Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 3, Jun 2019, Pages 249-256
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.567357
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.567357
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province

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Bayraklı,B., Dengiz,O., 2019. Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(3):249-256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357
Bayraklı,B.,,& Dengiz,O. Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(3):249-256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357
Bayraklı,B.,, and ,Dengiz,O."Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.3 (2019):249-256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357
Bayraklı,B.,, and ,Dengiz,O. "Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Jun 2019):249-256 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357
B,Bayraklı.O,Dengiz "Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.3, pp.249-256 (Jun 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357
Bayraklı,Betül ;Dengiz,Orhan Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.3:249-256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357

How to cite

Bayraklı, B., Dengiz, O., 2019. Determination of heavy metal risk and their enrichment factor in intensive cultivated soils of Tokat Province. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(3): 249-256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.567357

Author information

Betül Bayraklı , Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute, Samsun, Turkey Samsun, Turkey
Orhan Dengiz , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 May 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 15 May 2019
Manuscript Received: 09 Dec 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.567357
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.567357

Abstract

Heavy metal contamination has caused serious environmental and health-related problems around the world. This research was conducted in arable lands of some basins located on Tokat province. The aim of this present study was to determine I-) some physico-chemical properties of soils, ii-) to find heavy metal (HM) content and their enrichment factor (EF) and iii-) to detect relationship between some physico-chemical properties and HM concentration. To identify the concentrations and sources of heavy metals, 280 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from the study area. Subsequently, in order to evaluate natural or anthropogenic sources of heavy metal content and their EF in agricultural fields, the concentrations of some HMs (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) and some physico-chemical properties of soil samples were analyzed. The results showed that mostly the concentration of Ni followed by Cr exceeded their threshold levels. The local pollutions from Ni and Cr were attributed to the natural influences (particularly due to parent material). The concentrations of the other HMs are relatively lower than the critical values. The mean values of the HMs contents arranged in the following decreasing order: Ni>Cr>Cu>Zn>Co>Pb>Cd in the studied soil sample. In addition, it was found significantly positive relation between Pb and OM while the same relation was also found clay content and Cd and Pb. On the other hand, according to EF of HMs in total soil samples, Cd, Ni and Cr have found 16%, 10% and 6% soil samples as moderate enrichment class, whereas 55% and 1% of the total soil samples were determined significant enrichment class in terms of Cd and Ni elements. Besides, all other HM elements did not exceed minimal enrichment level. However, in some regions of the study area, the Cu, Cd and Pb contents were also slightly raised, this case possibly stems from anthropogenic effects such as excessive P fertilization, field traffic and pesticide using.

Keywords

Heavy metal risk, enrichment factor, micro basin, Tokat.

Corresponding author

References

Agbenin, J.O., 2002. Lead in a Nigerian Savanna soil under long term cultivation. Science of the Total Environment 286(1-3): 1–14.

Akyıldız, M., Karataş, B., 2018.  Investigation of heavy metal pollution in the soil at Adana City Center. Çukurova University Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture 33(2): 199-214 [in Turkish].

Arda, H., Helvacıoğlu, İ. A., Meriç, Ç., Tokatlı, C., 2015. İpsala ilçesi (Edirne) toprak ve pirinç kalitesinin bazı esansiyel ve toksik element birikimleri açısından değerlendirilmesi. Tarım Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi 8 (1): 7-13 [in Turkish].

Bakış, R., Bilgin, M., 1998. Çöp sızıntı sularından dolayı topraklarda meydana gelen ağır metal kirliliğinin araştırılması, Kayseri I. Atıksu Sempozyumu, 22-24 Haziran 1998, Kayseri, Bildiri Kitabı s.167-170 [in Turkish].

Bilge, U., Çimrin, K.M., 2013. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils Adjacent to the Kızıltepe – Viranşehir Road. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 19: 323-329 [in Turkish].

Borůvka, L.,  Vacek, O., Jehlička, J., 2005. Principal component analysis as a tool to indicate the origin of potentially toxic elements in soils. Geoderma 128(3-4): 289–300.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Chen, T.B., Zheng, Y.M., Lei, M., Huang, Z.C., Wu, H.T., Chen, H., Fan, K.K., Yu, K., Wu, X., Tian, Q.Z., 2005. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 60(4): 542–551.

