Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 4, Oct 2016, Pages 299 - 306
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil

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Awaad,M., Badr,R., Badr,M., Abd-elrahman,A., 2016. Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(4):299 - 306. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Awaad,M.,Badr,R.Badr,M.,& Abd-elrahman,A. Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Awaad,M.,Badr,R.Badr,M., and ,Abd-elrahman,A."Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Awaad,M.,Badr,R.Badr,M., and ,Abd-elrahman,A. "Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
MS,Awaad.RA,Badr.MA,Badr.AH,Abd-elrahman "Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Awaad,Mohamed ;Badr,Ragab ;Badr,Mamoduh ;Abd-elrahman,Ahmed Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306

How to cite

Awaad, M., S. Badr, R., A. Badr, M., A. Abd-elrahman, A., H.2016. Effects of different nitrogen and potassium sources on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) yield in a sandy soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(4): 299 - 306. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306

Author information

Mohamed Awaad , Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Ragab Badr , Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Mamoduh Badr , Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Ahmed Abd-elrahman , Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Oct 2016
Article first published online : 21 May 2016
Manuscript Accepted : 18 Apr 2016
Manuscript Received: 05 Jan 2016
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.4.299-306

Abstract

Lettuce plants were grown under sandy soil conditions in the private farm of Ahmed Orabi organization, Cairo Governorate Egypt, between 15th November 2009 and 15 January 2010. The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different nitrogen sources, slow release N (urea-formaldehyde) and fast release N (urea) containing fertilizers at the rates of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 applied alone or combined with potassium sulphate, on lettuce plant yield. Results indicated that application of different sources of N alone or combined with potassium sulphate gave the highest fresh dry weight per plant and total lettuce yield per hectare compared with the control. The highest dry weight of lettuce was achieved with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate. Although fertilization made with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate resulted in the highest P, K, Zn and Mn contents in lettuce plant, fertilization with urea alone gave the highest N and Fe contents. The lowest content of nitrate in lettuce plants was recorded with the fertilization of urea only or with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate. Application of the combination of urea and potassium sulphate induced the highest protein content in plants. The results indicated that application of urea-formaldehyde as a slow release nitrogen fertilizer solely or combined with potassium sulphate significantly improved yield and yield quality of lettuce plants grown in sandy soil.

Keywords

Urea-formaldehyde, urea, potassium sulphate, Lactuca sativa

Corresponding author

References

Abdel-Motagally, F.M.F., Osman E. A., 2010. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization combinations on productivity of two sunflower cultivars under East-of El-ewinate conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural  & Environmental Sciences 8(4): 397-401.

Ahmed, A.H.H., Khalil, M.K., Farrag, A.M., 2000. Nitrate accumulation, growth, yield and chemical composition of Rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plant as affected by NPK fertilization, kinetin and salicylic acid. Proceedings of ICEHM 2000, Cairo University, Egypt, pp. 495–508.

Ahmadi, H., Akbarpour, V., Dashti F, Shojajaeian, A., 2010. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield, nitrate accumulation and several quantitative attributes of fove Iranian spinach accessions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 8(4): 468-473.

Ali, A.A., Ikeda, M., Yamada, Y., 1985.  Absorption, translocation and assimilation of ammonium-and nitrate -nitrogen in rice plants as affected by the supply of potassium, calcium and magnesium. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 30(2-3): 113-124.

Böhme, M., Lua, H., 1997. Influence of mineral and organic treatments in the rizosphere on the growth of tomato plants. Acta Horticulturae 450: 161-168.

Bozkurt, S.M., Mansuroğlu, G.S., Kara, M., Önder, S., 2009. Responses of lettuce to irrigation levels and nitrogen forms. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(11): 1171-1178.

Breimer, T., 1982. Environmental factors and cultural measures affecting the nitrate content in spinach. Fertilizer Research 3 (3):191-292.

