Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 3, Jun 2019, Pages 221-228
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.560745
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.560745
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid

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Riaz,A., Rafique,M., Aftab,M., Qureshi,M., Javed,H., Mujeeb,F., Akhtar,S., 2019. Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(3):221-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745
Riaz,A.,Rafique,M.Aftab,M.Qureshi,M.Javed,H.Mujeeb,F.,& Akhtar,S. Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(3):221-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745
Riaz,A.,Rafique,M.Aftab,M.Qureshi,M.Javed,H.Mujeeb,F., and ,Akhtar,S."Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.3 (2019):221-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745
Riaz,A.,Rafique,M.Aftab,M.Qureshi,M.Javed,H.Mujeeb,F., and ,Akhtar,S. "Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Jun 2019):221-228 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745
A,Riaz.M,Rafique.M,Aftab.M,Qureshi.H,Javed.F,Mujeeb.S,Akhtar "Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.3, pp.221-228 (Jun 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745
Riaz,Aneela ;Rafique,Munazza ;Aftab,Muhammad ;Qureshi,M. Amjad ;Javed,Hina ;Mujeeb,Fakhar ;Akhtar,Saleem Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.3:221-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745

How to cite

Riaz, A., Rafique, M., Aftab, M., Qureshi, M., Javed, H., Mujeeb, F., Akhtar, S., 2019. Mitigation of salinity in chickpea by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and salicylic acid. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(3): 221-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.560745

Author information

Aneela Riaz , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan Faisalabad, Pakistan
Munazza Rafique , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Aftab , Soil Chemistry Section, Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
M. Amjad Qureshi , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Hina Javed , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fakhar Mujeeb , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Saleem Akhtar , Soil Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 05 May 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 18 Apr 2019
Manuscript Received: 10 Aug 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.560745
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.560745

Abstract

For growth or development of pulses, biotic and abiotic environmental factors are more conspicuous under stress conditions. For the survival against abiotic stresses, salicylic acid (SA) is reported a universal remedy. At the Soil Bacteriology Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, a pot study was conducted to monitor the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Salicylic acid in chickpea under salt stress. Eight treatments including control PGPR inoculation and Salicylic acid with their different combination were used. Results revealed that positive response of PGPR on productivity of chickpea but more enunciated response about grain yield was observed with the combined application of SA and PGPR compared to control. Growth parameters i.e root length, root mass, number of nodules and shoot mass were highly affected where SA was applied along with PGPR. From the study, it is proposed that under salt stress the combination of SA + PGPR can be a suitable practice for more production of chickpean Pakistan.

Keywords

Pulses, SA salt stress, microbes pulses.

Corresponding author

References

Al-Hakimi, A.M.A., 2006. Counteraction of drought stress on soybean plants by seed soaking in salicylic acid. International Journal of Botany 2(4): 421–426.

Ali, H., Khan, M.A., Randhawa, S.A., 2004. Interactive effect of seed inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6(1): 110-112.

Azooz, M.M., Youssef, M.M., 2010. Evaluation of heat shock and salicylic acid treatments as inducers of drought stress tolerance in Hassawi wheat. American Journal of Plant Physiology 5(2): 56–70.

Babu, M.A., Singh, D., Gothandam, K.M., 2012. The effect of salinity on growth, hormones and mineral elements in leaf and fruit of tomato cultivar PKM1. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22(1): 159-164.

Baniaghil, N., Arzanesh, M.H., Ghorbanli, M., Shahbazi, M., The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth parameters, antioxidant enzymes and microelements of canola under salt stress. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences 3(1):17–27.

Bhuiyaan, M.A.H., Khanam, D., Hossain, M.F. and Ahmad, M.S., (2008).  Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of chickpea in calcareous soil. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 33(3): 549-554.

Das, S., Pareek, B.L., Kumawat, A., Dhikwal, S.R., 2013. Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in north western Rajasthan, India. Legume Research 36(6): 511-514.

Dutta, D., Bandyopadhyay, P., 2009. Performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to application of phosphorus and bio-fertilizer in laterite soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 55(2): 147-155.

Eusuf Zai, A.K., Solaiman, A.R.M., Ahmed, J.U., 1999. Response of some chickpea varieties to Rhizobium inoculation in respect to nodulation, biological nitrogen fixation and dry matter yield. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 16: 135-144.

Foolad M.R., 2004. Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 76(2): 101–119.

Ghoulam, C., Foursy, A., Farer, K., 2002. Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany 47(1): 39-50.

Gunes, A., Inal, A., Alpaslan, M., Eraslan, F., Bagci, E.G. and Cicek, N., 2007. Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology 164(6): 728–736.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahur, K., Fujita, M., 2013. Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In: Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Ahmad, P., Azooz, M.M., Prasad, M.N.V. (Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 25−87.

