Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 4, Sep 2017, Pages 337-349
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.314701
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.314701
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan)

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Gören,S., Gelisli,K., 2017. Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan). Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(4):337-349. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701
Gören,S.,,& Gelisli,K. Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan) Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(4):337-349. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701
Gören,S.,, and ,Gelisli,K."Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.4 (2017):337-349. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701
Gören,S.,, and ,Gelisli,K. "Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Sep 2017):337-349 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701
S,Gören.K,Gelisli "Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan)" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.4, pp.337-349 (Sep 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701
Gören,Sevda ;Gelisli,Kenan Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.4:337-349. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701

How to cite

Gören, S., Gelisli, K., 2017. Determination of engineering properties of soil on railway track routes (An example of Turkey between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan). Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(4): 337-349. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.314701

Author information

Sevda Gören , Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey Trabzon, Turkey
Kenan Gelisli , Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey

Publication information

Article first published online : 18 May 2017
Manuscript Accepted : 11 May 2017
Manuscript Received: 02 Feb 2017
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.314701
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.314701

Abstract

Subsurface structure and engineering properties of the Sivas and Erzincan railway route were investigated by using velocities of seismic wave, electrical resistivity, standard penetration test (SPT) data and laboratory results, which were collected from survey sites referred to in this study. For this reason, 62 seismic refraction and vertical electrical resistivity (VES) measurements at 59 points were done along the survey route. Moreover, 11 mechanical boreholes with SPT were drilled. Laboratory tests were applied on soil samples taken from boreholes for geotechnical features. Longitudinal, shear wave velocities and elastic parameters were determined by seismic refraction method, and underground resistivity distribution was calculated by VES and geotechnical data and SPT results were evulated for the subsurface integrity. Engineering properties of a 6.8 km stretch of planned railway alignment in southeastern Sivas were calculated in this study. According to these results, unsuitable segments of the high-speed alignment which have low groundwater level and low bearing capasities which depend on dynamic properties were examined.

Keywords

High speed railway track, railway alignment, geophysical methods, SPT test, soil engineering paramet

Corresponding author

References

Adiat, K.A.N., Adelusi, A.O., Ayuk, M.A., 2009. Relevance of geophysics in road failures investigation in a typical basement complex of Southwestern Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 10(1): 528-539.

Basokur, A.T., 1999. Automated 1-D interpretation of resistivity soundings by simultaneous use of the direct and iterative methods, Geophysical Prospecting 47(2), 149-177.

Broms, B., 1964. The lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Divisions.  ASCE 90(SM2): 27-63.

Bowles, J.E., 1988. Foundatıon analyses and design. 4th Edition, McGraw - Hill International Editions, Civil Engineering Series, New York, USA.

Bowles, J.E., 1996. Foundation analysis and design. 5th edition, McGraw - Hill International Editions, Civil Engineering Series. Press, New York, USA.

Das, B.M., 2009. Soil mechanics: Laboratory manual, Oxford University Press Inc. Newyork, USA. 299p.

Gardner, G.H.F., Gardner, L.W., Gregory, A.R., 1974. Formation velocity and density the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps. Geophysics 39(6): 770-780.

Imai, T., Yoshimura, M., 1976. The relation of mechanical properties of soils to P and S wave velocities for soil ground in Japan. Urana Research Institue, OYO Corporation, OYO Technical Note O7, Japan. 15p

Jongmans, D., 1992. The application of seismic methods for dynamic characterization of soils. Bulletin of International Association of Engineering Geology 46(1): 63-69.

Keçeli A., 1990. The determination of the dynamic permissible bearing capacity and Settlement by means of the seismic method. Jeofizik 4(2): 83-92. [in Turkish]

Keçeli, A., 2010. Determination of soil bearing capacity and consolidation using seismic method.  Uygulamalı Yer Bilimleri Dergisi 9(1): 23-41. [in Turkish]

Kramer S.L., 1996. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey, USA. 653p.

