommer, L., van Groenigen, J.W., 2015. Biochar application does not improve the soil hydrological function of a sandy soil. Geoderma 251-252: 47-54.

Kanthle, A.K., Lenka, N.K., Tedia, K., 2018. Land use and biochar effect on nitrate leaching in a Typic Haplustert of central India. Catena 167: 422-428.

Laird, D.A., Fleming, P., Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Wang, B., Karlen, D.L., 2010. Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158(3-4): 443-449.

Lee, Y., Park, J., Ryu, C., Gang, K.S., Yang, W., Park, Y.K., Jung, J., Hyun, S., 2013. Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500 °C. Bioresource Technology 148: 196-201.

Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M., 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11(2): 403–427.

Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., 2009. Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, UK.

Lim, T.J., Spokas, K.A., Feyereisen, G., Novak, J.M., 2016. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties. Chemosphere 142: 136-144.

Liu, X.H., Han, F.P., Zhang, X.C., 2012. Effect of biochar on soil aggregates in the Loess Plateau: Results from incubation experiments. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 14(6): 975-979.

Mukome, F.N.D., Zhang, X., Silva, L.C.R., Six, J., Parikh, S.J., 2013. Use of chemical and physical characteristics to investigate trends in biochar feedstocks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61(9): 2196-2204.

Rajkovich, S., Enders, A., Hanley, K., Hyland, C., Zimmerman, A.R., Lehmann, J., 2012. Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48(3): 271-284.

Oldfield, T.L., Sikirica, N., Mondini, C., López, G., Kuikman, P.J., Holden, N.M., 2018. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend as options to recover nutrients and sequester carbon. Journal of Environmental Management 218: 465-476.

Schellekens, J., Silva, C.A., Buurman, P., Rittl, T.F., Domingues, R.R., Justi, M., Vidal-Torrado, P., Trugilho, P.F., 2018. Molecular characterization of biochar from five Brazilian agricultural residues obtained at different charring temperatures. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 130: 106-117.

Silber, A., Levkovitch, I., Graber, E.R., 2010. pH-dependent mineral release and surface properties of corn straw biochar: agronomic implications. Environmental Science & Technology 44(24): 9318-9323.

Smith, P., 2016. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies. Global Change Biology 22(3): 1315-1324.

Sposito, G. 1989. The chemistry of soils. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, USA.

Vaccari, F.P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F., Miglietta, F., 2011. Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 34(4): 231-238.

Wang, B., Lehmann, J., Hanley, K., Hestrin, R., Enders, A. 2015. Adsorption and desorption of ammonium by maple wood biochar as a function of oxidation and pH. Chemosphere 138: 120-126.

Weber, K. Quicker, P., 2018. Properties of biochar. Fuel 217: 240-261.

Yuan, J.H., Xu, R.K., Zhang, H., 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresources Technology 102(3): 3488-3497.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science