Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 6, Issue 3, Jun 2017, Pages 285-294
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.298949
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.298949
Copyright © 2017 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan

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Sulieman,M., Elfaki,J., Adam,M., Dafalla,M., Ali,S., Ahmed,H., Ali,M., 2017. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 6(3):285-294. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949
Sulieman,M.,Elfaki,J.Adam,M.Dafalla,M.Ali,S.Ahmed,H.,& Ali,M. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6(3):285-294. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949
Sulieman,M.,Elfaki,J.Adam,M.Dafalla,M.Ali,S.Ahmed,H., and ,Ali,M."Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 6.3 (2017):285-294. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949
Sulieman,M.,Elfaki,J.Adam,M.Dafalla,M.Ali,S.Ahmed,H., and ,Ali,M. "Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,6(Jun 2017):285-294 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949
MM,Sulieman.JT,Elfaki.MM,Adam.MS,Dafalla.SH,Ali.HM,Ahmed.ME,Ali "Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.6, no.3, pp.285-294 (Jun 2017), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949
Sulieman,Magboul ;Elfaki,Jamal ;Adam,Mutwakil ;Dafalla,Mohammed ;Ali,Sulieman ;Ahmed,Hager ;Ali,Mushtaha Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2017),6.3:285-294. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949

How to cite

Sulieman, M., M. Elfaki, J., T. Adam, M., M. Dafalla, M., S. Ali, S., H. Ahmed, H., M. Ali, M., E.2017. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in the Nile River water and adjacent sediments: A case study from Khartoum City and Nile River State, Sudan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 6(3): 285-294. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.298949

Author information

Magboul Sulieman , Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan Shambat, Sudan
Jamal Elfaki , Faculty of Agriculture, Nile Valley University, Atbara, Sudan
Mutwakil Adam , Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan
Mohammed Dafalla , Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan
Sulieman Ali , Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan
Hager Ahmed , Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Nile Valley University, Atbara, Sudan
Mushtaha Ali , General Administration of Natural Resource and Sustainable Development, Khartoum, Sudan

Publication information

Article first published online : 20 Mar 2017
Manuscript Accepted : 17 Mar 2017
Manuscript Received: 26 Nov 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.298949
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.298949

Abstract

The current study aims to investigate the heavy metals concentration and the degree of pollution in the water and adjacent sediment of the Nile River and its main tributaries at Khartoum City and River Nile State, Sudan. For this purpose, thirty-three water and sediment samples were collected from River Nile, Blue Nile, and White Nile. Water chemical properties and sediment physicо-chemical properties were measure. Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn) were determined for both sediment and water samples using inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were applied to quantify heavy metals pollution levels in sediment samples. The revealed that only Fe metal detected in the water samples and its concentrations within the permissible maximum limit. This indicated that water is highly suitable for irrigation. Depending on calculated enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo), sediment samples were found to be enriched and polluted with Mn and Mo particularly at Berber site which may as consequence of gold mining activities in this area. The study revealed relatively strong to strong correlation between heavy metals of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn (r2=0.84 to 0.99) and significant negative correlation with Mo (r2=0.58 to 0.73). This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in the Nile River and its main tributaries for conservation and protection from pollution.

Keywords

River nile, heavy metals pollution, ICP-OES, enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index.

Corresponding author

References

Ali, M., Elhagwa M., Elfaki, J., Sulieman, M., 2017. Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study of Dar-Mali Locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(1): 28-36.

Ayers, R.S., Westcot, D.W., 1994. Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage paper No. 29 Rev.1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. Italy.

Binning, K., Baird, D., 2001. Survey of heavy metals in the sediments of the Swartkops River Estuary, Port Elizabeth South Africa. Water SA 27(4): 461–466.

Hernandez, L., Probst, A., Probst, J.L., Ulrich, E., 2003. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmosphere contamination. Science of the Total Environment 312(1-3): 195–210.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69(4): 1066-1068.

IBM Corp. 2013. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, New York, USA.

Kim, Y., Kim, B.K., Kim, K., 2010. Distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their sources in Kumho River sediment, Korea. Environmental Earth Sciences 60(5): 943-952.

Krishna, A.K., Govil, P.K., 2008. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around Manali industrial area, Chennai, Southern India. Environmental Geology 54(7): 1465–1472.

Lindsay, L.W., 1979. Chemical equilibrai in soils. 1st Ed.. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. 423p.

Link, D.D., Walter, P.J., Kingston, H.M., 1997. EPA Methods 3015A and 3051A: Validation studies for updated microwave leach methods. Waste Testing & Quality Assurance Symposium (WTQA '97). July 6-9, 1997, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 55-60.

Murthy, N.N., 2008. A case study of soil contamination at Katedan Industrial Area, Hyderabad. National Geophysical Research Institute (N.G.R.I.) Proocedings of Contaminated groundwater monitoring and soil assessment. Hyderabad, India. pp. 1-12.

Osman,. A.G.M., Kloas, W., 2010. Water quality and heavy metal monitoring in water, sediments, and tissues of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the River Nile, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection 1: 389-400.