Byrne, C., Maher, M.J., Hennerty, M.J., 2001. Reducing the nitrogen content of protected lettuce crops. Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority. Dublin: University College, 19 p.

Cash, D., Funston, R., King, M., Wichman, D., 2002. Nitrate toxicity of Montana forages. Montana State University, Extension MontGuide. MT 200205 AG reviewed 5/06. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]:  http://www.msuextension.org/carbon/Documents/ag%20nit%20tox%20mt.pdf

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1978. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 3043 pp.

Gulser, F., 2005. Effects of ammonium sulphate and urea on NO3− and NO2− accumulation, nutrient contents and yield criteria in spinach. Scientia Horticulturae 106 (3): 330-340.

Gülser, F., Sönmez, F., Boysan, S., 2010. Effect of calcium nitrate and humic acid applications on growth and yield criteria of pepper seedling under salt stress. Journal of Environmental Biology 31(5) : 873-876.

Guertal, E.A., 2009. Slow release nitrogen fertilizers in vegetable production: A Review. HortTechnology 19(1): 16-19.

Hao, H.L., Wei, Y.Z., Xiao, X.E., Ying, F., Wu, C.Y., 2007. Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Science 14(4): 289-294.

Hartrath, H., 1986. Nitrogen should be released slowly. Gemuse 22(8): 332-334.

Hegde, D.M., 1997. Nutrient requirements of solanaceous vegetable crops. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre for the Asian and Pasific Region. Extension Bulletins. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]:  http://www.agnet.org/file_view.php?file_url=/htmlarea_file/library/20110801133428/eb441.pdf

Jackson, M.L., 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Jurkowska, H., Rogoz, A., 1981. The effect of the form of nitrogen and its dose on the content of macro- and microelements of plants Part II: Microelements. Acta Agraria et Silvestria Series Agraria 20: 121-131.

Lorenz, O.A., 1978. Potential nitrate levels in edible plant parts. In: Nitrogen in the environment. Vol.2, Soil-Plant-Nitrogen relationship. Nielsen, D.R., MacDonald, J.G., (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, USA. pp.201-219.

Maynard, D.N., Barker, A.V., Minotti, P.L., Peck, N.H., 1976. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Advances in Agronomy 28: 71-118.

Mo, H., Zhao, X.C., Wang, F.S., 1995. Effect of slow-release urea on increasing soybean yield. Soybean Science 10(4): 335-338.

McCarty, L.B., 2005. Best golf course management practices. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 896 p.

Nelson, D.W.,  Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L.,  Keeney, D. R.,  Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.539-580.

Nurzyński, J., Michałojc, Z., 1998. Plonowanie pomidora uprawianego w wełnie mineralnej w zależności od nawożenia potasowego. Zesz. Nauk AR Kraków 333(57): 235-239. [in Polish]

Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R., 2009. Growth and yield of garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill) affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus 8(4): 23-33.

Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G., 1980. Statistical methods. 7th Edition, Ames: Iowa State University Press. USA. 480p.

Stagnari, F., Di Bitetto, V., Pisante, M., 2007. Effect of N fertilization and rates on yield, safety and nutrients in processing spinach genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae 111(4): 225-233.

Smith, J.L., Doran, J.W., 1996. Measurement and use of pH and electrical conductivity for soil quality analysis. In: Methods for assessing soil quality. Doran, J.W., Jones, A.J. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America Special Publication No. 49, pp. 169-185.

Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D., Havlin, J.L., 1991. Soil fertility and fertilizers. 5th Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA. 634 p.

Volterrani, M., Gaetani, M., Grossi, N., Pardini, G., Miele, S., Magni, S., 1999. The use of organic fertilizers on turf (Lolium perenne L.). Nitrogen uptake and loss dynamic. Rivista di Agronomia 33(1): 34-39.

