Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 3, Jun 2019, Pages 237-248
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.566551
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.566551
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal

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Khadka,D., Lamichhane,S., Amgain,R., Joshi,S., Vista,S., Sah ,K., Ghimire,N., 2019. Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(3):237-248. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551
Khadka,D.,Lamichhane,S.Amgain,R.Joshi,S.Vista,S.Sah ,K.,& Ghimire,N. Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(3):237-248. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551
Khadka,D.,Lamichhane,S.Amgain,R.Joshi,S.Vista,S.Sah ,K., and ,Ghimire,N."Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.3 (2019):237-248. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551
Khadka,D.,Lamichhane,S.Amgain,R.Joshi,S.Vista,S.Sah ,K., and ,Ghimire,N. "Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Jun 2019):237-248 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551
D,Khadka.S,Lamichhane.R,Amgain.S,Joshi.S,Vista.K,Sah .N,Ghimire "Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.3, pp.237-248 (Jun 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551
Khadka,Dinesh ;Lamichhane,Sushil ;Amgain,Rita ;Joshi,Sushila ;Vista,Shree P. ;Sah ,Kamal ;Ghimire,Netra H. Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.3:237-248. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551

How to cite

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Amgain, R., Joshi, S., Vista, S., Sah , K., Ghimire, N., 2019. Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(3): 237-248. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.566551

Author information

Dinesh Khadka , Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal Lalitpur, Nepal
Sushil Lamichhane , Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
Rita Amgain , Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
Sushila Joshi , Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
Shree P. Vista , Agricultural Research Station, NARC, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal
Kamal Sah , Soil Science Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
Netra H. Ghimire , Agricultural Research Station, NARC, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal

Publication information

Article first published online : 16 May 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 13 May 2019
Manuscript Received: 27 Oct 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.566551
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.566551

Abstract

Knowledge about the soil fertility status and mapping their spatial distribution play a crucial role for sustainable planning of particular area. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. The farm is situated at the latitude 29.273656°N and longitude 82.180967°E as well altitude 2370masl. The total 18 samples were collected randomly at a depth of 0-20 cm by using soil sampling auger. A GPS device was used for determination of geographical position of soil sampling points. The collected samples were analyzed following standard analytical methods in the laboratory of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for the soil fertility distribution mapping. The observed data revealed the structure was sub-angular blocky, whereas colour were dark grayish brown and very dark brown. The sand, silt and clay content were ranged 27-47%, 33.10-61.10% and 11.90-23.90%, respectively and categorized loam and silt loam in texture. The soil pH was moderately acidic to moderately alkaline (5.45-7.66) and very low in available boron (0.01-0.28 mg/kg) and sulphur (0.59-6.23 mg/kg). Moreover, very low to very high available iron (15.90-300.50 mg/kg), very low to high available manganese (1.46-12.88) and low to high organic matter (2.07-6.53%). Similarly, medium to high total nitrogen (0.14-0.23%), available potassium (40-255 mg/kg) and zinc (1.12-8.26 mg/kg). Correspondingly, high available calcium (1632-2880 mg/kg) and magnesium (98-456 mg/kg), and very high available phosphorus (64.2-257.2 mg/kg) and copper (2.58-12.16 mg/kg). The determined soil test data can be used for sustainable soil management as well as developing future research strategy in the farm.

Keywords

ARS, Jumla, ordinary kriging, soil fertility maps, soil testing, sustainable soil management.

Corresponding author

References

Acharya, A.K., Paudel, M. P., Wasti, P.C., Sharma, R.D., Dhital, S., 2018. Status Report on Food and Nutrition Security in Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture, Land Management and Cooperatives, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Adrees, M., Ali, S., Rizwan,M., Ibrahim, M., Abbas, F., Farid, M., Bharwana, S.A., 2015. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(11): 8148-8162.

ARS, 2017. Annual Report 2073/74 (2017). Agriculture Research Station, NARC, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal.