Kulhawy, F.H., Mayne, P.W., 1990. Manual of estimating soil properties for foundation design. Research Project 1493–6, Geotechnical. Engineering Group, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Kurtuluş, C., 2000. Examination of bearing capacity from seismic velocities. Uygulamalı Yer Bilimleri Dergisi 6: 51-59. [in Turkish]

Lippincott, T., Cardimona, S., Anderson, N. Hickman, S., Newton, T., 2000. Geophysical site characterization in support of highway expansion Project. Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2000. Environment and Engineering Geophysical Society. pp. 587-596.

Meyerhof,  G.G., 1956.  Penetration tests and bearing capacity of cohesionless soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 82 (SM1): 1-16.

Meyerhof, G.G., 1965. Shallow foundations. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE 91(SM2): 21-31.

Meyerhof, G.G., 1974. Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on sand layer overlaying clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 11(2): 223-229.

Moore, R.W., 1952. Geophysical methods adapted to highway engineering problems. Geophysics 17(3): 505-530.

Nelson, R.G., Haigh, J.H., 1990. Geophysical investigation of in lateritic terrain. In: Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Volume 2-Environmental and Groundwater. Ward, S.H. (Ed.)., Society of Exploration Geophysicists , Tulsa, USA. pp.133-154.

Olorunfemi, M.O., Idoringie, A.I., Coker, A.T., Babadiya, G.E., 2004. On the application of the electrical resistivity method in foundation failure investigation – A case study. Global Journal of Geological Sciences 2(1): 139-151.

Prandtl, L., 1921. Hauptaufsätze: Über die Eindringungsfestigkeit (Härte) plastischer Baustoffe und die Festigkeit von Schneiden. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 1(1): 15-20.

Phillips, D.E., Han, D.H., Zoback, M.D., 1989. Empirical relationships among seismic velocity, effective pressure, porosity, and clay content in sandstone. Geophysics 54(1): 82-89.

Pyrak-Nolte, J., Roy, S., Mullenbach, B.L., 1996, Interface waves propagated along a fracture.  Journal of Applied Geophysics 35(2-3): 79-87.

Schulze, W.E., 1943. Grundbau Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft für Bodenmechanik.  7th edition. B.G. Taubner PublishersLeipzig, Germany.

Sully, J.P., Campanella, R.G., 1995. Evaluation of in situ anisotropy from crosshole and downhole shear wave velocities measurements. Géotechnique 45(2): 267-282.

Sharma, P.V., 1997, Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 468p.

Sheehan, J.R., Doll, W.E., Mandell, W.A., 2005. An evaluation of methods and available software for seismic refraction tomography analysis. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 10(1): 21-34.

Tatham, R.H., 1982. Vp/Vs and lithology. Geophysics 47(3): 336-344.

Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff, R. E. 1990. Applied geophysics, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 792p.

Terzaghi, K., 1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. New York , USA. 503p.

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., 1948. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Wiley, New York, USA.

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., Mesri, G., 1967. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. NY, USA. 529p.

Tezcan, S., Keceli, A., Ozdemir, Z., 2006. Allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations based on shear wave velocity. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 24(1): 203-218.

Tezcan, S.S., Ozdemir, Z., Keceli, A., 2009. Seismic technique to determine the allowable bearing pressure for shallow foundations in soils and rocks. Acta Geophysica 57(2): 400-412.

Turker, E., 2004, Computation of ground bearing capacity from shear wave velocity. In: Continuum Models and Discrete Systems. Bergman, D.J., Inan, E. (Eds.). NATO Science Series (Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry), vol 158. Springer, Dordrecht. pp.173-180.

Ulugergerli, E.U., Uyanık, O., 2007. Statistical correlations between seismic wave velocities and SPT blow counts and the relative density of soils. Journal of Testing and Evaluation 35(2): 187-191.

