Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 4, Oct 2016, Pages 322 - 331
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia

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Sulieman,M., Sallam ,A., 2016. Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(4):322 - 331. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Sulieman,M.,,& Sallam ,A. Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Sulieman,M.,, and ,Sallam ,A."Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Sulieman,M.,, and ,Sallam ,A. "Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
M,Sulieman.AE,Sallam "Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Sulieman,Magboul ;Sallam ,Abd Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331

How to cite

Sulieman, M., Sallam , A., E.2016. Improved method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils. A case study from Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(4): 322 - 331. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331

Author information

Magboul Sulieman , Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia & Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Shambat, Sudan
Abd Sallam , Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Oct 2016
Article first published online : 07 May 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 05 May 2016
Manuscript Received: 03 Mar 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.4.322-331

Abstract

Until now, there is no method can be used to accurately assess the particles size distribution as well as textural classes of gypsiferous soils for proper interpretation of physical behavior of these soils, and most laboratory methods involve pretreatment to remove gypsum from the samples. Therefore, the results of the particle size distribution do not reflect the size distribution of the whole soil. This study aimed to develop an alternative method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils selected from Al-Ahsa governorate, Saudi Arabia. Five samples from different profiles with different gypsum content were selected to evaluate the modified method. Sand fractions were separated with three disaggregation methods: 1) drying sieving, 2) shaking for 5 hours in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution, and 3) sonication for 3 minutes in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution. The statistical analysis results revealed that the sonication for 3 minutes in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution was the most effective method for separating sand fractions as compared to dry sieving and shaking. Meanwhile, there was slight difference in separating sand fractions between sonication for 3 minutes and shaking for 5 hours. The particle size distribution by the developed method showed increasing in total sand content as compared to standard particle size method. Likewise, comparison of the CEC/clay ratio between the two methods also indicated that the developed method yielded clay contents more consistent with other property data for the same horizons. Consequently, the textural classes obtained from the two methods were different. Therefore; we concluded that the determination of particle size distribution for gypsiferous soils (≤ 40% gypsum) using this developed method will improve the understanding and ability to proper interpret of physical behavior of these unique soils. We highly recommended using this developed method to separate soil particles from the gypsiferous soils.

Keywords

Gypsiferous soils, Al-Ahsa governorate, disaggregation methods, sonication

Corresponding author

References

4): 830–837.

Artieda, O., 1996. Génesis y distribución de suelos en un medio semiárido. Quinto de Ebro (Zaragoza). Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (MAPA). pp 222.

Aznar, J. M., Poch, R. M., Badía, D., 2013. Soil catena along gypseous woodland in the middle Ebro Basin: soil properties and micromorphology relationships. Spanish Journal of Soil Science 3(1): 28–44.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society America  Journal  69(4): 1066-1068.

Barzanji, A. F., 1973. Gypsiferous soils of Iraq. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ghent, Belgium.

Barzanji, A. F., Sys, C., Eswaran, H., 1975. The clay mineralogy of gypsiferous soils of Iraq. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, Mexico City, 1975: 1(r23. (Ed. S.W. Bailey). Applied Publishing Ltd. Wilmette, Illinois, USA.

Burt, R., 2011. Soil survey laboratory information manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 45, Version 2.0 United State Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. 506p.

Cantón, Y., Solé-Benet, A., Lázaro, R., 2003. Soil-geomorphology relations in gypsiferous materials of the Tabernas Desert (Almería, SE Spain). Geoderma 115(3-4):193-222.  

Grossman, R.B., Reinsch, T.G., 2002. Bulk Density and Linear Extensibility. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 4 Physical Methods, (Dane, J.H., Topp, C.G. (Eds). Soil Science Society of America  Book Series, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 201-228

Dekkiche, B., 1976. Sur quelques sols à accumulation de gypse dans le Hodna. Annales de I’Institut National Agrono- mique 6.

FAO, 1990. Management of gypsiferous soils. FAO Soil Bulltein 62. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations,  Rome. Italy.

FAO, 2006. Guideline for Soil Profile Description. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation. Rome, Italy.

Florea, N., Al-Joumaa, Kh., 1998. Genesis and classification of gypsiferous soils of the Middle Euphrates Floodplain, Syria. Geoderma 87(1-2): 67-85.

Fuller, L., Goh, T.B., 1992. Stability–energy relationships and their application to aggregation studies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 72(4), 453–466.

Gee, G. W., Bauder, J. W., 1994. Particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Klute, A. (Ed.) American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin. USA. pp.383-411.

IBM Corp, 2012. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, NY, USA.

Imeson, A., Vis, M., 1984. Assessing soil aggregate stability by water-drop impact and ultrasonic dispersion. Geoderma 34: 185–200.

