Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 2, Apr 2019, Pages 118 - 130
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.533454
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.533454
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

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Lelago,A., Buraka,T., 2019. Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(2):118 - 130. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454
Lelago,A.,,& Buraka,T. Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(2):118 - 130. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454
Lelago,A.,, and ,Buraka,T."Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.2 (2019):118 - 130. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454
Lelago,A.,, and ,Buraka,T. "Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Apr 2019):118 - 130 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454
A,Lelago.T,Buraka "Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.2, pp.118 - 130 (Apr 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454
Lelago,Alemu ;Buraka,Tadele Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.2:118 - 130. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454

How to cite

Lelago, A., Buraka, T., 2019. Determination of physico-chemical properties and agricultural potentials of soils in Tembaro District, KembataTembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(2): 118 - 130. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.533454

Author information

Alemu Lelago , Department of Chemistry, Wolita Sodo University, Wolita Sodo, Ethiopia
Tadele Buraka , Department of Plant Science, Wachamo University, Hosana, Ethiopia

Publication information

Article first published online : 28 Feb 2019
Manuscript Accepted : 19 Feb 2019
Manuscript Received: 21 Aug 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.533454
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.533454

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to classify the soils of Tembaro district, and to identify its potentials for crop production. Five pits representing a pedon each were opened and profile in each pit was described for its morphological, physical and chemical characteristics according to standard procedures. A total of 20 disturbed soil samples and 16 core ring samples were collected from five representative profiles. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for texture, BD, FC, PWP, Soil pH, EC, OC, TN, av.P, av.K, exchangeable bases, free and active iron and CEC. The results showed that the proportions of soil separates varied among profile and depth however, soils were all in clay textural class. The BD varied from 1.02 in the surface profile 1 to 1.25 g.cm-3 in the profile 3. Soil pH ranged from 6.8 to 5.4 in the surface horizons of all profiles with further decrease with depth indicating that the soils in the watershed are slightly acidic to moderately acidic. The OM and TN contents ranged from 2.90 to 5.43 and 0.23 to 0.45% in the surface horizon and they were in the low, low to medium and high categories respectively. The corresponding values for the remaining subsoil horizons were in the low categories. In all cases the contents of these parameters decreased considerably with depths. Available P was below critical values for all profiles and depths except for profiles 1 and 4. Exchangeable K was above critical value in all profiles with increasing trend along with depth of all profiles. Exchangeable Mg varied from 2.47 in surface horizon of profile 3 to 3.98 cmolc kg-1 in the surface horizons of profile 4 and increased with depth in all profiles except in profile 1. The observation with exchangeable K and Mg implies that there is leaching phenomenon in the study area. Ca ranged from 4. 35 cmolc kg -1 in profile 5 to 16.50 cmolc kg -1 in profile 1 with inconsistent trend with depth. The CEC from 18.22 cmolc kg -1 soil in surface horizon of profile 5 to 27.43 cmolc kg-1 soil in the surface horizons of profile 1 indicating they are in the medium to high ranges. But inconsistent trend in CEC distribution was observed with depth in all profiles. Based on the data collected from profile description study and soil physicochemical analytical data and according to FAO-WRD soil classification legend, the soil at Ambukuna watershed were classified as Haplic Nitisols (Endoeutric, humic), Haplic Nitisols (Hypereutric, humic), Haplic Nitisols (Endoeutric) and Haplic Nitisols (Epidystric, Humic). Most of the soil physical and some of the chemical characteristics studied could be ranked as good indicating that the area has high potential for agricultural production.

Keywords

Agricultural constraints and potentials, soil physicochemical properties, soil profiles, profile des

Corresponding author

References

Abate, A., Kibret, K., Gebrekidan, H., Esayas, A., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence at the Wadla Delanta Massif, North Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 6(9): 304-320.

Abayneh, E.A., 2005. Characteristics, genesis and classification of sesquioxidic  soils from Sidamo region of Ethiopia. PhD Thesis,  School of Graduate Studies, University of Putra Malaysia. Malaysia. 233p.

Anetor, M.O.. Akinrinde, E.A., 2006. Lime effectiveness of some fertilizers in tropical acid alfisols. Central European Agriculture Journal 8(1): 17-24.

Askegaard, M., Eriksen, J., Johnston,  A.E., 2004. Sustainable management of potassium. In: Schjønning, P., Elmholt, S., Christenen, B.T., (Eds.) Managing Soil Quality: Challenges in Modern Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.. pp. 85-102.