Uyanık O., 1999. Expolaration of velocities and sliding resistance on rocks. 52. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Bildiriler Kitabı, 10-12 Mayıs, Ankara, Turkey. pp. 63-70. [in Turkish]

Uyanık, O., Türker, A.E., 2007, Interpretation and Geotechnical Properties of Potential Landslide in Fethiye-Eşen II HEPP Power Collection and Plant Area. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 11(1): 84-90. [in Turkish]

Uyanık, O., Ulugergerli, E.U., 2008, Quality control of compacted grounds using seismic velocities. Near Surface Geophysics 6(5): 299-306.

Willkens, R., Simmons, G., Caruso, L., 1984. The ratio Vp/Vs as a discriminant of composition for siliceous limestones. Geophysics 49(11): 1850-1860

Abstract

Subsurface structure and engineering properties of the Sivas and Erzincan railway route were investigated by using velocities of seismic wave, electrical resistivity, standard penetration test (SPT) data and laboratory results, which were collected from survey sites referred to in this study. For this reason, 62 seismic refraction and vertical electrical resistivity (VES) measurements at 59 points were done along the survey route. Moreover, 11 mechanical boreholes with SPT were drilled. Laboratory tests were applied on soil samples taken from boreholes for geotechnical features. Longitudinal, shear wave velocities and elastic parameters were determined by seismic refraction method, and underground resistivity distribution was calculated by VES and geotechnical data and SPT results were evulated for the subsurface integrity. Engineering properties of a 6.8 km stretch of planned railway alignment in southeastern Sivas were calculated in this study. According to these results, unsuitable segments of the high-speed alignment which have low groundwater level and low bearing capasities which depend on dynamic properties were examined.

Keywords: High speed railway track, railway alignment, geophysical methods, SPT test, soil engineering parameters.

References

Adiat, K.A.N., Adelusi, A.O., Ayuk, M.A., 2009. Relevance of geophysics in road failures investigation in a typical basement complex of Southwestern Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 10(1): 528-539.

Basokur, A.T., 1999. Automated 1-D interpretation of resistivity soundings by simultaneous use of the direct and iterative methods, Geophysical Prospecting 47(2), 149-177.

Broms, B., 1964. The lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Divisions.  ASCE 90(SM2): 27-63.

Bowles, J.E., 1988. Foundatıon analyses and design. 4th Edition, McGraw - Hill International Editions, Civil Engineering Series, New York, USA.

Bowles, J.E., 1996. Foundation analysis and design. 5th edition, McGraw - Hill International Editions, Civil Engineering Series. Press, New York, USA.

Das, B.M., 2009. Soil mechanics: Laboratory manual, Oxford University Press Inc. Newyork, USA. 299p.

Gardner, G.H.F., Gardner, L.W., Gregory, A.R., 1974. Formation velocity and density the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps. Geophysics 39(6): 770-780.

Imai, T., Yoshimura, M., 1976. The relation of mechanical properties of soils to P and S wave velocities for soil ground in Japan. Urana Research Institue, OYO Corporation, OYO Technical Note O7, Japan. 15p

Jongmans, D., 1992. The application of seismic methods for dynamic characterization of soils. Bulletin of International Association of Engineering Geology 46(1): 63-69.

Keçeli A., 1990. The determination of the dynamic permissible bearing capacity and Settlement by means of the seismic method. Jeofizik 4(2): 83-92. [in Turkish]

Keçeli, A., 2010. Determination of soil bearing capacity and consolidation using seismic method.  Uygulamalı Yer Bilimleri Dergisi 9(1): 23-41. [in Turkish]

Kramer S.L., 1996. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey, USA. 653p.

Kulhawy, F.H., Mayne, P.W., 1990. Manual of estimating soil properties for foundation design. Research Project 1493–6, Geotechnical. Engineering Group, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Kurtuluş, C., 2000. Examination of bearing capacity from seismic velocities. Uygulamalı Yer Bilimleri Dergisi 6: 51-59. [in Turkish]

Lippincott, T., Cardimona, S., Anderson, N. Hickman, S., Newton, T., 2000. Geophysical site characterization in support of highway expansion Project. Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2000. Environment and Engineering Geophysical Society. pp. 587-596.