D’Ascoli, R., Rao, M.A., Adamo, P., Renella, G., Landi, L., Rutigliano, F.A., Terribile, F., Gianfreda, L., 2006. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: Part II. Soil biological and biochemical properties in relation to trace element speciation. Environmental Pollution 144(1):317-326.

Dengiz, O., M.A. Özyazıcı., Sağlam, M., 2015. Multi-Criteria assessment and geostatistical approach for determination of rice growing suitability sites in gokirmak catchment. Paddy and Water Environment 13(1): 1–10.

Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B.B., Beeregowda, K.N., 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 7(2): 60–72.

Kaplan, O., Yildirim, N.C., Yildirim, N.,  Cimen, M., 2011. Toxic elements in animal products and environmental health. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6 (3): 228-232.

Karaca, A., 2001. Afşin-Elbistan termik santralı emisyonlarının çevre topraklarının fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkileri. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Bilimleri Dergisi 7(1): 95-102.

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O. Özyazıcı, M. A. Aşkın, T Mikayiloy, F., Shein, E.V., 2011. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Bafra plain in Turkey. Eurasian Soil Science 44(12): 1343-1351. 

Kloke, A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten fur tolerierbare gesa mtgehalte einiger elemente in kulturboden. Mitt.VDLUFA 1-3: 9–11.

Liu, Y., Xiao, T., Perkins, R.B., Zhu, J., Zhu ,Z., Xiong, Y., Ning Z., 2017. Geogenic cadmium pollution and potential health risks, with emphasis on black shale. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 176: 42-49.

Mallants, D., Mohanty B.P., Jacques D., Feyen J., 1996. Spatial variability of hydraulic properties in a multi-layered soil profile. Soil Science 161(3): 167-181.

Manta, D.S., Angelone, M., Bellanca, A., Neri, R., Sprovieri, M., 2002. Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy. The Science of the Total Environment 300(1-3): 229–243.

Meena, N.K., Maiti, S., Shrivastava, A., 2011. Discrimination between anthropogenic (pollution) and lithogenic magnetic fraction in urban soils (Delhi, India) using environmental magnetism. Journal of Applied Geophysics 73(2):121–129.

Metin, S.Ü., 2010. The determination of heavy metal pollution in the agricultural soils of alluvial, colluvial and vertisol in the Bursa Plain. Msc thesis. Uludağ University, Department of Soil Science, Bursa, Turkey. 62p.  [in Turkish].

Mudgal, V., Madaan, N., Mudgal, A., Singh, R.B.S., Mishra, S., 2010.  Effect of Toxic Metals on Human Health. The Open Nutraceuticals Journal 3: 94-99.

Oliveira, A., Pampulha, M.E., 2006. Effects of long-term heavy metal contamination on soil microbial characteristics. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 102(3): 157–161.

Peralta-Videa, J.R., Lopez, M.L., Narayan, M., Saupe, G., Gardea-Torresdey, J., 2009. The biochemistry of environmental heavy metal uptake by plants: Implications for the food chain. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 41(8-9):1665–1677.

Puschenreiter, M., Horak, O., 2000. Influence of different soil parameters on the transfer factor soil to plant of Cd, Cu and Zn for wheat and rye. Die Bodenkultur 51(1): 3–10.

Salati, S., Moore, F., 2010. Assessment of heavy metal concentration in the Khoshk River water and sediment, Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 164(1-4): 677–689.

Sivry, Y., Riotte, J., Sonke, J.E., Audry, S., Schäfer, J., Viers, J., Blanc, G., Freydier, R.,  Dupré,  B., 2008. Zn isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic pollution from Zn-ore smelters The Riou Mort–Lot River system. Chemical Geology 255(3-4): 295-304.

Soil Survey Laboratory, 1992. Procedures for collecting soil samples and methods of analysis for soil survey. Soil Survey Investigations Reports U.S. Govermentan Print Office, Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Staff, 1993. Soil Survey Manuel. USDA Handbook. No: 18, Washington D.C. USA.

Sposito, G., 1989. The Chemistry of Soils. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 272p.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611–627.

Temmerman, L., Vanongeval, L., Boon, W., Hoenig, M., Geypens, M., 2003. Heavy metal content of arable soils in Northern Belgium. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 148(1-4): 61–76.

Yadav, S.K., 2010. Heavy metals toxicity in plants: An overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. South African Journal of Botany 76(2): 167–179.