Aweto, A.O., 1982. Variability of upper slope soils developed under sandstones in South-western Nigeria. Georgian Journal 25: 27-37.

Ahmad, W., Zia, M.H., Malhi, S. S.,  Niaz, A., Saifullah, 2012. Boron Deficiency in soils and crops: a review. In: Crop Plant. Goyal, A. (Ed.). IntechOpen.

Baumann, K., Schöning, I., Schrumpf, M., Ellerbrock, R.H., Leinweber, P., 2016. Rapid assessment of soil organic matter: Soil color analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Geoderma 278: 49–57.

Berger, K.C., Truog, E., 1939. Boron determination in soils and plants. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 11(10): 540-545.

Berry, W., Ketterings, Q., Antes, S., Page, S., Russell Anelli, J., Rao, R., DeGloria, S., 2007. Soil Texture. Agronomy Fact Sheet Series, Fact Sheet 29. Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Available at [Access date: 19.08.2018]: http://nmsp.cals.cornell.edu/publications/factsheets/factsheet29.pdf

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Brady, N. C., Weil, R., 2002. The nature and properties of soils. 13th Edition, Pearson Education, New Jersey. USA. 980p.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, No. 9, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 595-624.

Cambardella, C.A., Karlen, D.L., 1999. Spatial analysis of soil fertility parameters. Precision Agriculture 1(1): 5-14.

Chaudhari, P. R., Ahire, D. V., Ahire, V. D., Chkravarty, M.,  Maity, S., 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(2): 1-8.

El Mahi, Y.E., Ibrahim, I.S., Abdel Magid, H.M., Eltilib, A.M.A., 1987. A simple method for the estimation of calcium and magnesium carbonates in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51(5): 1152-1155.

Fageria, N.K., Santos, A.B., Filho, M.P., Guimaries, C.M., 2008. Iron toxicity in lowland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31(9): 1676-1697.

Havlin, H.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., 2010. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. 7th Edition, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. India. 516p.

Hoyle, F.C., Baldock, J.A., Murphy, D.V., 2011. Soil organic carbon – role in rainfed farming systems: with particular reference to Australian conditions. In: Rainfed farming systems. Tow, P., Cooper, I., Partridge, I., Birch, C., (Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 339–361.

Huang, B., Sun, W., Zhao, Y., Zhu, J., Yang, R., Zou, Z., Ding, F., Su, J., 2007. Temporal and spatial variability of soil organic matter and total nitrogen in an agricultural ecosystem as affected by farming practices. Geoderma 139(3-4):336-345.

Husak, V., 2015. Copper and copper containing pesticides: metabolism, toxicity and oxidative stress. Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University 2(1): 38-50.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil chemical analysis (Indian Edition). Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Jones, Jr, J.B., 2012. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual. 2nd Edition, CRC press. New York, USA. 299p.

Joshy, D., Deo, G.P., 1976. Fertilizers Recommendations for Major crops of Nepal. Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, HMG/Nepal.

Keen, B.A., Raczkowski, H., 1921. The relation between clay content and certain physical properties of soil. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11(4): 441-449.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Malla, R., Joshi, S., 2016. Assessment of soil fertility status of oilseed research program, Nawalpur, Sarlahi, Nepal. International Journal of Advanced Research 4(6): 1472-1483.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Tiwari, D.N., Mishra, K., 2017. Assessment of soil fertility status of National Rice Research Program, Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal. International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research 3(1): 86-105.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Bhurer, K.P., Chaudhary, J.N., Ali, M.F., Lakhe, L., 2018. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 4(28): 33-47.

Khatri-Chettri, T.B., 1991. Introduction to Soils and Soil fertility. Tribhuvan University Institute of Agricultural and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. 233p.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Mandal, A.K., Sharma, R.C., 2009. Computerized database of salt affected soils for Peninsular India using GIS. Geocarto International 24(1): 64-85.

Medvedev, S.S., 2005. Calcium signaling system in plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 52(2): 249–270.