Beernaert, F., 1990. Simple and practical methods to evaluate analytical data of soil profiles. Maputo, Mozambique. pp. 145-150.

Blakemore, L.C., Searle, P.L., Daly, B.K., 1987. Methods for chemical analysis of  soils. NZ Soil Bureau, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. 103p.

Brady N.C., Weil, R.R., 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soil, 13th edition. Preason Education, Asia. 960p.

Brook, R.H., 1983. International course on soil and plant analysis: Lecture notes. Service Laboratory for Soil, Plant and Water Analysis, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., McDaniel, P.A., 2003. Soil Genesis and Classification. 5th edition. Iowa State University Press. Ames, USA 494p.

Carter, D.C., 1993. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Canadian Soil Science Society. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 823p.

Churchman, G.J., Whitton, J.S., Claridge, G.G.C., Theng, B.K.G., 1983. A rapid test for  halloysite. Soil Taxonomy News 5:10.

CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2017. Statistical Bulliten for crop production forecast sample survey. CSA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., Erkoçak, A., Durmuş, M., 2013. Variables of microbial response in natural soil aggregates for soil characterization in different fluvial land shapes. Geomicrobiology Journal  30(2); 100-107.

EMLS, 1976. Ethiopian Ministry of Lands and Settlement, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil description (4th Edition), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 109p. Available at [Access date: 21.08.2018]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

FAO, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 198p. Available at [Access date: 21.08.2018]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Fekadu, E., Kibret, K., Bedadi, B., Melese, A., 2018. Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 151-166.

Foth, H.D., 2003. Fundamentals of Soil Science, John Willey Sons. New York. USA. 360p.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Willey Sons. New York. USA. 680p.

Gupta, P.K., 2000. Soil, Plant, Water and Fertilizer Analyses. Agrobis India. 438p.

Hailu, A.H.,  Kibret, K., Gebrekidan, H., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of Kabe Subwatershed in South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Soil Science 3(7): 134-146.

Havlin, J.L., Tisdale, S.L., 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. Prentice  Hall, New Jersey, USA. 499p.

Hillel, D., 1980. Fundamentals of Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York. USA. 413p.

Jones, B.J., 2003. Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils, and Their Fertility. CRC Press, New York. USA. 530p.

Kapkiyai, J.J., Karanja, N.K., Woomer, P., Qureshi, J.N., 1998. Soil organic carbon fractions in a long-term experiment and the potential for their use as a diagnostic assay in highland farming systems of Central Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 6(1): 19-28.

Landon, J., 1991. Booker Tropical Soil Manual: A Hand Book for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Subtropics. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. USA. 474p.

Mabbutt, J.A., 1984. A new global assessment of the status and trends of desertification. Environmental Conservation 11(2): 103-113.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, London. UK. 901p.

Mehlich, A., 1984. Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  15(12): 1409-1416.

Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals pp.317-327.

Mishra, B.B., Gebrekidan, H., Kibret, K., 2004. Soils of Ethiopia: Perceptions, appraisal and constraints in relation to food security. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 2(3&4): 269-279.

Morgan, M.F., 1941. Chemical diagnosis by the universal soil testing system. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 450. USA.

Munsell Color Company, 1975, Munsell soil color charts, Munsell color company Inc. Baltimore 18, Maryland, USA.

Okalebo, J.R., Gathua, K.W., Womer, P.L., 2002. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analyses: A working manual, 2nd Edition. TSBF-CIAT and SACRED Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. 128p.

Sanchez, P.A., Sheperd, K.D. Soule, M.J., Place, F.M., Buresh, R.J., Izac, A.M.N., Mokwunye, A.U., Kwesiga, F.R., Ndritu, C.G., Woomer, P.L., 1997. Soil Fertility Replenishment in Africa: An Investment in Natural Resource Capital. In: Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa. Buresh, R.J. Sanchez, P.A., Calhoun, F., (Eds.) SSSA Special Publication No. 51. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.1-46.

Sanginga, N., Woomer, P.L., 2009. Integrated soil fertility management in Africa: Principles, practices and developmental process. Tropical Soil and Fertility Institute of the International Centre for Tropical agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya. 263 pp.

Sekhar, C.C., Balaguravaiah, D., Naidu, M.V.S., 2014. Studies on genesis, characterization and classification of soils in central and Eastern parts of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 24: 125-137.

