Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 8, Issue 1, Jan 2019, Pages 17 - 26
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.484654
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.484654
Copyright © 2019 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil

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Irfan,M., Abbas,M., Shah,J., Depar,N., Memon,M., Sial,N., 2019. Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 8(1):17 - 26. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654
Irfan,M.,Abbas,M.Shah,J.Depar,N.Memon,M.,& Sial,N. Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8(1):17 - 26. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654
Irfan,M.,Abbas,M.Shah,J.Depar,N.Memon,M., and ,Sial,N."Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 8.1 (2019):17 - 26. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654
Irfan,M.,Abbas,M.Shah,J.Depar,N.Memon,M., and ,Sial,N. "Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,8(Jan 2019):17 - 26 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654
M,Irfan.M,Abbas.J,Shah.N,Depar.M,Memon.N,Sial "Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.8, no.1, pp.17 - 26 (Jan 2019), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654
Irfan,Muhammad ;Abbas,Muhammad ;Shah,Javaid Ahmed ;Depar,Nizamuddin ;Memon,Muhammad Yousuf ;Sial,Niaz Ali Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2019),8.1:17 - 26. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654

How to cite

Irfan, M., Abbas, M., Shah, J., Depar, N., Memon, M., Sial, N., 2019. Interactive effect of phosphorus and boron on plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 8(1): 17 - 26. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.484654

Author information

Muhammad Irfan , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan Tandojam, Pakistan
Muhammad Abbas , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan
Javaid Ahmed Shah , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan
Nizamuddin Depar , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan
Muhammad Yousuf Memon , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan
Niaz Ali Sial , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Pakistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 Nov 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 13 Nov 2018
Manuscript Received: 17 May 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.484654
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.484654

Abstract

Most of the arable soils in Pakistan are deficient in plant available phosphorus (P) and boron (B) primarily due to alkaline and calcareous nature along with low organic matter. A combined deficiency of these nutrients may intensify the plant growth suppression by reducing their efficient utilization. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effect of P and B on growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil. Wheat crop was grown at three P levels (45, 90 and 135 kg P ha-1) in combination with five B levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg B ha-1) following completely randomized design. The results revealed that yield and yield related attributes increased linearly with the addition of B at each P level. Nonetheless, the significant interactive effect of both nutrients was most pronounced in the treatment having 90 kg P ha-1 and 1.5 kg B ha-1. Applied B rates resulted in relatively higher P concentration in grains and straw at P level of 90 kg ha-1 contrarily to 45 and 135 kg P ha-1. The B concentration in grains and straw increased with corresponding addition of B at each P level but at variable rate, with the maximum response at higher P level. Grain and straw yield illustrated positive correlation with total P uptake (R2 = 0.96 and 0.81) and total B uptake (R2 = 0.95 and 0.70) respectively. Likewise, positive correlation (R2 = 0.94) between total P uptake and total B uptake under combined application of P and B indicated their synergistic relationship. Overall, the treatment combination of 90 kg P ha-1 with 1.5 kg B ha-1 was found as the most suitable dose for better plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat.

Keywords

Boron nutrition, grain yield, nutrient interaction, synergism, wheat.

Corresponding author

References

Abbas, M., Irfan, M., Shah, J.A., Memon, M.Y., 2018a. Intra-specific variations among wheat genotypes for phosphorus use efficiency. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6(1): 35-45.

Abbas, M., Shah, J.A., Irfan, M., Memon, M.Y., 2018b. Remobilization and utilization of phosphorus in wheat cultivars under induced phosphorus deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(12): 1522-1533.

Akhtar, M.S., Oki, Y., Adachi, T., 2008. Intra-specific variations of phosphorus absorption and remobilization, P forms, and their internal buffering in Brassica cultivars exposed to a P‐stressed environment. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50(6): 703-716.

Alam, M.R., Ali, M.A., Rafiquzzaman, S., Ahmed, B., Bazzaz, M., 2010. Effect of phosphorus and boron on the performance of summer mungbean in high Ganges river floodplain soil. Journal of Agroforestry and Environment 3(2): 183-186.

Ali, F., Ali, A., Gul, H., Sharif, M., Sadiq, A., Ahmed, A., Ullah, A., Mahar, A., Kalhoro, S.A., 2015. Effect of boron soil application on nutrients efficiency in tobacco leaf. American Journal of Plant Sciences 6(9): 1391-1400.

Alinajoati, S.S., Mirshekari, B., 2011. Effect of phosphorus fertilization and seed biofertilization on harvest index and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat cultivars. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9(2): 388-397.

