Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 4, Oct 2018, Pages 355 - 364
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.466424
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.466424
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan

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Ahmad,M., Muhammad,D., Mussarat,M., Naseer,M., Khan,M., Khan,A., Shafi,M., 2018. Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(4):355 - 364. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424
Ahmad,M.,Muhammad,D.Mussarat,M.Naseer,M.Khan,M.Khan,A.,& Shafi,M. Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(4):355 - 364. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424
Ahmad,M.,Muhammad,D.Mussarat,M.Naseer,M.Khan,M.Khan,A., and ,Shafi,M."Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.4 (2018):355 - 364. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424
Ahmad,M.,Muhammad,D.Mussarat,M.Naseer,M.Khan,M.Khan,A., and ,Shafi,M. "Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Oct 2018):355 - 364 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424
M,Ahmad.D,Muhammad.M,Mussarat.M,Naseer.M,Khan.A,Khan.M,Shafi "Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.4, pp.355 - 364 (Oct 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424
Ahmad,Munir ;Muhammad,Dost ;Mussarat,Maria ;Naseer,Muhammad ;Khan,Muhammad A. ;Khan,Abid A. ;Shafi,Muhammad Izhar Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.4:355 - 364. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424

How to cite

Ahmad, M., Muhammad, D., Mussarat, M., Naseer, M., Khan, M., Khan, A., Shafi, M., 2018. Spatial variability pattern and mapping of selected soil properties in hilly areas of Hindukush range northern, Pakistan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(4): 355 - 364. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.466424

Author information

Munir Ahmad , School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, China Dalian, China
Dost Muhammad , Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Maria Mussarat , Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Muhammad Naseer , Agricultural Research Station, Seen Lasht, Chitral, Pakistan
Muhammad A. Khan , Department of Weed Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Abid A. Khan , Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Muhammad Izhar Shafi , Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 29 Sep 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 16 Sep 2018
Manuscript Received: 23 Feb 2018
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.466424
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.466424

Abstract

Soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected from major crop areas of Hindukush mountainous range, District Chitral, extreme Northwestern Pakistan, during April 2014 to assess their physico-chemical properties and spatial distribution pattern. 103 soil samples were analyzed and maps were created by geostatistical technique of inverse distance weighting and kriging techniques using GIS and GS win-7 computer software. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to dominantly sandy loam, slightly acidic to alkaline and moderate to highly calcareous but with no salinity indication. Soil organic matter was higher than 2 % in about 75 % of samples. Soil pH, EC and lime showed slight dependence on each other with r values from 0.4 to 0.5 while OM varied independently as indicated by their lower correlation values. Semivariogram analysis showed that soil pH, lime, OM had strong spatial dependence (nugget-sill ratio,

Keywords

Spatial variability, soil mapping, kriging, Chitral district, geostatistics.

Corresponding author

References

Baber, K., Khattak, R.H., Hakeem., 2004. Physico-chemical characteristics and fertility status of Gilgit soils. Journal of Agricultural Research 42 (3-4): 305-312.

Bhatti, A.U., Mulla, D.J., Frazier, B.E., 1991. Estimation of soil properties and wheat yields on complex eroded hills using geostatistics and thematic mapper images. Remote Sensing of Environment 37(3): 181-191. 

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1936. Directions for making mechanical analysis of soils by the hydrometer method. Soil Science 42(3): 225–230.

Caers, J., 2005, Petroleum Geostatistics, Society of Petroleum Engineers. 88p.

Cambardella, C.A., Moorman, T.B., Parkin, D.L., Karlen, J.M., Novak, Turco, R.F., Konopka, A.E., 1994. Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society American Journal 58 (5): 1501–1511.

Charan, G., Bharti, V.K., Jadhav, S.E., Kumar, S., Acharya., Kumar, P., Gogoi, D., Srivastava, R.B., 2013. Altitudinal variations in soil physico-chemical properties at cold desert high altitude. Journal Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13(2): 267-277.