Mardoud, T., 1980. Gypsiferous soils in the Balikh basin - characteristics and productivity. Soil Taxonomy Workshop, ACSAD:3OB-320.

Soil Atlas, 1985. General Soil Map of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Land Management Department, 292p.

Mousli, O.F., 1980. Methods of evaluation and classification of gypsiferous soils and suitability for irrigated agriculture. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Soil Classification Workshop.  Beinroth, F.H., Osman, A.(Eds.). Arab Centre for the Study of Arid and Dry Lands (ACSAD). Damascus, Syria. pp.278-307.

Oades, J.M, Waters, A.G., 1991. Aggregate hierarchy in soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29(6): 815 – 828.

Pearson, J.M., Monteith, E.S., Ferguson, R. R., Hallmark, T.C., Hudnall, H.W., Monger, C.H., Reinsch, G.T., West, T.L. 2014. A method to determine particle size distribution in soils with gypsum. Geoderma 237-238: 318-324.

Vincent, P., 2008. Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview.  Taylor & Francis Pubications.  London, UK. 332p.

Poch, R.M., Artieda, O., Herrero, J., Lebedeva-Verba, M., 2010. Gypsic features. In: Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Stoops, G., Marcelino, V., Mees, F. (Eds.).  Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 195–216.

Porta, J., 1998. Methodologies for the analysis and characterization of gypsum in soils: a review. Geoderma 87(1-2): 31–46.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014a. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 359p

Soil Survey Staff, 2014b. Kellogg soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 1001p.

Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., 1996. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. 1390p.

Van-Alphen, J.G., de los Ríos Romero, F. 1971. Gypsiferous Soils. Notes on their characteristics and management. Bulletin No. 12. International Institute of Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Vieillefon, J., 1978. Etude de l’application des phénomènes de déshydration et de réhydration du sulfate de calcium à 1’estimation des teneurs en eau et en gypse des sols gypseux. ORSTOM, Division des Sols, Tunisie, ES 146 DRES.

Vieillefon, J., 1977. Recherches sur l’analyse granulométrique des sols gypseux. Ministère de l’Agriculture, Direction des Resources en Eaux et en Sols (DRES) et ORSTOM, Tunisie, ES 137 DRES.

Vieillefon, J., 1979. Contribution to the improvement of analysis of gypsiferous soils. Cahiers/ORSTOM, Serie Pédologie 17:195-223.

Abstract

Until now, there is no method can be used to accurately assess the particles size distribution as well as textural classes of gypsiferous soils for proper interpretation of physical behavior of these soils, and most laboratory methods involve pretreatment to remove gypsum from the samples. Therefore, the results of the particle size distribution do not reflect the size distribution of the whole soil. This study aimed to develop an alternative method to determine particle size distribution for some gypsiferous soils selected from Al-Ahsa governorate, Saudi Arabia. Five samples from different profiles with different gypsum content were selected to evaluate the modified method. Sand fractions were separated with three disaggregation methods: 1) drying sieving, 2) shaking for 5 hours in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution, and 3) sonication for 3 minutes in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution. The statistical analysis results revealed that the sonication for 3 minutes in a 7:3 ethanol: water solution was the most effective method for separating sand fractions as compared to dry sieving and shaking. Meanwhile, there was slight difference in separating sand fractions between sonication for 3 minutes and shaking for 5 hours. The particle size distribution by the developed method showed increasing in total sand content as compared to standard particle size method. Likewise, comparison of the CEC/clay ratio between the two methods also indicated that the developed method yielded clay contents more consistent with other property data for the same horizons. Consequently, the textural classes obtained from the two methods were different. Therefore; we concluded that the determination of particle size distribution for gypsiferous soils (≤ 40% gypsum) using this developed method will improve the understanding and ability to proper interpret of physical behavior of these unique soils. We highly recommended using this developed method to separate soil particles from the gypsiferous soils.

Keywords: Gypsiferous soils, Al-Ahsa governorate, disaggregation methods, sonication

References

Al-Barrak, K., Rowell, D.L., 2006. The solubility of gypsum in calcareous soils. Geoderma 136 (3-4): 830–837.

Artieda, O., 1996. Génesis y distribución de suelos en un medio semiárido. Quinto de Ebro (Zaragoza). Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (MAPA). pp 222.

Aznar, J. M., Poch, R. M., Badía, D., 2013. Soil catena along gypseous woodland in the middle Ebro Basin: soil properties and micromorphology relationships. Spanish Journal of Soil Science 3(1): 28–44.

Horváth, B., Opara-Nadi, O., Beese, F., 2005. A simple method for measuring the carbonate content of soils. Soil Science Society America  Journal  69(4): 1066-1068.