Bingham, F.T., 1982. Boron. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 431-448.

Bonilla, I., El-Hamdaoui, A., Bolaños, L., 2004. Boron and calcium increase Pisum sativum seed germination and seedling development under salt stress. Plant and Soil 267(1-2): 97-107.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R., 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 1104p.

Camacho-Cristóbal, J.J., Martín-Rejano, E.M., Herrera-Rodríguez, M.B., Navarro-Gochicoa, M.T., Rexach, J., González-Fontes, A., 2015. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany 66(13): 3831-3840.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Riverside, USA. 309p.

Chowdhury, S.Z., Sobahan, M.A., Shamim, A.H.M., Akter, N., Hossain, M.M., 2015. Interaction effect of phosphorus and boron on yield and quality of lettuce. Azarian Journal of Agriculture 2(6): 147-154.

Davies, M.J., Atkinson, C.J., Burns, C., Arroo, R., Woolley, J., 2011. Increases in leaf artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua in response to the application of phosphorus and boron. Industrial Crops and Products 34(3): 1465-1473.

El-Habbasha, S.F., Hozayn, M., Khalafallah, A., 2007. Integration effect between phosphorus levels and biofertilizers on quality and quantity yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in newly cultivated sandy soils. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3: 966-971.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of Soil, Plant and Water Analysis: A Manual for the West Asia and North Africa Region. 3rd edition. ICARDA, Beirut, Lebanon. 243p.

GOP (Government of Pakistan), 2017. Pakistan Economic Survey 2016-17. Finance Division, Advisory Wing, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 23-24.

Gupta, U., Solanki, H., 2013. Impact of boron deficiency on plant growth. International Journal of Bioassays 2: 1048-1050.

Han, S., Chen, L.S., Jiang, H.X., Smith, B.R., Yang, L.T., Xie, C.Y., 2008. Boron deficiency decreases growth and photosynthesis and increases starch and hexoses in leaves of citrus seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 165(13): 1331-1341.

Hewitt, E.J., 1983. Diagnosis of mineral disorders in plants.  H.M.S.O., London, UK.

Hinsinger, P., Betencourt, E., Bernard, L., Bruman, A., Plassard, C., Shen, J., Tang, X., Zhang, F., 2011. P for two, sharing a scarce resource: Soil phosphorus acquisition in the rhizosphere of intercropped species. Plant Physiology 156(3): 1078-1086.

Huang, Y.F., Huang, L.B., Yan, X.L., Lia, H., 2012. Effects of phosphorus and boron coupled deficiency on soybean growth, phosphorus, boron uptake and the genetic variations. Journal of South China Agricultural University 33: 129-134.

Irfan, M., Abbas, M., Shah, J.A., Memon, M.Y., 2018. Grain yield, nutrient accumulation and fertilizer efficiency in bread wheat under variable nitrogen and phosphorus regimes. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 14: 80-86.

Irfan, M., Memon, M.Y., Shah, J.A., Abbas, M., 2016. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus in different ratios to affect paddy yield, nutrient uptake and efficiency relations in rice. Journal of Environment and Agriculture 1: 79-86.

Irfan, M., Shah, J.A., Abbas, M., 2017. Evaluating the performance of mungbean genotypes for grain yield, phosphorus accumulation and utilization efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40(19): 2709-2720.

Jackson, M.L., 1962. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Chiffs, New York, USA 498p.

Kabir, R., Yeasmin, S., Islam, A.K.M.M., Sarkar, M.A.R., 2013. Effect of phosphorus, calcium and boron on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). International Journal of Bio-Science Bio-Technology 5(3): 51-59.

Kaya, C., Tuna, A.L., Dikilitas, M., Ashraf, M., Koskeroglu, S., Guneri, M., 2009. Supplementary phosphorus can alleviate boron toxicity in tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 121(3): 284-288.

Lambers, H., Plaxton, W.C., 2015. Phosphorus: Back to the roots. In: Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 48: Phosphorus Metabolism in Plants. Plaxton, W.C. Lambers, H. (Eds.). Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford, UK. pp. 3-22.

Lei, Z., Min, Z., Baocheng, C., 2009. Effects of cooperant use of boron and phosphorus on growth and quality of Brassica napus L. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletine 25(5): 173-177

Majidi, A., Rahnemaie, R., Hassani, A., Malakouti, M.J., 2010. Adsorption and desorption processes of boron in calcareous soils. Chemosphere 80(7): 733-739.