Yang, Q.W., Lan, C.Y., Wang, H.B., Zhuang, P., Shu, W.S., 2006. Cadmium in soil–rice system and health risk associated with the use of untreated mining wastewater for irrigation in Lechang, China. Agricultural Water Management 8(1-2): 147–152.

Zhang, X.Y., Lin, F.F., Wong, M.T.F., Feng, X.L.. Wan, K., 2009. Identification of soil heavy metal sources from anthropogenic activities and pollution assessment of Fuyang County, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 154: 439–449.

Abstract

Heavy metal contamination has caused serious environmental and health-related problems around the world. This research was conducted in arable lands of some basins located on Tokat province. The aim of this present study was to determine I-) some physico-chemical properties of soils, ii-) to find heavy metal (HM) content and their enrichment factor (EF) and iii-) to detect relationship between some physico-chemical properties and HM concentration. To identify the concentrations and sources of heavy metals, 280 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from the study area. Subsequently, in order to evaluate natural or anthropogenic sources of heavy metal content and their EF in agricultural fields, the concentrations of some HMs (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) and some physico-chemical properties of soil samples were analyzed. The results showed that mostly the concentration of Ni followed by Cr exceeded their threshold levels. The local pollutions from Ni and Cr were attributed to the natural influences (particularly due to parent material). The concentrations of the other HMs are relatively lower than the critical values. The mean values of the HMs contents arranged in the following decreasing order: Ni>Cr>Cu>Zn>Co>Pb>Cd in the studied soil sample. In addition, it was found significantly positive relation between Pb and OM while the same relation was also found clay content and Cd and Pb. On the other hand, according to EF of HMs in total soil samples, Cd, Ni and Cr have found 16%, 10% and 6% soil samples as moderate enrichment class, whereas 55% and 1% of the total soil samples were determined significant  enrichment class in terms of Cd and Ni elements. Besides, all other HM elements did not exceed minimal enrichment level. However, in some regions of the study area, the Cu, Cd and Pb contents were also slightly raised, this case possibly stems from anthropogenic effects such as excessive P fertilization, field traffic and pesticide using.

Keywords: Heavy metal risk, enrichment factor, micro basin, Tokat.

References

Agbenin, J.O., 2002. Lead in a Nigerian Savanna soil under long term cultivation. Science of the Total Environment 286(1-3): 1–14.

Akyıldız, M., Karataş, B., 2018.  Investigation of heavy metal pollution in the soil at Adana City Center. Çukurova University Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture 33(2): 199-214 [in Turkish].

Arda, H., Helvacıoğlu, İ. A., Meriç, Ç., Tokatlı, C., 2015. İpsala ilçesi (Edirne) toprak ve pirinç kalitesinin bazı esansiyel ve toksik element birikimleri açısından değerlendirilmesi. Tarım Bilimleri Araştırma Dergisi 8 (1): 7-13 [in Turkish].

Bakış, R., Bilgin, M., 1998. Çöp sızıntı sularından dolayı topraklarda meydana gelen ağır metal kirliliğinin araştırılması, Kayseri I. Atıksu Sempozyumu, 22-24 Haziran 1998, Kayseri, Bildiri Kitabı s.167-170 [in Turkish].

Bilge, U., Çimrin, K.M., 2013. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils Adjacent to the Kızıltepe – Viranşehir Road. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 19: 323-329 [in Turkish].

Borůvka, L.,  Vacek, O., Jehlička, J., 2005. Principal component analysis as a tool to indicate the origin of potentially toxic elements in soils. Geoderma 128(3-4): 289–300.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Chen, T.B., Zheng, Y.M., Lei, M., Huang, Z.C., Wu, H.T., Chen, H., Fan, K.K., Yu, K., Wu, X., Tian, Q.Z., 2005. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 60(4): 542–551.

D’Ascoli, R., Rao, M.A., Adamo, P., Renella, G., Landi, L., Rutigliano, F.A., Terribile, F., Gianfreda, L., 2006. Impact of river overflowing on trace element contamination of volcanic soils in south Italy: Part II. Soil biological and biochemical properties in relation to trace element speciation. Environmental Pollution 144(1):317-326.

Dengiz, O., M.A. Özyazıcı., Sağlam, M., 2015. Multi-Criteria assessment and geostatistical approach for determination of rice growing suitability sites in gokirmak catchment. Paddy and Water Environment 13(1): 1–10.

Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B.B., Beeregowda, K.N., 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 7(2): 60–72.