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Alyemeni, M.N., Ahmad, A., 2012. Salicylic acid mediated changes in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant defense system in Cicer arietinum L. Plant, Soil and Environment 58(9): 417-423.

Hayat, R., Ali, S., Amara, U., Khalid, R., Ahmed, I., 2010. Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology 60(4): 579–598. 

Hayat, S., Hasan, S.A., Fariduddin, Q., Ahmad, A., 2008. Growth of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) in response to salicylic acid under water stress. Journal of Plant Interactions 3(4): 297-304.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Khattak, S.G., Khan, D.F., Shah, S.H., Madani, M.S., Khan, T., 2006. Role of rhizobial inoculation in the production of chickpea crop. Soil and Environment 25(2): 143-145.

Kumar, D., Arvadiya, L.K., Kumawat, A.K., Desai, K.L., Patel, T.U., 2014. Yield, protein content, nutrient content and uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by graded levels of fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences 2(6): 60-64.

Lakshmanarao, K. and Singh, K., (1983). Effect of Phosphorus and biofertilizers on leghaemoglobin and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Madras Agricultural Journal 70: 572-77.

Lichtenthaler, H.K., Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 11(5): 591–592.

Malik, D.K., Sindhu, S.S., 2011. Production of indole acetic acid by Pseudomonas sp.: effect of coinoculation with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer on nodulation and plant growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Journal of Physiology and Molecular Bioliology in Plants 17(1): 25–32.

Miller, J.C., Zary, K.W., Fernandez, G.C.J., 1986. Inheritance of N2 fixation efficency in cowpea. Euphytica 35(2): 551–560.

Mohammadi, K., Sohrabi, Y., 2012. Bacterial biofertilizers for sustainable crop production: A review. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7(5): 307-316.

Moussa, H.R., El-Gamel, S.M., 2010. Effect of salicylic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in wheat. Biologia Plantarum 54(2): 315–320.

Munns, R., Tester, M., 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 651-681.

Namvar, A., Sharifi, R.S., Khandan, T., Moghandam, M.J., 2013. Seed inoculation and inorganic nitrogen fertilization effects on some physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in irrigated condition. Journal of Central European Agriculture 14(3): 881-893.

Parul, B., Chandra, R., 2009. Interaction of Mesorhizobium ciceri and rhizospheric bacteria on nodulation, growth and yield of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes 22(2): 137-139.

Pozo, M.J., Azcón-Aguilar, C., 2007. Unravelling mycorrhiza induced resistance. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10(4): 393–398.

Qureshi, M.A, Shahzad, H., Saeed, M.S., Ullah, S., Ali, M.A., Mujeeb, F., Anjum, M.A., 2019. Relative potential of rhizobium species to enhance the growth and yield attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(2): 159-166.

Rao, D.L.N., Giller, K.E., Yeo, A.R., Flowers, T.J., 2002. The effects of salinity and sodicity upon nodulation and nitrogen fixation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Annals of  Botany 89(5): 563-570.

Rojas-Tapias, D., Moreno-Galván, A, Pardo-Díaz, S., Obando, M., Rivera, D., Bonilla, R., 2012. Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays). Applied Soil Ecology 61: 264–272.

Sahai, P., Chandra, R., 2010. Co-inoculation effect of liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR on nodulation, nutrient uptake and yields of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 159-161.

Sarwar, M., Martens D.A., Arshad M., Frankenberger Jr., W.T., 1992. Tryptophan dependent biosynthesis of auxins in soil. Plant and Soil 147(2): 207-215.

Sharar, M.S. Ayub, M., Choudluy, A., Nadeem, M., 2000. Effect of NP application and inoculation on the growth and yield of gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 37(3-4): 155-157.

Siddique, K.H., Johansen, C., Kumarrao, J.V.D.K., Ali, M., 2005. Legumes in sustainable cropping systems. 4th International Food Legumes Research Conference on “Food Legumes for Nutritional Security and Sustainable Agriculture” 18-22 October 2005. New Delhi, India.

Singh, Y., Singh, B., Kumar, D., 2014. Effect of phosphorus levels and biofertilizer on yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed condition. Research on Crops 15(1): 90-95.

Sobhanian, H., Razavizadeh, R., Nanjo, Y., Ehsanpour, A.A., Jazii, F.R., Motamed, N., Komatsu, S., 2010. Proteome analysis of soybean leaves, hypocotyls and roots under salt stress. Proteome Science 8: 19.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., Dicky, D.A., 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book International Co., Singapore. 666p.

Suryawanshi, A.V., Mandhare, V.K. and Jamadagni, B.M., 2007. Influence of Rhizobium strains on nodulation and grain yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Madras Agricultural Journal 94: 124-126.