Shiferaw, B.,. 2004. Soil phosphorus fractions as influenced by different cropping systems in Andosols and Nitosols in Kembata-Tembaro and Wolayta Zones, SNNPRS. MSc Thesis. Alemaya University, Ethiopia. 131p.

Sims, J.T., 2000. Soil fertility evaluation. In: Sumner, M.E. (Ed.), Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. D113– D127.

Taye, B., 2007. An overview of acid soils their management in Ethiopia. 3rd International Workshop on Water Management (Wterman) project, September, 19-21, 2007, Haromaya, Ethiopia.

Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, J.D. Beaton and J.L. Havlin, 2002. Soil Fertility and Fertilizer. 7th Ed. Prentice-Hall, New Delhi, India. 633p.

Tuma, A., 2007. Effects of fruit based land use systems on soil physicochemical properties: the case of smallholders farming systems in Gamo Gofa, Souther Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. School of Graduate Studies, Hawassa University, Ethiophia.

Van Reeuwijk, L.P., 2002. Procedures for soil analysis. Technical Paper 9. 6th Edition. International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) & Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Wakene, N., Heluf, G., 2003. Forms of phosphorus and status of available micronutrients under different land-use systems of Alfisols in Bako area of Ethiopia. Journal of Ethiopian Natural Resources, 5: 17-37.

Wakene, N.C., 2001. Assessment of important physico-chemical properties of Dystric Udaf  (Dysrtic Nitosols) under different management systems in Bako area, Western Ethiopia. MSc Thesis. School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University, Ethiophia.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-37.

Wang, J.P., Raman, H., Zhang, G.P., Mendham, N., Zhou, M.X., 2006: Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science B 7(10): 769-787.

WAO, 2011. Annual Report. Tembaro, Ethiopia.

Werner, M.R., 1997. Soil quality characteristics during conversion to organic orchard management. Applied Soil Ecology 5(2): 151-167.

Yerima, B.P.K., 1993. Manuals for good laboratory practice. Improvement of Soil Service for Agricultural Development (Eth⁄87⁄010). Field Document no. 52. Land Use Planning and Regulatory Department, Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection ⁄FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 191p.

Yihenew, G.,  2002. Selected physical and chemical characteristics of soil of Adet Research Centre and its testing sites in Northwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 4(2):199-215.

Yohannes, G.M., 1989. Land use, Agricultural production and soil conservationmethods in the Andit Tid area, Shewa Region. Soil Conservation Research Project, Research Report 17. University of Berne, Switzerland in association with The United Nations University. 151p.

Young, A., 1976. Tropical Soils and Soil Survey. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. 468p.

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to classify the soils of Tembaro district, and to identify its potentials for crop production.  Five pits representing a pedon each were opened and profile in each pit was described for its morphological, physical and chemical characteristics according to standard procedures. A total of 20 disturbed soil samples and 16 core ring samples were collected from five representative profiles. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for texture, BD, FC, PWP, Soil pH, EC, OC, TN, av.P, av.K, exchangeable bases, free and active iron and CEC. The results showed that the proportions of soil separates varied among profile and depth however, soils were all in clay textural class. The BD varied from 1.02 in the surface profile 1 to 1.25 g.cm-3 in the profile 3. Soil pH ranged from 6.8 to 5.4 in the surface horizons of all profiles with further decrease with depth indicating that the soils in the watershed are slightly acidic to moderately acidic.  The OM and TN contents ranged from 2.90 to 5.43 and 0.23 to 0.45% in the surface horizon and they were in the low, low to medium and high categories respectively. The corresponding values for the remaining subsoil horizons were in the low categories. In all cases the contents of these parameters decreased considerably with depths. Available P was below critical values for all profiles and depths except for profiles 1 and 4. Exchangeable K was above critical value in all profiles with increasing trend along with depth of all profiles.  Exchangeable Mg varied from 2.47 in surface horizon of profile 3 to 3.98 cmolc kg-1 in the surface horizons of profile 4 and increased with depth in all profiles except in profile 1. The observation with exchangeable K and Mg implies that there is leaching phenomenon in the study area. Ca ranged from 4. 35 cmolc kg -1 in profile 5 to 16.50 cmolc kg -1 in profile 1 with inconsistent trend with depth. The CEC from 18.22 cmolc kg -1 soil in surface horizon of profile 5  to 27.43 cmolc kg-1 soil  in the surface horizons of profile 1 indicating they are in the medium to high ranges. But inconsistent trend in CEC distribution was observed with depth in all profiles. Based on the data collected from profile description study and soil physicochemical analytical data and according to FAO-WRD soil classification legend, the soil at Ambukuna watershed were classified as Haplic Nitisols (Endoeutric, humic), Haplic Nitisols (Hypereutric, humic), Haplic Nitisols (Endoeutric) and Haplic Nitisols (Epidystric, Humic). Most of the soil physical and some of the chemical characteristics studied could be ranked as good indicating that the area has high potential for agricultural production.