Meyerhof,  G.G., 1956.  Penetration tests and bearing capacity of cohesionless soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 82 (SM1): 1-16.

Meyerhof, G.G., 1965. Shallow foundations. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE 91(SM2): 21-31.

Meyerhof, G.G., 1974. Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on sand layer overlaying clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 11(2): 223-229.

Moore, R.W., 1952. Geophysical methods adapted to highway engineering problems. Geophysics 17(3): 505-530.

Nelson, R.G., Haigh, J.H., 1990. Geophysical investigation of in lateritic terrain. In: Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Volume 2-Environmental and Groundwater. Ward, S.H. (Ed.)., Society of Exploration Geophysicists , Tulsa, USA. pp.133-154.

Olorunfemi, M.O., Idoringie, A.I., Coker, A.T., Babadiya, G.E., 2004. On the application of the electrical resistivity method in foundation failure investigation – A case study. Global Journal of Geological Sciences 2(1): 139-151.

Prandtl, L., 1921. Hauptaufsätze: Über die Eindringungsfestigkeit (Härte) plastischer Baustoffe und die Festigkeit von Schneiden. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 1(1): 15-20.

Phillips, D.E., Han, D.H., Zoback, M.D., 1989. Empirical relationships among seismic velocity, effective pressure, porosity, and clay content in sandstone. Geophysics 54(1): 82-89.

Pyrak-Nolte, J., Roy, S., Mullenbach, B.L., 1996, Interface waves propagated along a fracture.  Journal of Applied Geophysics 35(2-3): 79-87.

Schulze, W.E., 1943. Grundbau Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft für Bodenmechanik.  7th edition. B.G. Taubner PublishersLeipzig, Germany.

Sully, J.P., Campanella, R.G., 1995. Evaluation of in situ anisotropy from crosshole and downhole shear wave velocities measurements. Géotechnique 45(2): 267-282.

Sharma, P.V., 1997, Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 468p.

Sheehan, J.R., Doll, W.E., Mandell, W.A., 2005. An evaluation of methods and available software for seismic refraction tomography analysis. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 10(1): 21-34.

Tatham, R.H., 1982. Vp/Vs and lithology. Geophysics 47(3): 336-344.

Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff, R. E. 1990. Applied geophysics, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 792p.

Terzaghi, K., 1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. New York , USA. 503p.

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., 1948. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Wiley, New York, USA.

Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B., Mesri, G., 1967. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. NY, USA. 529p.

Tezcan, S., Keceli, A., Ozdemir, Z., 2006. Allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations based on shear wave velocity. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 24(1): 203-218.

Tezcan, S.S., Ozdemir, Z., Keceli, A., 2009. Seismic technique to determine the allowable bearing pressure for shallow foundations in soils and rocks. Acta Geophysica 57(2): 400-412.

Turker, E., 2004, Computation of ground bearing capacity from shear wave velocity. In: Continuum Models and Discrete Systems. Bergman, D.J., Inan, E. (Eds.). NATO Science Series (Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry), vol 158. Springer, Dordrecht. pp.173-180.

Ulugergerli, E.U., Uyanık, O., 2007. Statistical correlations between seismic wave velocities and SPT blow counts and the relative density of soils. Journal of Testing and Evaluation 35(2): 187-191.

Uyanık O., 1999. Expolaration of velocities and sliding resistance on rocks. 52. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Bildiriler Kitabı, 10-12 Mayıs, Ankara, Turkey. pp. 63-70. [in Turkish]

Uyanık, O., Türker, A.E., 2007, Interpretation and Geotechnical Properties of Potential Landslide in Fethiye-Eşen II HEPP Power Collection and Plant Area. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 11(1): 84-90. [in Turkish]

Uyanık, O., Ulugergerli, E.U., 2008, Quality control of compacted grounds using seismic velocities. Near Surface Geophysics 6(5): 299-306.

Willkens, R., Simmons, G., Caruso, L., 1984. The ratio Vp/Vs as a discriminant of composition for siliceous limestones. Geophysics 49(11): 1850-1860.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science