Szalai, G., Tari, I., Janda, T., Pestenácz, A., Páldi, E., 2000. Effects of cold acclimation and salicylic acid on changes in ACC and MACC contents in maize during chilling. Biologia Plantarum 43(4): 637-640.

Tagore, G.S., Namdeo, S.L., Sharma, S.K., Kumar N., 2013. Effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of chickpea genotypes. International Journal of Agronomy Article ID 581627.

Ullah, S., Qureshi, M.A., Ali, M.A., Mujeeb, F., Yasin, S., Comparative potential of Rhizobium species for the growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(3): 189 – 196.

Verma, J.P., Yadav, J., Tiwari, K.N., 2010. Application of Rhizobium sp. BHURC01 and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on nodulation, plant biomass and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 5(3): 148-156.

Vessey J.K., 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant and Soil 255(2): 571-586.

Abstract

For growth or development of pulses, biotic and abiotic environmental factors are more conspicuous under stress conditions. For the survival against abiotic stresses, salicylic acid (SA) is reported a universal remedy. At the Soil Bacteriology Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, a pot study was conducted to monitor the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Salicylic acid in chickpea under salt stress. Eight treatments including control PGPR inoculation and Salicylic acid with their different combination were used. Results revealed that positive response of PGPR on productivity of chickpea but more enunciated response about grain yield was observed with the combined application of SA and PGPR compared to control. Growth parameters i.e root length, root mass, number of nodules and shoot mass were highly affected where SA was applied along with PGPR. From the study, it is proposed that under salt stress the combination of SA + PGPR can be a suitable practice for more production of chickpean Pakistan.

Keywords: Pulses, SA salt stress, microbes pulses.

References

Al-Hakimi, A.M.A., 2006. Counteraction of drought stress on soybean plants by seed soaking in salicylic acid. International Journal of Botany 2(4): 421–426.

Ali, H., Khan, M.A., Randhawa, S.A., 2004. Interactive effect of seed inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6(1): 110-112.

Azooz, M.M., Youssef, M.M., 2010. Evaluation of heat shock and salicylic acid treatments as inducers of drought stress tolerance in Hassawi wheat. American Journal of Plant Physiology 5(2): 56–70.

Babu, M.A., Singh, D., Gothandam, K.M., 2012. The effect of salinity on growth, hormones and mineral elements in leaf and fruit of tomato cultivar PKM1. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22(1): 159-164.

Baniaghil, N., Arzanesh, M.H., Ghorbanli, M., Shahbazi, M., The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on growth parameters, antioxidant enzymes and microelements of canola under salt stress. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences 3(1):17–27.

Bhuiyaan, M.A.H., Khanam, D., Hossain, M.F. and Ahmad, M.S., (2008).  Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of chickpea in calcareous soil. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 33(3): 549-554.

Das, S., Pareek, B.L., Kumawat, A., Dhikwal, S.R., 2013. Effect of phosphorus and biofertilizers on productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in north western Rajasthan, India. Legume Research 36(6): 511-514.

Dutta, D., Bandyopadhyay, P., 2009. Performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to application of phosphorus and bio-fertilizer in laterite soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 55(2): 147-155.

Eusuf Zai, A.K., Solaiman, A.R.M., Ahmed, J.U., 1999. Response of some chickpea varieties to Rhizobium inoculation in respect to nodulation, biological nitrogen fixation and dry matter yield. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 16: 135-144.

Foolad M.R., 2004. Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 76(2): 101–119.

Ghoulam, C., Foursy, A., Farer, K., 2002. Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany 47(1): 39-50.

Gunes, A., Inal, A., Alpaslan, M., Eraslan, F., Bagci, E.G. and Cicek, N., 2007. Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology 164(6): 728–736.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahur, K., Fujita, M., 2013. Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In: Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Ahmad, P., Azooz, M.M., Prasad, M.N.V. (Eds.). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 25−87.

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Alyemeni, M.N., Ahmad, A., 2012. Salicylic acid mediated changes in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant defense system in Cicer arietinum L. Plant, Soil and Environment 58(9): 417-423.

Hayat, R., Ali, S., Amara, U., Khalid, R., Ahmed, I., 2010. Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology 60(4): 579–598. 

Hayat, S., Hasan, S.A., Fariduddin, Q., Ahmad, A., 2008. Growth of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) in response to salicylic acid under water stress. Journal of Plant Interactions 3(4): 297-304.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Khattak, S.G., Khan, D.F., Shah, S.H., Madani, M.S., Khan, T., 2006. Role of rhizobial inoculation in the production of chickpea crop. Soil and Environment 25(2): 143-145.

Kumar, D., Arvadiya, L.K., Kumawat, A.K., Desai, K.L., Patel, T.U., 2014. Yield, protein content, nutrient content and uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by graded levels of fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences 2(6): 60-64.