Keywords: Agricultural constraints and potentials, soil physicochemical properties, soil profiles, profile description.

References

Abate, A., Kibret, K., Gebrekidan, H., Esayas, A., 2014. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence at the Wadla Delanta Massif, North Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 6(9): 304-320.

Abayneh, E.A., 2005. Characteristics, genesis and classification of sesquioxidic  soils from Sidamo region of Ethiopia. PhD Thesis,  School of Graduate Studies, University of Putra Malaysia. Malaysia. 233p.

Anetor, M.O.. Akinrinde, E.A., 2006. Lime effectiveness of some fertilizers in tropical acid alfisols. Central European Agriculture Journal 8(1): 17-24.

Askegaard, M., Eriksen, J., Johnston,  A.E., 2004. Sustainable management of potassium. In: Schjønning, P., Elmholt, S., Christenen, B.T., (Eds.) Managing Soil Quality: Challenges in Modern Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.. pp. 85-102.

Beernaert, F., 1990. Simple and practical methods to evaluate analytical data of soil profiles. Maputo, Mozambique. pp. 145-150.

Blakemore, L.C., Searle, P.L., Daly, B.K., 1987. Methods for chemical analysis of  soils. NZ Soil Bureau, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. 103p.

Brady N.C., Weil, R.R., 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soil, 13th edition. Preason Education, Asia. 960p.

Brook, R.H., 1983. International course on soil and plant analysis: Lecture notes. Service Laboratory for Soil, Plant and Water Analysis, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., McDaniel, P.A., 2003. Soil Genesis and Classification. 5th edition. Iowa State University Press. Ames, USA 494p.

Carter, D.C., 1993. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Canadian Soil Science Society. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 823p.

Churchman, G.J., Whitton, J.S., Claridge, G.G.C., Theng, B.K.G., 1983. A rapid test for  halloysite. Soil Taxonomy News 5:10.

CSA (Central Statistical Authority), 2017. Statistical Bulliten for crop production forecast sample survey. CSA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., Erkoçak, A., Durmuş, M., 2013. Variables of microbial response in natural soil aggregates for soil characterization in different fluvial land shapes. Geomicrobiology Journal  30(2); 100-107.

EMLS, 1976. Ethiopian Ministry of Lands and Settlement, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

FAO, 2006. Guidelines for soil description (4th Edition), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 109p. Available at [Access date: 21.08.2018]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/a0541e/a0541e.pdf

FAO, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 198p. Available at [Access date: 21.08.2018]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Fekadu, E., Kibret, K., Bedadi, B., Melese, A., 2018. Characterization and classification of soils of Yikalo Subwatershed in Lay Gayint District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(2): 151-166.

Foth, H.D., 2003. Fundamentals of Soil Science, John Willey Sons. New York. USA. 360p.

Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A., 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Willey Sons. New York. USA. 680p.

Gupta, P.K., 2000. Soil, Plant, Water and Fertilizer Analyses. Agrobis India. 438p.

Hailu, A.H.,  Kibret, K., Gebrekidan, H., 2015. Characterization and classification of soils of Kabe Subwatershed in South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Soil Science 3(7): 134-146.

Havlin, J.L., Tisdale, S.L., 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. Prentice  Hall, New Jersey, USA. 499p.

Hillel, D., 1980. Fundamentals of Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York. USA. 413p.

Jones, B.J., 2003. Agronomic Handbook: Management of Crops, Soils, and Their Fertility. CRC Press, New York. USA. 530p.

Kapkiyai, J.J., Karanja, N.K., Woomer, P., Qureshi, J.N., 1998. Soil organic carbon fractions in a long-term experiment and the potential for their use as a diagnostic assay in highland farming systems of Central Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 6(1): 19-28.

Landon, J., 1991. Booker Tropical Soil Manual: A Hand Book for Soil Survey and Agricultural Land Evaluation in the Tropics and Subtropics. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. USA. 474p.