Friedman, S.P., 2005. Soil properties influencing apparent electrical conductivity: a review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 46(1-3): 45-70.

Hood, R.C., 2001. The effect of soil temperature and moisture on organic matter decomposition and plant growth. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 37(1): 25-41. 

Johnston, A.E., Goulding, K.W.T., Poulton. P.R., 1986. Soil acidification during more than 100 years under permanent grassland and woodland at Rothamsted. Journal of Soil Use Management 2 (1): 3-10.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.199-224.

Mellbye, M., 1988. The effect of surface liming on soil pH and calcium. Handout, Soil Acidity and Liming Symposium, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.

Mulla, D.J., Bhatti, A.U., Kunkel, R., 1990. Methods for removing spatial variability from field research trials. In: Advances in Soil Science, Singh R.P., Parr J.F., Stewart B.A. (Eds.). Vol 13,  Springer, New York, USA. pp. 201-213.

Nazif, W., Perveen, S., Saleem, I., 2006. Status of micronutrients in soils of district Bhimber (Azad Jammu and Kashmir). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 1(2): 35-40.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, D.R. Keeney (Eds.), 2nd Ed. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.539–573.

Olea, R.A., 1999. Geostatistics for Engineers and Earth Scientists. Kluwer Academic Publishers 324p. 

Ou, Y., Rousseau, N.A., Wang, L., Yan, B., 2017. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil organic carbon and pH in relation to environmental factors—A case study of the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 245: 22-31.

Rashid, A., Rafique, E., Bughio, N., 1994. Diagnosing boron deficiency in rapeseed and mustard by plant analysis and soil testing. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 25(17-18): 2883-2897.

Rashid, M., Bhatti, A.U., 2005. Mapping of spatial variability of macro and micronutrients for site specific management. Soil and Environment 24 (1): 34-52.

Rastija, M., Banaj, D., Markoviš, M., 2007. Influences of liming on nutritional status of soil. Cereal Research Communications 35 (2): 981-984.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Handbook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Risser, P.G., 1991. Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).  Wiley, New York. USA. 294p.

Sarwar, G., Schmeisky, H., Hussain, N., Muhammad, S., Ibrahim, M., Safdar, E., 2008. Improvement of soil physical and chemical properties with compost application in rice-wheat cropping system. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40 (1): 275-282.

Wasiullah, Bhatii, A.U., 2007. Physico-chemical properties of soils of Kohat and Bannu Districts NWFP Pakistan. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 29(1): 20-25

Wollum, A.G., Cassel, D.K., 1984. Spatial variability of Rhizobium japonicum in two North Carolina soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal 48(5): 1082-1086.

Abstract

Soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected from major crop areas of Hindukush mountainous range, District Chitral, extreme Northwestern Pakistan, during April 2014 to assess their physico-chemical properties and spatial distribution pattern. 103 soil samples were analyzed and maps were created by geostatistical technique of inverse distance weighting and kriging techniques using GIS and GS win-7 computer software. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to dominantly sandy loam, slightly acidic to alkaline and moderate to highly calcareous but with no salinity indication. Soil organic matter was higher than 2 % in about 75 % of samples. Soil pH, EC and lime showed slight dependence on each other with r values from 0.4 to 0.5 while OM varied independently as indicated by their lower correlation values. Semivariogram analysis showed that soil pH, lime, OM had strong spatial dependence (nugget-sill ratio, <25%) while silt, sand, EC had moderately (nugget-sill ratio, 25-75%) and clay had weakly distributed in the area. Linear, Gaussian and exponential models were used for different soil parameter based on nugget, mean prediction error and root mean square standardize prediction error values and maps were developed through extension techniques to cover all the area outside the sampling points.

Keywords: Spatial variability, soil mapping, kriging, Chitral district, geostatistics.

