Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 7, Issue 3, Jul 2018, Pages 251 - 256
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.430116
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.430116
Copyright © 2018 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia

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Tefera,M., Gebreyohannes,F., Saraswathi,M., 2018. Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 7(3):251 - 256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116
Tefera,M.Gebreyohannes,F.,& Saraswathi,M. (2018). Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7(3):251 - 256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116
Tefera,M.Gebreyohannes,F., and ,Saraswathi,M. "Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 7.3 (2018):251 - 256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116
Tefera,M.Gebreyohannes,F., and ,Saraswathi,M. "Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,7(Jul 2018):251 - 256 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116
M,Tefera.F,Gebreyohannes.M,Saraswathi "Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.7, no.3, pp.251 - 256 (Jul 2018), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116
Tefera,Maneyahilishal ;Gebreyohannes,Ftsum ;Saraswathi,Mekala Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2018),7.3:251 - 256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116

How to cite

Tefera, M., Gebreyohannes, F., Saraswathi, M., 2018. Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 7(3): 251 - 256. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.430116

Author information

Maneyahilishal Tefera , Department of Environmental Science, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Maddawalabu University, Ethiopia
Ftsum Gebreyohannes , Department of Chemistry, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Maddawalabu University, Robe, Bale, Ethiopia
Mekala Saraswathi , Department of Chemistry, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Maddawalabu University, Robe, Bale, Ethiopia

Publication information

Article first published online : 03 Jun 2018
Manuscript Accepted : 27 May 2018
Manuscript Received: 25 Nov 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.430116
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.430116

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess physicochemical parameter and heavy metal concentration of the soil in and around Robe town, Bale zone, Ethiopia. Seven soil samples (three from dump sites and four from farm lands) were collected and analyzed through different methods for analyzing the physicochemical parameters like, pH Sand/Silt/Clay Content, MC, OM. and the heavy metals including Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb, were investigated using Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The analyzed result of all sites revealed that, high moisture content % (14.83 ± 2.57to 19.96 ± 0.72), pH slightly acidic except S2 which is slightly basic, (5.77 ± 0.08 to 7.60 ± 0.33),high organic matter % (13.83 ± 0.49 to 16.60 ± 0.90), sand % (53.00 ± 4.51 to 65.33 ± 2.42), silt % (19.33 ± 1.03 to 24.84 ± 4.62), clay % (11.33 ± 1.03 to 19.50 ± 2.50) sandy nature of soil were observed and the concentration of heavy metals such as: Cr (32.53 ± 3.51 to 41.81 ± 1.06) ppm, Cd (0.57 ± 0.21 to 0.93 ± 0.24) ppm, Cu (26.54 ± 0.68 to 37.44 ± 2.72) ppm, Zn (66.98 ± 1.09 to 170.48 ± 1.51) ppm Fe (33483.55 ± 1470.02 to 49012.18 ± 2692.20) ppm and Pb (18.04 ± 0.37 to 20.77±0.46) ppm were obtained. The results showed that all of the assessed heavy metals below maximum permissible limit except Fe, which is above maximum permissible limit that recommended by Ewers, Based on the results obtained from the study the level of metals concentrations safe for agricultural activities. But different measures must be taken to minimize additional soil pollution.

Keywords

Dump site, farm land, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, FAAS.

Corresponding author

References

Adagunodo, T.A., Sunmonu, L.A., Emetere, M.E., 2018. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities. Data in Brief 18: 1847-1855.

Addis, W., Abebaw, A., 2014. Analysis of selected physicochemical parameters of soils used for cultivation of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 3(4): 29-35.

Ai, S., Liu, B., Yang, Y., Ding, J., Yang, W., Bai X., Naeem, S., Zhang, Y, 2018. Temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system and associated influencing factor. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 153: 204-214.

Ali, S.M., Pervais, A., Afzal, B., Hamid, N., Yasmin, A., 2014. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous effect on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping site of Islamabad city. Journal of King Saud University - Science 26(1): 59-65.

Angle, S.J., Baker, A.J.M., Whiting, S.N., Chaney, R.L., 2003. Soil moisture effects on uptake of metals by Thlaspi, Alyssum, and Berkheya. Plant and Soil 256(2): 325-332.

Aydinalp, C., Cresser, M.S., 2009. Distribution of heavy metals in ırrigated vertisol profiles in semiarid region of Turkey. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 18(4): 539-545.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R.,2008.  The nature and properties of soils. Fourteenth Edition, Prentice Hall, New York. USA. 965p.