Lakshmanarao, K. and Singh, K., (1983). Effect of Phosphorus and biofertilizers on leghaemoglobin and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Madras Agricultural Journal 70: 572-77.

Lichtenthaler, H.K., Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 11(5): 591–592.

Malik, D.K., Sindhu, S.S., 2011. Production of indole acetic acid by Pseudomonas sp.: effect of coinoculation with Mesorhizobium sp. Cicer on nodulation and plant growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Journal of Physiology and Molecular Bioliology in Plants 17(1): 25–32.

Miller, J.C., Zary, K.W., Fernandez, G.C.J., 1986. Inheritance of N2 fixation efficency in cowpea. Euphytica 35(2): 551–560.

Mohammadi, K., Sohrabi, Y., 2012. Bacterial biofertilizers for sustainable crop production: A review. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7(5): 307-316.

Moussa, H.R., El-Gamel, S.M., 2010. Effect of salicylic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in wheat. Biologia Plantarum 54(2): 315–320.

Munns, R., Tester, M., 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 651-681.

Namvar, A., Sharifi, R.S., Khandan, T., Moghandam, M.J., 2013. Seed inoculation and inorganic nitrogen fertilization effects on some physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in irrigated condition. Journal of Central European Agriculture 14(3): 881-893.

Parul, B., Chandra, R., 2009. Interaction of Mesorhizobium ciceri and rhizospheric bacteria on nodulation, growth and yield of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes 22(2): 137-139.

Pozo, M.J., Azcón-Aguilar, C., 2007. Unravelling mycorrhiza induced resistance. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10(4): 393–398.

Qureshi, M.A, Shahzad, H., Saeed, M.S., Ullah, S., Ali, M.A., Mujeeb, F., Anjum, M.A., 2019. Relative potential of rhizobium species to enhance the growth and yield attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(2): 159-166.

Rao, D.L.N., Giller, K.E., Yeo, A.R., Flowers, T.J., 2002. The effects of salinity and sodicity upon nodulation and nitrogen fixation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Annals of  Botany 89(5): 563-570.

Rojas-Tapias, D., Moreno-Galván, A, Pardo-Díaz, S., Obando, M., Rivera, D., Bonilla, R., 2012. Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays). Applied Soil Ecology 61: 264–272.

Sahai, P., Chandra, R., 2010. Co-inoculation effect of liquid and carrier inoculants of Mesorhizobium ciceri and PGPR on nodulation, nutrient uptake and yields of chickpea. Journal of Food Legumes 23(2): 159-161.

Sarwar, M., Martens D.A., Arshad M., Frankenberger Jr., W.T., 1992. Tryptophan dependent biosynthesis of auxins in soil. Plant and Soil 147(2): 207-215.

Sharar, M.S. Ayub, M., Choudluy, A., Nadeem, M., 2000. Effect of NP application and inoculation on the growth and yield of gram (Cicer arietinum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 37(3-4): 155-157.

Siddique, K.H., Johansen, C., Kumarrao, J.V.D.K., Ali, M., 2005. Legumes in sustainable cropping systems. 4th International Food Legumes Research Conference on “Food Legumes for Nutritional Security and Sustainable Agriculture” 18-22 October 2005. New Delhi, India.

Singh, Y., Singh, B., Kumar, D., 2014. Effect of phosphorus levels and biofertilizer on yield attributes, yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed condition. Research on Crops 15(1): 90-95.

Sobhanian, H., Razavizadeh, R., Nanjo, Y., Ehsanpour, A.A., Jazii, F.R., Motamed, N., Komatsu, S., 2010. Proteome analysis of soybean leaves, hypocotyls and roots under salt stress. Proteome Science 8: 19.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., Dicky, D.A., 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book International Co., Singapore. 666p.

Suryawanshi, A.V., Mandhare, V.K. and Jamadagni, B.M., 2007. Influence of Rhizobium strains on nodulation and grain yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Madras Agricultural Journal 94: 124-126.

Szalai, G., Tari, I., Janda, T., Pestenácz, A., Páldi, E., 2000. Effects of cold acclimation and salicylic acid on changes in ACC and MACC contents in maize during chilling. Biologia Plantarum 43(4): 637-640.

Tagore, G.S., Namdeo, S.L., Sharma, S.K., Kumar N., 2013. Effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of chickpea genotypes. International Journal of Agronomy Article ID 581627.

Ullah, S., Qureshi, M.A., Ali, M.A., Mujeeb, F., Yasin, S., Comparative potential of Rhizobium species for the growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(3): 189 – 196.

Verma, J.P., Yadav, J., Tiwari, K.N., 2010. Application of Rhizobium sp. BHURC01 and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on nodulation, plant biomass and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 5(3): 148-156.

Vessey J.K., 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant and Soil 255(2): 571-586.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science