Wang, X.F., Ito, T., 1998.  Effect of lowering nitrate nitrogen and elevating potassium concentrations in the nutrient solution on the growth, yield and NO3 content in spinach grown in hydroponics. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 67(1): 74-80. 

WHO, 1995. World Health Organization. The world health report 1995. Bridging the gaps. Geneva, Switzerland. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]: http://www.who.int/whr/1995/en/whr95_en.pdf?ua=1

Zarei, H., 1995. Investigation of nitrate accumulation in vegetables lettuce and spinach in relation to nitrogen fertilizers. MSc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University. Tehran, Iran

Zong, N.W., Song, Z.Y., Yong, L.X., 1997. The effect of different K sources on yield and quality of some vegetable crops. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis (China) 9 (3): 143–148. [in Chinese]

Abstract

Lettuce plants were grown under sandy soil conditions in the private farm of Ahmed Orabi organization, Cairo Governorate Egypt, between 15th November 2009 and 15 January 2010. The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different nitrogen sources, slow release N (urea-formaldehyde) and fast release N (urea) containing fertilizers at the rates of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 applied alone or combined with potassium sulphate, on lettuce plant yield. Results indicated that application of different sources of N alone or combined with potassium sulphate gave the highest fresh dry weight per plant and total lettuce yield per hectare compared with the control. The highest dry weight of lettuce was achieved with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate. Although fertilization made with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate resulted in the highest P, K, Zn and Mn contents in lettuce plant, fertilization with urea alone gave the highest N and Fe contents. The lowest content of nitrate in lettuce plants was recorded with the fertilization of urea only or with the combination of urea and potassium sulphate. Application of the combination of urea and potassium sulphate induced the highest protein content in plants. The results indicated that application of urea-formaldehyde as a slow release nitrogen fertilizer solely or combined with potassium sulphate significantly improved yield and yield quality of lettuce plants grown in sandy soil. 

Keywords: Urea-formaldehyde, urea, potassium sulphate, Lactuca sativa.

References

Abdel-Motagally, F.M.F., Osman E. A., 2010. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization combinations on productivity of two sunflower cultivars under East-of El-ewinate conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural  & Environmental Sciences 8(4): 397-401.

Ahmed, A.H.H., Khalil, M.K., Farrag, A.M., 2000. Nitrate accumulation, growth, yield and chemical composition of Rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) plant as affected by NPK fertilization, kinetin and salicylic acid. Proceedings of ICEHM 2000, Cairo University, Egypt, pp. 495–508.

Ahmadi, H., Akbarpour, V., Dashti F, Shojajaeian, A., 2010. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield, nitrate accumulation and several quantitative attributes of fove Iranian spinach accessions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 8(4): 468-473.

Ali, A.A., Ikeda, M., Yamada, Y., 1985.  Absorption, translocation and assimilation of ammonium-and nitrate -nitrogen in rice plants as affected by the supply of potassium, calcium and magnesium. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 30(2-3): 113-124.

Böhme, M., Lua, H., 1997. Influence of mineral and organic treatments in the rizosphere on the growth of tomato plants. Acta Horticulturae 450: 161-168.

Bozkurt, S.M., Mansuroğlu, G.S., Kara, M., Önder, S., 2009. Responses of lettuce to irrigation levels and nitrogen forms. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(11): 1171-1178.

Breimer, T., 1982. Environmental factors and cultural measures affecting the nitrate content in spinach. Fertilizer Research 3 (3):191-292.

Byrne, C., Maher, M.J., Hennerty, M.J., 2001. Reducing the nitrogen content of protected lettuce crops. Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority. Dublin: University College, 19 p.

Cash, D., Funston, R., King, M., Wichman, D., 2002. Nitrate toxicity of Montana forages. Montana State University, Extension MontGuide. MT 200205 AG reviewed 5/06. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]:  http://www.msuextension.org/carbon/Documents/ag%20nit%20tox%20mt.pdf

Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F., 1978. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 3043 pp.