Millaleo, R., Reyes-Díaz, M.,Ivanov, A.G., Mora, M.L., Alberdi, M., 2010. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 10(4): 470-481.

Mishra, A., Das,D., Saren, S., 2013. Preparation of GPS and GIS based soil fertility maps for Khurda district, Odisha. Indian Agriculturist 57(1): 11-20.

Munsell., 2009. Standard soil colour charts. Munsell color company, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

Pagliai, M., Vignozzi, N., 2002. Image analysis and microscopic techniques to characterize soil pore system. In: Physical Methods in Agriculture. Blahovec, J., Kutilek, M., (Eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York. USA. p. 13-38.

Panda, S.C., 2010. Soil Management and Organic Farming. Agrobios, Bharat Printing Press, Jodhpur, India. 462p. 

Ramamoorthy, B., Bajaj, J.C., 1969. Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of Indian soils. Fertilizer News 14: 25-36.

Rout, G. R., Sahoo, S., 2015. Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. Reviews in Agricultural Science 3(1): 1-24.

Sharma, L.K., Bali, S.K., Zaeen, A.A., 2017. A case study of potential reasons of ıncreased soil phosphorus levels in the Northeast United States. Agronomy 7(4): 85.

Song, G., Zhang,L. Wang,K., Fang, M., 2013. Spatial simulation of soil attribute based on principles of soil science. 21st International Conference on Geoinformatics. 20-22 June 2013. Kaifeng, China.

Sparks, D.L., 1987. Potassium dynamics in soils. In: Advances in Soil Science. Stewart, B.A. (Ed.) Vol 6, Springer, New York, USA. pp. 1- 63.

Takahashi, H., Kopriva, S., Giordano, M., Saito, K., Hell, R., 2011. Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymes. Annual Review of Plant Biology 62: 157-184.

Tanol, K., Kobayashi, N.I., 2015. Leaf senescence by magnesium deficiency. Plants 4(4): 756-772.

Verma, B.C., Swaminathan, K., Sud, K.C., 1977. An improved turbidimetric procedure for the determination of sulphate in plants and soils. Talanta 24(1): 49-50.

Walkley, A.J., Black, I.A., 1934. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Weindorf, D.C., Zhu, Y., 2010. Spatial variability of soil properties at Capulin volcano, New Mexico, USA: Implications for sampling strategy. Pedosphere 20(2): 185-197.

Liu, Z.P., Shao, M.A., Wang, Y.Q., 2013. Spatial patterns of soil total nitrogen and soil total phosphorus across the entire Loess Plateau region of China. Geoderma 197-198: 67-78.

Welch, R.M., 2002. The impact of mineral nutrients in food crops on global human health. Plant and Soil 247(1): 83-90.

Yruela, I., 2005. Copper in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(1): 145-156.

Abstract

Knowledge about the soil fertility status and mapping their spatial distribution play a crucial role for sustainable planning of particular area. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. The farm is situated at the latitude 29.273656°N and longitude 82.180967°E as well altitude 2370masl. The total 18 samples were collected randomly at a depth of 0-20 cm by using soil sampling auger. A GPS device was used for determination of geographical position of soil sampling points. The collected samples were analyzed following standard analytical methods in the laboratory of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for the soil fertility distribution mapping. The observed data revealed the structure was sub-angular blocky, whereas colour were dark grayish brown and very dark brown. The sand, silt and clay content were ranged 27-47%, 33.10-61.10% and 11.90-23.90%, respectively and categorized loam and silt loam in texture. The soil pH was moderately acidic to moderately alkaline (5.45-7.66) and very low in available boron (0.01-0.28 mg/kg) and sulphur (0.59-6.23 mg/kg). Moreover, very low to very high available iron (15.90-300.50 mg/kg), very low to high available manganese (1.46-12.88) and low to high organic matter (2.07-6.53%). Similarly, medium to high total nitrogen (0.14-0.23%), available potassium (40-255 mg/kg) and zinc (1.12-8.26 mg/kg). Correspondingly, high available calcium (1632-2880 mg/kg) and magnesium (98-456 mg/kg), and very high available phosphorus (64.2-257.2 mg/kg) and copper (2.58-12.16 mg/kg). The determined soil test data can be used for sustainable soil management as well as developing future research strategy in the farm.

