Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 2, Apr 2019, Pages 144 - 151
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.541344
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.541344
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh

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Hossain,M., Rahman,G., Alam,M., Mashuk,H., Rahman,M., 2019. Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(2):144 - 151. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344
Hossain,M.,Rahman,G.Alam,M.Mashuk,H.,& Rahman,M. Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(2):144 - 151. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344
Hossain,M.,Rahman,G.Alam,M.Mashuk,H., and ,Rahman,M."Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.2 (2019):144 - 151. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344
Hossain,M.,Rahman,G.Alam,M.Mashuk,H., and ,Rahman,M. "Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Apr 2019):144 - 151 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344
M,Hossain.G,Rahman.M,Alam.H,Mashuk.M,Rahman "Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.2, pp.144 - 151 (Apr 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344
Hossain,Md. Shahadat ;Rahman,GKM Mustafizur ;Alam,Md. Saiful ;Mashuk,HA ;Rahman,Md. Mizanur Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.2:144 - 151. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344

How to cite

Hossain, M., Rahman, G., Alam, M., Mashuk, H., Rahman, M., 2019. Empirical model and variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(2): 144 - 151. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.541344

Author information

Md. Shahadat Hossain , Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh Sylhet, Bangladesh
GKM Mustafizur Rahman , Department of Soil Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Md. Saiful Alam , Department of Soil Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
HA Mashuk , Department of Soil Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Md. Mizanur Rahman , Department of Soil Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 Mar 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 12 Mar 2019
Manuscript Received: 29 Jun 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.541344
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.541344

Abstract

Soil salinity expressed by electrical conductivity is a threat to crop production. The study aims were to establish relationships of electrical conductivity with its relevant soil properties, and analyze variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. A total of 150 geo-referenced saline soil samples from three coastal districts (Khulna, Satkhira and Bhola) of Bangladesh were analyzed for electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract (ECe), salt cations and other soil properties related to salinity. Statistical and geostatistical analyses were done as required. Moderate to strong significant regression relationships (R2=0.42 to 0.94) were found between ECe and salt cations (ECe=43.12*Na2-46.36*Na+13.97; ECe=12.26*K-2.5;ECe=1.16*Ca-1.97; ECe=0.32*Mg2-1.60*Mg+3.53) of the soils. On the contrary, weak relationships (R2=0.05 to 0.21) were found between ECe and other soil properties (ECe=4.41*organic carbon-0.56; ECe=-1.71*Txw (soil texture)+3.98;ECe=0.35*cation exchange capacity-1.98; ECe=0.06*specific surface area-0.55). Khulna soils (CV=65.99%) showed lower statistical variations while Satkhira (CV=97%) and Bhola (CV=105%) soils showed higher statistical variations for ECe. In contrast, Khulna, Satkhira and Bhola soils showed strong, moderate and weak spatial dependency for ECe, respectively. Interpolated spatial distribution maps of ECe showed variations in individual districts of study areas. The findings would assist soil scientists or farm managers to understand and/or manage saline soils, specially the soils of coastal zone of Bangladesh.

Keywords

Geostatistics, electrical conductivity, map, relationship, soil property.

Corresponding author

References

Ardahanlioglu, I., Oztas, T., Evren, S., Yilmaz, T., Yildrim, Z.N., 2003. Spatial variability of exchangeable sodium, electrical conductivity, soil pH and boron content in salt- and sodium-affected areas of the Igdir plain (Turkey). Journal of Arid Environment 54(3): 495-503.

Bouma, J., 1989. Using soil survey data for quantitative land evaluation. In: Advance Soil Science. Stewart B.A. (Eds.). Vol 9. Springer, New York, USA. pp. 177-213.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464 - 465.

Cerato, A.B., Lutenegger A.J., 2002. Determination of surface area of fine-grained soils by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) Method. Geotechnical Testing Journal 25(2): 315-321.

De Benedetto, D., Castriganano, A., Sollitto, D., Modugno, F., Buttafuoco, G.,lo Papa, G., 2012. Integrating geophysical and geostatistical techniques to map the spatial variation of clay. Geoderma 171-172: 53-63.

Florinsky, I.V., Eilers, R.G., Lelyk, G.W., 2000. Prediction of soil salinity risk by digital terrain modeling in the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 80(3): 455-463.

Hamblin, A., 1991. Sustainable agricultural systems - What are the appropriate measures for soil structure. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29(6): 709-715.

Hossain, M.S., Rahman, G.K.M.M., Alam, M.S., Rahman, M.M., Solaiman, A.R.M, Baset Mia, M.A.,2018. Modelling of soil texture and its verification with related soil properties. Soil Research 56(4): 421-428.

Hu, W., Shao, A.M., Wan, L., Si, B.C.,2014. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. Geoderma 230-231: 212-220.

Isaak, E.H.,Srivastava, R.M., 1989. Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 561p.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jamil, A., Riaz, S., Ashraf, M., Foolad, M.R., 2011. Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Critical Review of Plant Science 30(5): 435-458.