Marschner, P., 2012. Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic press. New York, USA. 672p.

Matula, J., 2009. Boron sorption in soils and its extractability by soil tests (Mehlich 3, ammonium acetate and water extraction). Plant, Soil and Environment 55(1): 42-49.

Mclean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 199-208.

Muhlbachova, G., Cermak, P., Vavera, R., Kas, M., Pechova, M., Markova, K., Kusa, H., Ruzek, P., Hlusek, J., Losak, T., 2017. Boron availability and uptake under increasing phosphorus rates in a pot experiment. Plant, Soil and Environment 63(11): 483-490.

NAMC, 2017. Climate maps. National Meteorological Center–Pakistan Meteorological Department. Available at [accessed at: 14.05.2017]. http://namc.pmd.gov.pk/climate-maps.php

Nelson, D.W. and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 539-579.

Niaz, A., Nawaz, A., Ehsan, S., Saleem, I., Ilyas, M., Majeed, A., Muhmood, A., Ranjha, A.M., Rahmatullah, Ahmed, N., 2016. Impacts of residual boron on wheat applied to previous cotton crop under alkaline calcareous soils of Punjab. Science Letters 4(1): 33-39.

Oyinlola, E.Y., 2007. Effect of boron fertilizer on yield and oil content of three sunflower cultivars in the Nigerian Savanna. Journal of Agronomy 6(3): 421-426.

Pollard, A.S., Parr, A.J., Loughman, B.C., 1977. Boron in relation to membrane function in higher plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 28(105): 831-844.

Rashid, A., 2006. Incidence, diagnosis and management of micronutrient deficiencies in crops: Success stories and limitations in Pakistan. IFA International Workshop on Micronutrients. 27 February - 02 March 2006, Kunming, China. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Paris, France. pp. 1-23.

Rashid, A., Yasin, M., Ashraf, M., Mann, R.A., 2004. Boron deficiency in calcareous soil reduces rice yield and impairs grain quality. International Rice Research Notes 29(1): 58-60.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Handbook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Singh, V., Singh, S.P., 1983. Effect of applied boron on the chemical composition of lentil plants. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 31(1): 169-170.

Soltanpour, P.N., Workman, S., 1979. Modification of the NH4 HCO3‐DTPA soil test to omit carbon black. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 10(1): 1411-1420.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., Dicky, D.A., 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill Book Inter. Co., Singapore. 672p.

Subedi, K.D., Budhathoki, C.B., Subedi, M., 1997. Variation in sterility among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in response to boron deficiency in Nepal. Euphytica 95(1): 21-26.

Tariq, M., Mott, C.J.B., 2007. Effect of boron on the behavior of nutrients in soil-plant systems-a review. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6(1): 195-202.

Uraguchi, S., Fujiwara, T., 2011. Significant contribution of boron stored in seeds to initial growth of rice seedlings. Plant and Soil 340(1-2): 435-442.

Watanabe, T., Osaki, M., Yano, H., Rao, I.M., 2006. Internal mechanisms of plant adaptation to aluminum toxicity and phosphorus starvation in three tropical forages. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29(7): 1243-1255.

Abstract

Most of the arable soils in Pakistan are deficient in plant available phosphorus (P) and boron (B) primarily due to alkaline and calcareous nature along with low organic matter. A combined deficiency of these nutrients may intensify the plant growth suppression by reducing their efficient utilization. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effect of P and B on growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat grown on calcareous soil. Wheat crop was grown at three P levels (45, 90 and 135 kg P ha-1) in combination with five B levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg B ha-1) following completely randomized design. The results revealed that yield and yield related attributes increased linearly with the addition of B at each P level. Nonetheless, the significant interactive effect of both nutrients was most pronounced in the treatment having 90 kg P ha-1 and 1.5 kg B ha-1. Applied B rates resulted in relatively higher P concentration in grains and straw at P level of 90 kg ha-1 contrarily to 45 and 135 kg P ha-1. The B concentration in grains and straw increased with corresponding addition of B at each P level but at variable rate, with the maximum response at higher P level. Grain and straw yield illustrated positive correlation with total P uptake (R2 = 0.96 and 0.81) and total B uptake (R2 = 0.95 and 0.70) respectively. Likewise, positive correlation (R2 = 0.94) between total P uptake and total B uptake under combined application of P and B indicated their synergistic relationship. Overall, the treatment combination of 90 kg P ha-1 with 1.5 kg B ha-1 was found as the most suitable dose for better plant growth, nutrient accumulation and grain yield of wheat.