References

Baber, K., Khattak, R.H., Hakeem., 2004. Physico-chemical characteristics and fertility status of Gilgit soils. Journal of Agricultural Research 42 (3-4): 305-312.

Bhatti, A.U., Mulla, D.J., Frazier, B.E., 1991. Estimation of soil properties and wheat yields on complex eroded hills using geostatistics and thematic mapper images. Remote Sensing of Environment 37(3): 181-191. 

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1936. Directions for making mechanical analysis of soils by the hydrometer method. Soil Science 42(3): 225–230.

Caers, J., 2005, Petroleum Geostatistics, Society of Petroleum Engineers. 88p.

Cambardella, C.A., Moorman, T.B., Parkin, D.L., Karlen, J.M., Novak, Turco, R.F., Konopka, A.E., 1994. Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society American Journal 58 (5): 1501–1511.

Charan, G., Bharti, V.K., Jadhav, S.E., Kumar, S., Acharya., Kumar, P., Gogoi, D., Srivastava, R.B., 2013. Altitudinal variations in soil physico-chemical properties at cold desert high altitude. Journal Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 13(2): 267-277.

Friedman, S.P., 2005. Soil properties influencing apparent electrical conductivity: a review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 46(1-3): 45-70.

Hood, R.C., 2001. The effect of soil temperature and moisture on organic matter decomposition and plant growth. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 37(1): 25-41. 

Johnston, A.E., Goulding, K.W.T., Poulton. P.R., 1986. Soil acidification during more than 100 years under permanent grassland and woodland at Rothamsted. Journal of Soil Use Management 2 (1): 3-10.

McLean, E.O., 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and microbiological properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L., Keeney, D. R., Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.199-224.

Mellbye, M., 1988. The effect of surface liming on soil pH and calcium. Handout, Soil Acidity and Liming Symposium, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.

Mulla, D.J., Bhatti, A.U., Kunkel, R., 1990. Methods for removing spatial variability from field research trials. In: Advances in Soil Science, Singh R.P., Parr J.F., Stewart B.A. (Eds.). Vol 13,  Springer, New York, USA. pp. 201-213.

Nazif, W., Perveen, S., Saleem, I., 2006. Status of micronutrients in soils of district Bhimber (Azad Jammu and Kashmir). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 1(2): 35-40.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, D.R. Keeney (Eds.), 2nd Ed. Agronomy Monograph No. 9, ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.539–573.

Olea, R.A., 1999. Geostatistics for Engineers and Earth Scientists. Kluwer Academic Publishers 324p. 

Ou, Y., Rousseau, N.A., Wang, L., Yan, B., 2017. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil organic carbon and pH in relation to environmental factors—A case study of the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 245: 22-31.

Rashid, A., Rafique, E., Bughio, N., 1994. Diagnosing boron deficiency in rapeseed and mustard by plant analysis and soil testing. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 25(17-18): 2883-2897.

Rashid, M., Bhatti, A.U., 2005. Mapping of spatial variability of macro and micronutrients for site specific management. Soil and Environment 24 (1): 34-52.

Rastija, M., Banaj, D., Markoviš, M., 2007. Influences of liming on nutritional status of soil. Cereal Research Communications 35 (2): 981-984.

Richards, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soil. U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Handbook 60. Washington D.C. USA. 160p.

Risser, P.G., 1991. Long-term Ecological Research: An International Perspective. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).  Wiley, New York. USA. 294p.

Sarwar, G., Schmeisky, H., Hussain, N., Muhammad, S., Ibrahim, M., Safdar, E., 2008. Improvement of soil physical and chemical properties with compost application in rice-wheat cropping system. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40 (1): 275-282.

Wasiullah, Bhatii, A.U., 2007. Physico-chemical properties of soils of Kohat and Bannu Districts NWFP Pakistan. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 29(1): 20-25

Wollum, A.G., Cassel, D.K., 1984. Spatial variability of Rhizobium japonicum in two North Carolina soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal 48(5): 1082-1086.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science