Mabbutt, J.A., 1984. A new global assessment of the status and trends of desertification. Environmental Conservation 11(2): 103-113.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, London. UK. 901p.

Mehlich, A., 1984. Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis  15(12): 1409-1416.

Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals pp.317-327.

Mishra, B.B., Gebrekidan, H., Kibret, K., 2004. Soils of Ethiopia: Perceptions, appraisal and constraints in relation to food security. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 2(3&4): 269-279.

Morgan, M.F., 1941. Chemical diagnosis by the universal soil testing system. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 450. USA.

Munsell Color Company, 1975, Munsell soil color charts, Munsell color company Inc. Baltimore 18, Maryland, USA.

Okalebo, J.R., Gathua, K.W., Womer, P.L., 2002. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analyses: A working manual, 2nd Edition. TSBF-CIAT and SACRED Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. 128p.

Sanchez, P.A., Sheperd, K.D. Soule, M.J., Place, F.M., Buresh, R.J., Izac, A.M.N., Mokwunye, A.U., Kwesiga, F.R., Ndritu, C.G., Woomer, P.L., 1997. Soil Fertility Replenishment in Africa: An Investment in Natural Resource Capital. In: Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa. Buresh, R.J. Sanchez, P.A., Calhoun, F., (Eds.) SSSA Special Publication No. 51. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.1-46.

Sanginga, N., Woomer, P.L., 2009. Integrated soil fertility management in Africa: Principles, practices and developmental process. Tropical Soil and Fertility Institute of the International Centre for Tropical agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya. 263 pp.

Sekhar, C.C., Balaguravaiah, D., Naidu, M.V.S., 2014. Studies on genesis, characterization and classification of soils in central and Eastern parts of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology 24: 125-137.

Shiferaw, B.,. 2004. Soil phosphorus fractions as influenced by different cropping systems in Andosols and Nitosols in Kembata-Tembaro and Wolayta Zones, SNNPRS. MSc Thesis. Alemaya University, Ethiopia. 131p.

Sims, J.T., 2000. Soil fertility evaluation. In: Sumner, M.E. (Ed.), Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. D113– D127.

Taye, B., 2007. An overview of acid soils their management in Ethiopia. 3rd International Workshop on Water Management (Wterman) project, September, 19-21, 2007, Haromaya, Ethiopia.

Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, J.D. Beaton and J.L. Havlin, 2002. Soil Fertility and Fertilizer. 7th Ed. Prentice-Hall, New Delhi, India. 633p.

Tuma, A., 2007. Effects of fruit based land use systems on soil physicochemical properties: the case of smallholders farming systems in Gamo Gofa, Souther Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. School of Graduate Studies, Hawassa University, Ethiophia.

Van Reeuwijk, L.P., 2002. Procedures for soil analysis. Technical Paper 9. 6th Edition. International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) & Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Wakene, N., Heluf, G., 2003. Forms of phosphorus and status of available micronutrients under different land-use systems of Alfisols in Bako area of Ethiopia. Journal of Ethiopian Natural Resources, 5: 17-37.

Wakene, N.C., 2001. Assessment of important physico-chemical properties of Dystric Udaf  (Dysrtic Nitosols) under different management systems in Bako area, Western Ethiopia. MSc Thesis. School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University, Ethiophia.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-37.

Wang, J.P., Raman, H., Zhang, G.P., Mendham, N., Zhou, M.X., 2006: Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science B 7(10): 769-787.

WAO, 2011. Annual Report. Tembaro, Ethiopia.

Werner, M.R., 1997. Soil quality characteristics during conversion to organic orchard management. Applied Soil Ecology 5(2): 151-167.

Yerima, B.P.K., 1993. Manuals for good laboratory practice. Improvement of Soil Service for Agricultural Development (Eth⁄87⁄010). Field Document no. 52. Land Use Planning and Regulatory Department, Ministry of Natural Resources Development and Environmental Protection ⁄FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 191p.

Yihenew, G.,  2002. Selected physical and chemical characteristics of soil of Adet Research Centre and its testing sites in Northwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Natural Resources 4(2):199-215.

Yohannes, G.M., 1989. Land use, Agricultural production and soil conservationmethods in the Andit Tid area, Shewa Region. Soil Conservation Research Project, Research Report 17. University of Berne, Switzerland in association with The United Nations University. 151p.

Young, A., 1976. Tropical Soils and Soil Survey. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. 468p.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science