Keywords: Boron nutrition, grain yield, nutrient interaction, synergism, wheat.

References

Abbas, M., Irfan, M., Shah, J.A., Memon, M.Y., 2018a. Intra-specific variations among wheat genotypes for phosphorus use efficiency. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6(1): 35-45.

Abbas, M., Shah, J.A., Irfan, M., Memon, M.Y., 2018b. Remobilization and utilization of phosphorus in wheat cultivars under induced phosphorus deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(12): 1522-1533.

Akhtar, M.S., Oki, Y., Adachi, T., 2008. Intra-specific variations of phosphorus absorption and remobilization, P forms, and their internal buffering in Brassica cultivars exposed to a P‐stressed environment. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50(6): 703-716.

Alam, M.R., Ali, M.A., Rafiquzzaman, S., Ahmed, B., Bazzaz, M., 2010. Effect of phosphorus and boron on the performance of summer mungbean in high Ganges river floodplain soil. Journal of Agroforestry and Environment 3(2): 183-186.

Ali, F., Ali, A., Gul, H., Sharif, M., Sadiq, A., Ahmed, A., Ullah, A., Mahar, A., Kalhoro, S.A., 2015. Effect of boron soil application on nutrients efficiency in tobacco leaf. American Journal of Plant Sciences 6(9): 1391-1400.

Alinajoati, S.S., Mirshekari, B., 2011. Effect of phosphorus fertilization and seed biofertilization on harvest index and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat cultivars. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9(2): 388-397.

Bingham, F.T., 1982. Boron. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 431-448.

Bonilla, I., El-Hamdaoui, A., Bolaños, L., 2004. Boron and calcium increase Pisum sativum seed germination and seedling development under salt stress. Plant and Soil 267(1-2): 97-107.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R., 2008. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 1104p.

Camacho-Cristóbal, J.J., Martín-Rejano, E.M., Herrera-Rodríguez, M.B., Navarro-Gochicoa, M.T., Rexach, J., González-Fontes, A., 2015. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany 66(13): 3831-3840.

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Riverside, USA. 309p.

Chowdhury, S.Z., Sobahan, M.A., Shamim, A.H.M., Akter, N., Hossain, M.M., 2015. Interaction effect of phosphorus and boron on yield and quality of lettuce. Azarian Journal of Agriculture 2(6): 147-154.

Davies, M.J., Atkinson, C.J., Burns, C., Arroo, R., Woolley, J., 2011. Increases in leaf artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua in response to the application of phosphorus and boron. Industrial Crops and Products 34(3): 1465-1473.

El-Habbasha, S.F., Hozayn, M., Khalafallah, A., 2007. Integration effect between phosphorus levels and biofertilizers on quality and quantity yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in newly cultivated sandy soils. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3: 966-971.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of Soil, Plant and Water Analysis: A Manual for the West Asia and North Africa Region. 3rd edition. ICARDA, Beirut, Lebanon. 243p.

GOP (Government of Pakistan), 2017. Pakistan Economic Survey 2016-17. Finance Division, Advisory Wing, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 23-24.

Gupta, U., Solanki, H., 2013. Impact of boron deficiency on plant growth. International Journal of Bioassays 2: 1048-1050.

Han, S., Chen, L.S., Jiang, H.X., Smith, B.R., Yang, L.T., Xie, C.Y., 2008. Boron deficiency decreases growth and photosynthesis and increases starch and hexoses in leaves of citrus seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 165(13): 1331-1341.

Hewitt, E.J., 1983. Diagnosis of mineral disorders in plants.  H.M.S.O., London, UK.

Hinsinger, P., Betencourt, E., Bernard, L., Bruman, A., Plassard, C., Shen, J., Tang, X., Zhang, F., 2011. P for two, sharing a scarce resource: Soil phosphorus acquisition in the rhizosphere of intercropped species. Plant Physiology 156(3): 1078-1086.

Huang, Y.F., Huang, L.B., Yan, X.L., Lia, H., 2012. Effects of phosphorus and boron coupled deficiency on soybean growth, phosphorus, boron uptake and the genetic variations. Journal of South China Agricultural University 33: 129-134.

Irfan, M., Abbas, M., Shah, J.A., Memon, M.Y., 2018. Grain yield, nutrient accumulation and fertilizer efficiency in bread wheat under variable nitrogen and phosphorus regimes. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 14: 80-86.

Irfan, M., Memon, M.Y., Shah, J.A., Abbas, M., 2016. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus in different ratios to affect paddy yield, nutrient uptake and efficiency relations in rice. Journal of Environment and Agriculture 1: 79-86.