Kaplan, O., Yildirim, N.C., Yildirim, N.,  Cimen, M., 2011. Toxic elements in animal products and environmental health. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6 (3): 228-232.

Karaca, A., 2001. Afşin-Elbistan termik santralı emisyonlarının çevre topraklarının fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkileri. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Bilimleri Dergisi 7(1): 95-102.

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O. Özyazıcı, M. A. Aşkın, T Mikayiloy, F., Shein, E.V., 2011. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Bafra plain in Turkey. Eurasian Soil Science 44(12): 1343-1351. 

Kloke, A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten fur tolerierbare gesa mtgehalte einiger elemente in kulturboden. Mitt.VDLUFA 1-3: 9–11.

Liu, Y., Xiao, T., Perkins, R.B., Zhu, J., Zhu ,Z., Xiong, Y., Ning Z., 2017. Geogenic cadmium pollution and potential health risks, with emphasis on black shale. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 176: 42-49.

Mallants, D., Mohanty B.P., Jacques D., Feyen J., 1996. Spatial variability of hydraulic properties in a multi-layered soil profile. Soil Science 161(3): 167-181.

Manta, D.S., Angelone, M., Bellanca, A., Neri, R., Sprovieri, M., 2002. Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy. The Science of the Total Environment 300(1-3): 229–243.

Meena, N.K., Maiti, S., Shrivastava, A., 2011. Discrimination between anthropogenic (pollution) and lithogenic magnetic fraction in urban soils (Delhi, India) using environmental magnetism. Journal of Applied Geophysics 73(2):121–129.

Metin, S.Ü., 2010. The determination of heavy metal pollution in the agricultural soils of alluvial, colluvial and vertisol in the Bursa Plain. Msc thesis. Uludağ University, Department of Soil Science, Bursa, Turkey. 62p.  [in Turkish].

Mudgal, V., Madaan, N., Mudgal, A., Singh, R.B.S., Mishra, S., 2010.  Effect of Toxic Metals on Human Health. The Open Nutraceuticals Journal 3: 94-99.

Oliveira, A., Pampulha, M.E., 2006. Effects of long-term heavy metal contamination on soil microbial characteristics. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 102(3): 157–161.

Peralta-Videa, J.R., Lopez, M.L., Narayan, M., Saupe, G., Gardea-Torresdey, J., 2009. The biochemistry of environmental heavy metal uptake by plants: Implications for the food chain. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 41(8-9):1665–1677.

Puschenreiter, M., Horak, O., 2000. Influence of different soil parameters on the transfer factor soil to plant of Cd, Cu and Zn for wheat and rye. Die Bodenkultur 51(1): 3–10.

Salati, S., Moore, F., 2010. Assessment of heavy metal concentration in the Khoshk River water and sediment, Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 164(1-4): 677–689.

Sivry, Y., Riotte, J., Sonke, J.E., Audry, S., Schäfer, J., Viers, J., Blanc, G., Freydier, R.,  Dupré,  B., 2008. Zn isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic pollution from Zn-ore smelters The Riou Mort–Lot River system. Chemical Geology 255(3-4): 295-304.

Soil Survey Laboratory, 1992. Procedures for collecting soil samples and methods of analysis for soil survey. Soil Survey Investigations Reports U.S. Govermentan Print Office, Washington D.C., USA.

Soil Survey Staff, 1993. Soil Survey Manuel. USDA Handbook. No: 18, Washington D.C. USA.

Sposito, G., 1989. The Chemistry of Soils. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 272p.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611–627.

Temmerman, L., Vanongeval, L., Boon, W., Hoenig, M., Geypens, M., 2003. Heavy metal content of arable soils in Northern Belgium. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 148(1-4): 61–76.

Yadav, S.K., 2010. Heavy metals toxicity in plants: An overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. South African Journal of Botany 76(2): 167–179.

Yang, Q.W., Lan, C.Y., Wang, H.B., Zhuang, P., Shu, W.S., 2006. Cadmium in soil–rice system and health risk associated with the use of untreated mining wastewater for irrigation in Lechang, China. Agricultural Water Management 8(1-2): 147–152.

Zhang, X.Y., Lin, F.F., Wong, M.T.F., Feng, X.L.. Wan, K., 2009. Identification of soil heavy metal sources from anthropogenic activities and pollution assessment of Fuyang County, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 154: 439–449.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science