Keywords: ARS, Jumla, ordinary kriging, soil fertility maps, soil testing, sustainable soil management.

References

Acharya, A.K., Paudel, M. P., Wasti, P.C., Sharma, R.D., Dhital, S., 2018. Status Report on Food and Nutrition Security in Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture, Land Management and Cooperatives, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Adrees, M., Ali, S., Rizwan,M., Ibrahim, M., Abbas, F., Farid, M., Bharwana, S.A., 2015. The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(11): 8148-8162.

ARS, 2017. Annual Report 2073/74 (2017). Agriculture Research Station, NARC, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal.

Aweto, A.O., 1982. Variability of upper slope soils developed under sandstones in South-western Nigeria. Georgian Journal 25: 27-37.

Ahmad, W., Zia, M.H., Malhi, S. S.,  Niaz, A., Saifullah, 2012. Boron Deficiency in soils and crops: a review. In: Crop Plant. Goyal, A. (Ed.). IntechOpen.

Baumann, K., Schöning, I., Schrumpf, M., Ellerbrock, R.H., Leinweber, P., 2016. Rapid assessment of soil organic matter: Soil color analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Geoderma 278: 49–57.

Berger, K.C., Truog, E., 1939. Boron determination in soils and plants. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition 11(10): 540-545.

Berry, W., Ketterings, Q., Antes, S., Page, S., Russell Anelli, J., Rao, R., DeGloria, S., 2007. Soil Texture. Agronomy Fact Sheet Series, Fact Sheet 29. Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Available at [Access date: 19.08.2018]: http://nmsp.cals.cornell.edu/publications/factsheets/factsheet29.pdf

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Brady, N. C., Weil, R., 2002. The nature and properties of soils. 13th Edition, Pearson Education, New Jersey. USA. 980p.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, No. 9, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 595-624.

Cambardella, C.A., Karlen, D.L., 1999. Spatial analysis of soil fertility parameters. Precision Agriculture 1(1): 5-14.

Chaudhari, P. R., Ahire, D. V., Ahire, V. D., Chkravarty, M.,  Maity, S., 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(2): 1-8.

El Mahi, Y.E., Ibrahim, I.S., Abdel Magid, H.M., Eltilib, A.M.A., 1987. A simple method for the estimation of calcium and magnesium carbonates in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51(5): 1152-1155.

Fageria, N.K., Santos, A.B., Filho, M.P., Guimaries, C.M., 2008. Iron toxicity in lowland rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31(9): 1676-1697.

Havlin, H.L., Beaton, J.D., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., 2010. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. 7th Edition, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. India. 516p.

Hoyle, F.C., Baldock, J.A., Murphy, D.V., 2011. Soil organic carbon – role in rainfed farming systems: with particular reference to Australian conditions. In: Rainfed farming systems. Tow, P., Cooper, I., Partridge, I., Birch, C., (Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 339–361.

Huang, B., Sun, W., Zhao, Y., Zhu, J., Yang, R., Zou, Z., Ding, F., Su, J., 2007. Temporal and spatial variability of soil organic matter and total nitrogen in an agricultural ecosystem as affected by farming practices. Geoderma 139(3-4):336-345.

Husak, V., 2015. Copper and copper containing pesticides: metabolism, toxicity and oxidative stress. Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University 2(1): 38-50.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil chemical analysis (Indian Edition). Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Jones, Jr, J.B., 2012. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual. 2nd Edition, CRC press. New York, USA. 299p.

Joshy, D., Deo, G.P., 1976. Fertilizers Recommendations for Major crops of Nepal. Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, HMG/Nepal.