Sakai, H., Kojima, Y., Saito, K., 1986. Distribution of heavy metals in water and sieved sediments in the Toyohira River. Water Research 20(5): 559–567.

Singh, S., Kumar, M., 2006. Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 120(1): 79-91.

Sinha, S., Gupta, A.K., Bhatt, K., Pandey, K., Rai, U.N., Singh, K.P., 2006. Distribution of metals in the edible plants grown at Jajmau, Kanpur (India) receiving treated tannery wastewater: relation with physico-chemical properties of the soil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 115(1): 1–22.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0, Lincoln, USA.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu. Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611-627.

Turekian, K.K., Wedepohl, K.H., 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin 72(2): 175–192.

Ye, C., Li, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Q., 2011. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 191(1-3): 366–372.

Yongming, H., Peixuan, D., Jingu, C.,Posmentier, E.S., 2006. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, Central China. Science of the Total Environment, 355(1-3): 176–186.

Abstract

The current study aims to investigate the heavy metals concentration and the degree of pollution in the water and adjacent sediment of the Nile River and its main tributaries at Khartoum City and River Nile State, Sudan. For this purpose, thirty-three water and sediment samples were collected from River Nile, Blue Nile, and White Nile.  Water chemical properties and sediment physicо-chemical properties were measure. Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn) were determined for both sediment and water samples using inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were applied to quantify heavy metals pollution levels in sediment samples. The revealed that only Fe metal detected in the water samples and its concentrations within the permissible maximum limit. This indicated that water is highly suitable for irrigation. Depending on calculated enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo), sediment samples were found to be enriched and polluted with Mn and Mo particularly at Berber site which may as consequence of gold mining activities in this area. The study revealed relatively strong to strong correlation between  heavy metals  of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn  (r=0.84 to 0.99) and significant negative correlation with Mo (r=0.58 to 0.73). This study recommends regular monitoring of heavy metals in the Nile River and its main tributaries for conservation and protection from pollution.

Keywords: River nile, heavy metals pollution, ICP-OES, enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index.

References

Ali, M., Elhagwa M., Elfaki, J., Sulieman, M., 2017. Influence of the artisanal gold mining on soil contamination with heavy metals: A case study of Dar-Mali Locality, North of Atbara, River Nile State, Sudan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 6(1): 28-36.

Ayers, R.S., Westcot, D.W., 1994. Water quality for agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage paper No. 29 Rev.1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. Italy.

Binning, K., Baird, D., 2001. Survey of heavy metals in the sediments of the Swartkops River Estuary, Port Elizabeth South Africa. Water SA 27(4): 461–466.

Hernandez, L., Probst, A., Probst, J.L., Ulrich, E., 2003. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmosphere contamination. Science of the Total Environment 312(1-3): 195–210.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69(4): 1066-1068.

IBM Corp. 2013. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, New York, USA.

Kim, Y., Kim, B.K., Kim, K., 2010. Distribution and speciation of heavy metals and their sources in Kumho River sediment, Korea. Environmental Earth Sciences 60(5): 943-952.

Krishna, A.K., Govil, P.K., 2008. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around Manali industrial area, Chennai, Southern India. Environmental Geology 54(7): 1465–1472.

Lindsay, L.W., 1979. Chemical equilibrai in soils. 1st Ed.. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. 423p.

Link, D.D., Walter, P.J., Kingston, H.M., 1997. EPA Methods 3015A and 3051A: Validation studies for updated microwave leach methods. Waste Testing & Quality Assurance Symposium (WTQA '97). July 6-9, 1997, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 55-60.

Murthy, N.N., 2008. A case study of soil contamination at Katedan Industrial Area, Hyderabad. National Geophysical Research Institute (N.G.R.I.) Proocedings of Contaminated groundwater monitoring and soil assessment. Hyderabad, India. pp. 1-12.

Osman,. A.G.M., Kloas, W., 2010. Water quality and heavy metal monitoring in water, sediments, and tissues of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the River Nile, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection 1: 389-400.

Sakai, H., Kojima, Y., Saito, K., 1986. Distribution of heavy metals in water and sieved sediments in the Toyohira River. Water Research 20(5): 559–567.

Singh, S., Kumar, M., 2006. Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 120(1): 79-91.

Sinha, S., Gupta, A.K., Bhatt, K., Pandey, K., Rai, U.N., Singh, K.P., 2006. Distribution of metals in the edible plants grown at Jajmau, Kanpur (India) receiving treated tannery wastewater: relation with physico-chemical properties of the soil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 115(1): 1–22.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0, Lincoln, USA.

Sutherland, R.A., 2000. Bed sediment associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu. Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39(6): 611-627.

Turekian, K.K., Wedepohl, K.H., 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin 72(2): 175–192.

Ye, C., Li, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Q., 2011. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 191(1-3): 366–372.

Yongming, H., Peixuan, D., Jingu, C.,Posmentier, E.S., 2006. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, Central China. Science of the Total Environment, 355(1-3): 176–186.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science