Barzanji, A. F., 1973. Gypsiferous soils of Iraq. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ghent, Belgium.

Barzanji, A. F., Sys, C., Eswaran, H., 1975. The clay mineralogy of gypsiferous soils of Iraq. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, Mexico City, 1975: 1(r23. (Ed. S.W. Bailey). Applied Publishing Ltd. Wilmette, Illinois, USA.

Burt, R., 2011. Soil survey laboratory information manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 45, Version 2.0 United State Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. 506p.

Cantón, Y., Solé-Benet, A., Lázaro, R., 2003. Soil-geomorphology relations in gypsiferous materials of the Tabernas Desert (Almería, SE Spain). Geoderma 115(3-4):193-222.  

Grossman, R.B., Reinsch, T.G., 2002. Bulk Density and Linear Extensibility. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 4 Physical Methods, (Dane, J.H., Topp, C.G. (Eds). Soil Science Society of America  Book Series, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 201-228

Dekkiche, B., 1976. Sur quelques sols à accumulation de gypse dans le Hodna. Annales de I’Institut National Agrono- mique 6.

FAO, 1990. Management of gypsiferous soils. FAO Soil Bulltein 62. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations,  Rome. Italy.

FAO, 2006. Guideline for Soil Profile Description. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation. Rome, Italy.

Florea, N., Al-Joumaa, Kh., 1998. Genesis and classification of gypsiferous soils of the Middle Euphrates Floodplain, Syria. Geoderma 87(1-2): 67-85.

Fuller, L., Goh, T.B., 1992. Stability–energy relationships and their application to aggregation studies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 72(4), 453–466.

Gee, G. W., Bauder, J. W., 1994. Particle-size analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Klute, A. (Ed.) American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin. USA. pp.383-411.

IBM Corp, 2012. Statistics for Windows (Computer Program Manual), IBM SPSS Armonk, NY, USA.

Imeson, A., Vis, M., 1984. Assessing soil aggregate stability by water-drop impact and ultrasonic dispersion. Geoderma 34: 185–200.

Mardoud, T., 1980. Gypsiferous soils in the Balikh basin - characteristics and productivity. Soil Taxonomy Workshop, ACSAD:3OB-320.

Soil Atlas, 1985. General Soil Map of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Land Management Department, 292p.

Mousli, O.F., 1980. Methods of evaluation and classification of gypsiferous soils and suitability for irrigated agriculture. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Soil Classification Workshop.  Beinroth, F.H., Osman, A.(Eds.). Arab Centre for the Study of Arid and Dry Lands (ACSAD). Damascus, Syria. pp.278-307.

Oades, J.M, Waters, A.G., 1991. Aggregate hierarchy in soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29(6): 815 – 828.

Pearson, J.M., Monteith, E.S., Ferguson, R. R., Hallmark, T.C., Hudnall, H.W., Monger, C.H., Reinsch, G.T., West, T.L. 2014. A method to determine particle size distribution in soils with gypsum. Geoderma 237-238: 318-324.

Vincent, P., 2008. Saudi Arabia: An Environmental Overview.  Taylor & Francis Pubications.  London, UK. 332p.

Poch, R.M., Artieda, O., Herrero, J., Lebedeva-Verba, M., 2010. Gypsic features. In: Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Stoops, G., Marcelino, V., Mees, F. (Eds.).  Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 195–216.

Porta, J., 1998. Methodologies for the analysis and characterization of gypsum in soils: a review. Geoderma 87(1-2): 31–46.

Soil Survey Staff, 2014a. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 359p

Soil Survey Staff, 2014b. Kellogg soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 5.0. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA. 1001p.

Sparks, D.L., Page, A.L., Helmke, P.A., Loeppert, R.H., 1996. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3—Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series 5.3. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. 1390p.

Van-Alphen, J.G., de los Ríos Romero, F. 1971. Gypsiferous Soils. Notes on their characteristics and management. Bulletin No. 12. International Institute of Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Vieillefon, J., 1978. Etude de l’application des phénomènes de déshydration et de réhydration du sulfate de calcium à 1’estimation des teneurs en eau et en gypse des sols gypseux. ORSTOM, Division des Sols, Tunisie, ES 146 DRES.

Vieillefon, J., 1977. Recherches sur l’analyse granulométrique des sols gypseux. Ministère de l’Agriculture, Direction des Resources en Eaux et en Sols (DRES) et ORSTOM, Tunisie, ES 137 DRES.

Vieillefon, J., 1979. Contribution to the improvement of analysis of gypsiferous soils. Cahiers/ORSTOM, Serie Pédologie 17:195-223.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science