Dawaki, U.M., Dikko, A.U., Noma, S.S., Aliyu, U., 2013. Heavy metals and physicochemical properties of soils in Kano urban agricultural lands. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 21(3): 239-246.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of Soil, Plant,and Water Analysis: A manual for the West Asia and North Africa region. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Third Edition. Beirut, Lebanon.

Ewers, U., 1991. Standards, guidelines and legislative regulations concerning metals and their compounds. In: Metal and their compounds in the environment: Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance.  Maria, E. (Ed.), VCH, Weinheim, New York, USA. pp. 458-468.

Gairola, S.U., Soni, P., 2010. Role of soil physical properties in ecological succession of restored mine land – A case study. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(4): 475-480.

González-Alcaraz, M.N., Loureiro, S., van Gestel, C.A.M., 2018. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content. Chemosphere 97: 26-32.

Hong, A.H., Law, P.L., Selaman, O.S., 2014. Heavy metal concentration levels in soil at lake Geriyo irrigation site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 2(2): 106-111.

Inobeme, A., Ajai, A.I., Iyaka, Y.A, Ndamitso, M., Uwem, B., 2014. Determination of physicochemical and heavy metal content of soil around paint industries in Kaduna. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 3(8): 221-225.

Maguire, R.O., Heckendorn, S.E., 2005. Laboratory procedures. Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 452-881. Available at [25.11.2017]: https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/55039/452-881.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Mtunzi, F.M., Dikio, E.D., Moja, S.J., 2015. Evaluation of heavy metal Pollution on soil in Vaderbijlpark, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 3(2): 44-49.

Olayinka, K.O., Oyeyiola, A.O., Odujebe, F.O., Oboh, B., 2011. Uptake of potentially toxic metal by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil their potential bioavailability using sequential extraction. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 2(8): 220-227.

Osakwe, S.A., Okolie, L.P., 2015. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals contents in soils and cassava plants from farmlands along a major highway in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 19(4): 695-704.

Parameswari, K., Padmini, T.K., Mudgal, B.V., 2015. Assessment of soil contamination around municipal solid waste dumpsite. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8 (36).

Rahaman, M.S., Nessa, F., Hoque, M.M., Rehnuma, M., Islam, M.S., 2015. Physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentration in soil of industrial area, Zirani, Savar, Dhaka. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources 8(1): 65-68.

Ščančar, J., Milačič, R., Stražar, M., Burica, O., 2000.  Total metal concentrations and partitioning of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in sewage sludge. The Science of the Total Environment 250 (1-3): 9-19.

Sumithra, S., Ankalaiah, C., Janardhana, R.D., Yamuna, R.T., 2013. A case study on physicochemical characteristics of soil around industrial and agricultural area of Yerraguntla, Kadapa district, A.P, India. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences 3(2): 28–34.

Wufem, B.M., Ibrahim, A.Q., Maina, H.M., Gungsat, N.J., Barnabas, N.J., 2014. Quality evaluation and physico-chemical properties of soils around a cement factory in Gombe State, Nigeria. International Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences (AABES-2014) Oct 15-16, 2014 Dubai, UAE.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess physicochemical parameter and heavy metal concentration of the soil in and around Robe town, Bale zone, Ethiopia. Seven soil samples (three from dump sites and four from farm lands) were collected and analyzed through different methods for analyzing the physicochemical parameters like, pH Sand/Silt/Clay Content, MC, OM. and the heavy metals including Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb, were investigated using Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The analyzed result of all sites revealed that, high moisture content % (14.83 ± 2.57to 19.96 ± 0.72), pH slightly acidic except S2 which is slightly basic, (5.77 ± 0.08 to 7.60 ± 0.33),high organic matter % (13.83 ± 0.49 to 16.60 ± 0.90), sand % (53.00 ± 4.51 to 65.33 ± 2.42), silt % (19.33 ± 1.03 to 24.84 ± 4.62), clay % (11.33 ± 1.03 to 19.50 ± 2.50) sandy nature of soil were observed and the concentration of heavy metals such as: Cr (32.53 ± 3.51 to 41.81 ± 1.06) ppm, Cd (0.57 ± 0.21 to 0.93 ± 0.24) ppm, Cu (26.54 ± 0.68 to 37.44 ± 2.72) ppm, Zn (66.98 ± 1.09 to 170.48 ± 1.51) ppm Fe (33483.55 ± 1470.02 to 49012.18 ± 2692.20) ppm and Pb (18.04 ± 0.37 to 20.77±0.46) ppm were obtained. The results showed that all of the assessed heavy metals below maximum permissible limit except Fe, which is above maximum permissible limit that recommended by Ewers, Based on the results obtained from the study the level of metals concentrations safe for agricultural activities. But different measures must be taken to minimize additional soil pollution.