Keen, B.A., Raczkowski, H., 1921. The relation between clay content and certain physical properties of soil. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11(4): 441-449.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Malla, R., Joshi, S., 2016. Assessment of soil fertility status of oilseed research program, Nawalpur, Sarlahi, Nepal. International Journal of Advanced Research 4(6): 1472-1483.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Tiwari, D.N., Mishra, K., 2017. Assessment of soil fertility status of National Rice Research Program, Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal. International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research 3(1): 86-105.

Khadka, D., Lamichhane, S., Bhurer, K.P., Chaudhary, J.N., Ali, M.F., Lakhe, L., 2018. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 4(28): 33-47.

Khatri-Chettri, T.B., 1991. Introduction to Soils and Soil fertility. Tribhuvan University Institute of Agricultural and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. 233p.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.

Mandal, A.K., Sharma, R.C., 2009. Computerized database of salt affected soils for Peninsular India using GIS. Geocarto International 24(1): 64-85.

Medvedev, S.S., 2005. Calcium signaling system in plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 52(2): 249–270.

Millaleo, R., Reyes-Díaz, M.,Ivanov, A.G., Mora, M.L., Alberdi, M., 2010. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 10(4): 470-481.

Mishra, A., Das,D., Saren, S., 2013. Preparation of GPS and GIS based soil fertility maps for Khurda district, Odisha. Indian Agriculturist 57(1): 11-20.

Munsell., 2009. Standard soil colour charts. Munsell color company, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A., 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No 939, USA, 19p.

Pagliai, M., Vignozzi, N., 2002. Image analysis and microscopic techniques to characterize soil pore system. In: Physical Methods in Agriculture. Blahovec, J., Kutilek, M., (Eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York. USA. p. 13-38.

Panda, S.C., 2010. Soil Management and Organic Farming. Agrobios, Bharat Printing Press, Jodhpur, India. 462p. 

Ramamoorthy, B., Bajaj, J.C., 1969. Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of Indian soils. Fertilizer News 14: 25-36.

Rout, G. R., Sahoo, S., 2015. Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. Reviews in Agricultural Science 3(1): 1-24.

Sharma, L.K., Bali, S.K., Zaeen, A.A., 2017. A case study of potential reasons of ıncreased soil phosphorus levels in the Northeast United States. Agronomy 7(4): 85.

Song, G., Zhang,L. Wang,K., Fang, M., 2013. Spatial simulation of soil attribute based on principles of soil science. 21st International Conference on Geoinformatics. 20-22 June 2013. Kaifeng, China.

Sparks, D.L., 1987. Potassium dynamics in soils. In: Advances in Soil Science. Stewart, B.A. (Ed.) Vol 6, Springer, New York, USA. pp. 1- 63.

Takahashi, H., Kopriva, S., Giordano, M., Saito, K., Hell, R., 2011. Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymes. Annual Review of Plant Biology 62: 157-184.

Tanol, K., Kobayashi, N.I., 2015. Leaf senescence by magnesium deficiency. Plants 4(4): 756-772.

Verma, B.C., Swaminathan, K., Sud, K.C., 1977. An improved turbidimetric procedure for the determination of sulphate in plants and soils. Talanta 24(1): 49-50.

Walkley, A.J., Black, I.A., 1934. Estimation of soil organic carbon by the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Weindorf, D.C., Zhu, Y., 2010. Spatial variability of soil properties at Capulin volcano, New Mexico, USA: Implications for sampling strategy. Pedosphere 20(2): 185-197.

Liu, Z.P., Shao, M.A., Wang, Y.Q., 2013. Spatial patterns of soil total nitrogen and soil total phosphorus across the entire Loess Plateau region of China. Geoderma 197-198: 67-78.

Welch, R.M., 2002. The impact of mineral nutrients in food crops on global human health. Plant and Soil 247(1): 83-90.

Yruela, I., 2005. Copper in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(1): 145-156.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science