Juan, P., Mateu, J., Jordan, M.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Meléndez-Pastor I., Navarro-Pedreño J., 2011. Geostatistical methods to identify and map spatial variations of soil salinity. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108(1): 62-72.

Kleinbaum, D.G., Kupper, L.L.,Muller, K.E., 1988. Applied regression analysis and other multivariate methods. 2nd Edition Duxbury Press, Belmont California, USA.

Manikandan, A., 2016. Effect of soil surface area on its reaction and electrical conductivity. National Conference on Innovation in Agri-biosciences, ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Mondal, M.K., Bhuiyan, S.I., Franco, D.T., 2001. Soil salinity reduction and prediction of salt dynamics in the coastal ricelands of Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management 47(1): 9-23.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 539-579.

Ravindran, K., Venkatesan, K., Balakrishnan, V., Chellappan, K., Balasubramanian, T., 2007. Restoration of saline land by halophytes for Indian soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39(10): 2661-2664.

Rhoades, J.D., Chanduvi, F., Lesch, S., 1999. Soil salinity assessment: methods and ınterpretation of electrical conductivity measurement. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 57, FAO, Rome. USA. 12p.

Shirokova, Y., Forkutsa, I., Sharafutdinova, N., 2000. Use of electrical conductivity instead of soluble salts for soil salinity monitoring in Central Asia. Irrigation and Drainage System 14(3): 199–205.

Shrivastava, P., Kumar, R., 2015. Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22(2): 123–131.

Soil Survey Staff, 2011. Soil Survey Laboratory Information Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 45, Version 2.0. R. Burt (ed.). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Sonmez, S., Buyuktas, D., Okturen, F., Citak S., 2008. Assessment of different soil to water ratios (1:1, 1:2.5, 1:5) in soil salinity studies. Geoderma 144(1-2): 361-369.

SRDI (Soil Resource Development Institute), 2012. Saline Soils of Bangladesh. Soil Resources Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Sultan, K., 2006. Clay mineralogy of central Victorian (Creswick) soils: clay mineral contents as a possible tool of environmental indicator. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 15 (4): 339-356.

Valente, D.S.M, de Queiroz, D.M., Pinto, F.A.C., Santos, N.T., Santos, F.L., 2012. The relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity and soil properties. Revista Ciência Agronômica 43 (4): 683-690.

Vereecken, H., Schnepf, A., Hopmans, J. W., Javaux, M., Or, D., Roose, T., ... Tiktak, A., 2016. Modeling soil processes: review, key challenges and new perspective. Vadose Zone Journal 15 (5): 1-57.

Weisz, R., Fleischer, S., Smilowitz, Z., 1995. map generation in high-value horticultural ıntegrated pest management: appropriate ınterpolation methods for site-specific pest management of colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 88(6): 1650-1657.

Wӧsten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Y.A.,Raws, W.J., 2001. Pedotransfer functions: bridging the gap between available basic soil data and missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 251(3-4): 123-150.

Zhang, H., Schroder, J.L., Pittman, J.J., Wang, J.J., Payton, M.E., 2005. Soil salinity using saturated paste and 1:1 soil to water extract. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 1146–1151.

Abstract

Soil salinity expressed by electrical conductivity is a threat to crop production. The study aims were to establish relationships of electrical conductivity with its relevant soil properties, and analyze variability of soil salinity in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. A total of 150 geo-referenced saline soil samples from three coastal districts (Khulna, Satkhira and Bhola) of Bangladesh were analyzed for electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract (ECe), salt cations and other soil properties related to salinity. Statistical and geostatistical analyses were done as required. Moderate to strong significant regression relationships (R2=0.42 to 0.94) were found between ECe and salt cations (ECe=43.12*Na2-46.36*Na+13.97; ECe=12.26*K-2.5;ECe=1.16*Ca-1.97; ECe=0.32*Mg2-1.60*Mg+3.53) of the soils. On the contrary, weak relationships (R2=0.05 to 0.21) were found between ECe and other soil properties (ECe=4.41*organic carbon-0.56; ECe=-1.71*Txw (soil texture)+3.98;ECe=0.35*cation exchange capacity-1.98; ECe=0.06*specific surface area-0.55). Khulna soils (CV=65.99%) showed lower statistical variations while Satkhira (CV=97%) and Bhola (CV=105%) soils showed higher statistical variations for ECe. In contrast, Khulna, Satkhira and Bhola soils showed strong, moderate and weak spatial dependency for ECe, respectively. Interpolated spatial distribution maps of ECe showed variations in individual districts of study areas. The findings would assist soil scientists or farm managers to understand and/or manage saline soils, specially the soils of coastal zone of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Geostatistics, electrical conductivity, map, relationship, soil property.

References

Ardahanlioglu, I., Oztas, T., Evren, S., Yilmaz, T., Yildrim, Z.N., 2003. Spatial variability of exchangeable sodium, electrical conductivity, soil pH and boron content in salt- and sodium-affected areas of the Igdir plain (Turkey). Journal of Arid Environment 54(3): 495-503.