Keywords: Dump site, farm land, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, FAAS.

References

Adagunodo, T.A., Sunmonu, L.A., Emetere, M.E., 2018. Heavy metals' data in soils for agricultural activities. Data in Brief 18: 1847-1855.

Addis, W., Abebaw, A., 2014. Analysis of selected physicochemical parameters of soils used for cultivation of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 3(4): 29-35.

Ai, S., Liu, B., Yang, Y., Ding, J., Yang, W., Bai X., Naeem, S., Zhang, Y, 2018. Temporal variations and spatial distributions of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated soil-eggplant system and associated influencing factor. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 153: 204-214.

Ali, S.M., Pervais, A., Afzal, B., Hamid, N., Yasmin, A., 2014. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous effect on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping site of Islamabad city. Journal of King Saud University - Science 26(1): 59-65.

Angle, S.J., Baker, A.J.M., Whiting, S.N., Chaney, R.L., 2003. Soil moisture effects on uptake of metals by Thlaspi, Alyssum, and Berkheya. Plant and Soil 256(2): 325-332.

Aydinalp, C., Cresser, M.S., 2009. Distribution of heavy metals in ırrigated vertisol profiles in semiarid region of Turkey. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 18(4): 539-545.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.R.,2008.  The nature and properties of soils. Fourteenth Edition, Prentice Hall, New York. USA. 965p.

Dawaki, U.M., Dikko, A.U., Noma, S.S., Aliyu, U., 2013. Heavy metals and physicochemical properties of soils in Kano urban agricultural lands. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 21(3): 239-246.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of Soil, Plant,and Water Analysis: A manual for the West Asia and North Africa region. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Third Edition. Beirut, Lebanon.

Ewers, U., 1991. Standards, guidelines and legislative regulations concerning metals and their compounds. In: Metal and their compounds in the environment: Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance.  Maria, E. (Ed.), VCH, Weinheim, New York, USA. pp. 458-468.

Gairola, S.U., Soni, P., 2010. Role of soil physical properties in ecological succession of restored mine land – A case study. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(4): 475-480.

González-Alcaraz, M.N., Loureiro, S., van Gestel, C.A.M., 2018. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content. Chemosphere 97: 26-32.

Hong, A.H., Law, P.L., Selaman, O.S., 2014. Heavy metal concentration levels in soil at lake Geriyo irrigation site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 2(2): 106-111.

Inobeme, A., Ajai, A.I., Iyaka, Y.A, Ndamitso, M., Uwem, B., 2014. Determination of physicochemical and heavy metal content of soil around paint industries in Kaduna. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 3(8): 221-225.

Maguire, R.O., Heckendorn, S.E., 2005. Laboratory procedures. Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 452-881. Available at [25.11.2017]: https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/55039/452-881.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Mtunzi, F.M., Dikio, E.D., Moja, S.J., 2015. Evaluation of heavy metal Pollution on soil in Vaderbijlpark, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 3(2): 44-49.

Olayinka, K.O., Oyeyiola, A.O., Odujebe, F.O., Oboh, B., 2011. Uptake of potentially toxic metal by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil their potential bioavailability using sequential extraction. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 2(8): 220-227.

Osakwe, S.A., Okolie, L.P., 2015. Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals contents in soils and cassava plants from farmlands along a major highway in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 19(4): 695-704.

Parameswari, K., Padmini, T.K., Mudgal, B.V., 2015. Assessment of soil contamination around municipal solid waste dumpsite. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8 (36).

Rahaman, M.S., Nessa, F., Hoque, M.M., Rehnuma, M., Islam, M.S., 2015. Physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentration in soil of industrial area, Zirani, Savar, Dhaka. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources 8(1): 65-68.

Ščančar, J., Milačič, R., Stražar, M., Burica, O., 2000.  Total metal concentrations and partitioning of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn in sewage sludge. The Science of the Total Environment 250 (1-3): 9-19.

Sumithra, S., Ankalaiah, C., Janardhana, R.D., Yamuna, R.T., 2013. A case study on physicochemical characteristics of soil around industrial and agricultural area of Yerraguntla, Kadapa district, A.P, India. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences 3(2): 28–34.

Wufem, B.M., Ibrahim, A.Q., Maina, H.M., Gungsat, N.J., Barnabas, N.J., 2014. Quality evaluation and physico-chemical properties of soils around a cement factory in Gombe State, Nigeria. International Conference on Advances in Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences (AABES-2014) Oct 15-16, 2014 Dubai, UAE.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science