Irfan, M., Shah, J.A., Abbas, M., 2017. Evaluating the performance of mungbean genotypes for grain yield, phosphorus accumulation and utilization efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40(19): 2709-2720.

Jackson, M.L., 1962. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Chiffs, New York, USA 498p.

Kabir, R., Yeasmin, S., Islam, A.K.M.M., Sarkar, M.A.R., 2013. Effect of phosphorus, calcium and boron on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). International Journal of Bio-Science Bio-Technology 5(3): 51-59.

Kaya, C., Tuna, A.L., Dikilitas, M., Ashraf, M., Koskeroglu, S., Guneri, M., 2009. Supplementary phosphorus can alleviate boron toxicity in tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 121(3): 284-288.

Lambers, H., Plaxton, W.C., 2015. Phosphorus: Back to the roots. In: Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 48: Phosphorus Metabolism in Plants. Plaxton, W.C. Lambers, H. (Eds.). Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford, UK. pp. 3-22.

Lei, Z., Min, Z., Baocheng, C., 2009. Effects of cooperant use of boron and phosphorus on growth and quality of Brassica napus L. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletine 25(5): 173-177

Majidi, A., Rahnemaie, R., Hassani, A., Malakouti, M.J., 2010. Adsorption and desorption processes of boron in calcareous soils. Chemosphere 80(7): 733-739.

Marschner, P., 2012. Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic press. New York, USA. 672p.

Matula, J., 2009. Boron sorption in soils and its extractability by soil tests (Mehlich 3, ammonium acetate and water extraction). Plant, Soil and Environment 55(1): 42-49.

Mclean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 199-208.

Muhlbachova, G., Cermak, P., Vavera, R., Kas, M., Pechova, M., Markova, K., Kusa, H., Ruzek, P., Hlusek, J., Losak, T., 2017. Boron availability and uptake under increasing phosphorus rates in a pot experiment. Plant, Soil and Environment 63(11): 483-490.

NAMC, 2017. Climate maps. National Meteorological Center–Pakistan Meteorological Department. Available at [accessed at: 14.05.2017]. http://namc.pmd.gov.pk/climate-maps.php

Nelson, D.W. and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 539-579.

Niaz, A., Nawaz, A., Ehsan, S., Saleem, I., Ilyas, M., Majeed, A., Muhmood, A., Ranjha, A.M., Rahmatullah, Ahmed, N., 2016. Impacts of residual boron on wheat applied to previous cotton crop under alkaline calcareous soils of Punjab. Science Letters 4(1): 33-39.

Oyinlola, E.Y., 2007. Effect of boron fertilizer on yield and oil content of three sunflower cultivars in the Nigerian Savanna. Journal of Agronomy 6(3): 421-426.

Pollard, A.S., Parr, A.J., Loughman, B.C., 1977. Boron in relation to membrane function in higher plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 28(105): 831-844.

Rashid, A., 2006. Incidence, diagnosis and management of micronutrient deficiencies in crops: Success stories and limitations in Pakistan. IFA International Workshop on Micronutrients. 27 February - 02 March 2006, Kunming, China. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Paris, France. pp. 1-23.

Rashid, A., Yasin, M., Ashraf, M., Mann, R.A., 2004. Boron deficiency in calcareous soil reduces rice yield and impairs grain quality. International Rice Research Notes 29(1): 58-60.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Handbook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Singh, V., Singh, S.P., 1983. Effect of applied boron on the chemical composition of lentil plants. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 31(1): 169-170.

Soltanpour, P.N., Workman, S., 1979. Modification of the NH4 HCO3‐DTPA soil test to omit carbon black. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 10(1): 1411-1420.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., Dicky, D.A., 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill Book Inter. Co., Singapore. 672p.

Subedi, K.D., Budhathoki, C.B., Subedi, M., 1997. Variation in sterility among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in response to boron deficiency in Nepal. Euphytica 95(1): 21-26.

Tariq, M., Mott, C.J.B., 2007. Effect of boron on the behavior of nutrients in soil-plant systems-a review. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6(1): 195-202.

Uraguchi, S., Fujiwara, T., 2011. Significant contribution of boron stored in seeds to initial growth of rice seedlings. Plant and Soil 340(1-2): 435-442.

Watanabe, T., Osaki, M., Yano, H., Rao, I.M., 2006. Internal mechanisms of plant adaptation to aluminum toxicity and phosphorus starvation in three tropical forages. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29(7): 1243-1255.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science