Bouma, J., 1989. Using soil survey data for quantitative land evaluation. In: Advance Soil Science. Stewart B.A. (Eds.). Vol 9. Springer, New York, USA. pp. 177-213.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464 - 465.

Cerato, A.B., Lutenegger A.J., 2002. Determination of surface area of fine-grained soils by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) Method. Geotechnical Testing Journal 25(2): 315-321.

De Benedetto, D., Castriganano, A., Sollitto, D., Modugno, F., Buttafuoco, G.,lo Papa, G., 2012. Integrating geophysical and geostatistical techniques to map the spatial variation of clay. Geoderma 171-172: 53-63.

Florinsky, I.V., Eilers, R.G., Lelyk, G.W., 2000. Prediction of soil salinity risk by digital terrain modeling in the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 80(3): 455-463.

Hamblin, A., 1991. Sustainable agricultural systems - What are the appropriate measures for soil structure. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29(6): 709-715.

Hossain, M.S., Rahman, G.K.M.M., Alam, M.S., Rahman, M.M., Solaiman, A.R.M, Baset Mia, M.A.,2018. Modelling of soil texture and its verification with related soil properties. Soil Research 56(4): 421-428.

Hu, W., Shao, A.M., Wan, L., Si, B.C.,2014. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. Geoderma 230-231: 212-220.

Isaak, E.H.,Srivastava, R.M., 1989. Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 561p.

Jackson, M.L., 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 498p.

Jamil, A., Riaz, S., Ashraf, M., Foolad, M.R., 2011. Gene expression profiling of plants under salt stress. Critical Review of Plant Science 30(5): 435-458.

Juan, P., Mateu, J., Jordan, M.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Meléndez-Pastor I., Navarro-Pedreño J., 2011. Geostatistical methods to identify and map spatial variations of soil salinity. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108(1): 62-72.

Kleinbaum, D.G., Kupper, L.L.,Muller, K.E., 1988. Applied regression analysis and other multivariate methods. 2nd Edition Duxbury Press, Belmont California, USA.

Manikandan, A., 2016. Effect of soil surface area on its reaction and electrical conductivity. National Conference on Innovation in Agri-biosciences, ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Mondal, M.K., Bhuiyan, S.I., Franco, D.T., 2001. Soil salinity reduction and prediction of salt dynamics in the coastal ricelands of Bangladesh. Agricultural Water Management 47(1): 9-23.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). 2nd Edition. Agronomy Monograph, vol. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 539-579.

Ravindran, K., Venkatesan, K., Balakrishnan, V., Chellappan, K., Balasubramanian, T., 2007. Restoration of saline land by halophytes for Indian soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39(10): 2661-2664.

Rhoades, J.D., Chanduvi, F., Lesch, S., 1999. Soil salinity assessment: methods and ınterpretation of electrical conductivity measurement. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 57, FAO, Rome. USA. 12p.

Shirokova, Y., Forkutsa, I., Sharafutdinova, N., 2000. Use of electrical conductivity instead of soluble salts for soil salinity monitoring in Central Asia. Irrigation and Drainage System 14(3): 199–205.

Shrivastava, P., Kumar, R., 2015. Soil salinity: A serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22(2): 123–131.

Soil Survey Staff, 2011. Soil Survey Laboratory Information Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 45, Version 2.0. R. Burt (ed.). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Sonmez, S., Buyuktas, D., Okturen, F., Citak S., 2008. Assessment of different soil to water ratios (1:1, 1:2.5, 1:5) in soil salinity studies. Geoderma 144(1-2): 361-369.

SRDI (Soil Resource Development Institute), 2012. Saline Soils of Bangladesh. Soil Resources Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Sultan, K., 2006. Clay mineralogy of central Victorian (Creswick) soils: clay mineral contents as a possible tool of environmental indicator. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal 15 (4): 339-356.

Valente, D.S.M, de Queiroz, D.M., Pinto, F.A.C., Santos, N.T., Santos, F.L., 2012. The relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity and soil properties. Revista Ciência Agronômica 43 (4): 683-690.

Vereecken, H., Schnepf, A., Hopmans, J. W., Javaux, M., Or, D., Roose, T., ... Tiktak, A., 2016. Modeling soil processes: review, key challenges and new perspective. Vadose Zone Journal 15 (5): 1-57.

Weisz, R., Fleischer, S., Smilowitz, Z., 1995. map generation in high-value horticultural ıntegrated pest management: appropriate ınterpolation methods for site-specific pest management of colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 88(6): 1650-1657.

Wӧsten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Y.A.,Raws, W.J., 2001. Pedotransfer functions: bridging the gap between available basic soil data and missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 251(3-4): 123-150.

Zhang, H., Schroder, J.L., Pittman, J.J., Wang, J.J., Payton, M.E., 2005. Soil salinity using saturated paste and 1:1 soil to water extract. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 1146–1151.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science