Gulser, F., 2005. Effects of ammonium sulphate and urea on NO3− and NO2− accumulation, nutrient contents and yield criteria in spinach. Scientia Horticulturae 106 (3): 330-340.

Gülser, F., Sönmez, F., Boysan, S., 2010. Effect of calcium nitrate and humic acid applications on growth and yield criteria of pepper seedling under salt stress. Journal of Environmental Biology 31(5) : 873-876.

Guertal, E.A., 2009. Slow release nitrogen fertilizers in vegetable production: A Review. HortTechnology 19(1): 16-19.

Hao, H.L., Wei, Y.Z., Xiao, X.E., Ying, F., Wu, C.Y., 2007. Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Science 14(4): 289-294.

Hartrath, H., 1986. Nitrogen should be released slowly. Gemuse 22(8): 332-334.

Hegde, D.M., 1997. Nutrient requirements of solanaceous vegetable crops. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre for the Asian and Pasific Region. Extension Bulletins. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]:  http://www.agnet.org/file_view.php?file_url=/htmlarea_file/library/20110801133428/eb441.pdf

Jackson, M.L., 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Jurkowska, H., Rogoz, A., 1981. The effect of the form of nitrogen and its dose on the content of macro- and microelements of plants Part II: Microelements. Acta Agraria et Silvestria Series Agraria 20: 121-131.

Lorenz, O.A., 1978. Potential nitrate levels in edible plant parts. In: Nitrogen in the environment. Vol.2, Soil-Plant-Nitrogen relationship. Nielsen, D.R., MacDonald, J.G., (Eds.). Academic Press, New York, USA. pp.201-219.

Maynard, D.N., Barker, A.V., Minotti, P.L., Peck, N.H., 1976. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Advances in Agronomy 28: 71-118.

Mo, H., Zhao, X.C., Wang, F.S., 1995. Effect of slow-release urea on increasing soybean yield. Soybean Science 10(4): 335-338.

McCarty, L.B., 2005. Best golf course management practices. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 896 p.

Nelson, D.W.,  Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Second Edition. Number 9, Page, A.L.,  Keeney, D. R.,  Baker, D.E., Miller, R.H., Ellis, R. Jr., Rhoades, J.D. (Eds.). ASA-SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp.539-580.

Nurzyński, J., Michałojc, Z., 1998. Plonowanie pomidora uprawianego w wełnie mineralnej w zależności od nawożenia potasowego. Zesz. Nauk AR Kraków 333(57): 235-239. [in Polish]

Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R., 2009. Growth and yield of garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill) affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus 8(4): 23-33.

Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G., 1980. Statistical methods. 7th Edition, Ames: Iowa State University Press. USA. 480p.

Stagnari, F., Di Bitetto, V., Pisante, M., 2007. Effect of N fertilization and rates on yield, safety and nutrients in processing spinach genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae 111(4): 225-233.

Smith, J.L., Doran, J.W., 1996. Measurement and use of pH and electrical conductivity for soil quality analysis. In: Methods for assessing soil quality. Doran, J.W., Jones, A.J. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America Special Publication No. 49, pp. 169-185.

Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D., Havlin, J.L., 1991. Soil fertility and fertilizers. 5th Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA. 634 p.

Volterrani, M., Gaetani, M., Grossi, N., Pardini, G., Miele, S., Magni, S., 1999. The use of organic fertilizers on turf (Lolium perenne L.). Nitrogen uptake and loss dynamic. Rivista di Agronomia 33(1): 34-39.

Wang, X.F., Ito, T., 1998.  Effect of lowering nitrate nitrogen and elevating potassium concentrations in the nutrient solution on the growth, yield and NO3 content in spinach grown in hydroponics. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 67(1): 74-80. 

WHO, 1995. World Health Organization. The world health report 1995. Bridging the gaps. Geneva, Switzerland. Available at [access date: 05.12.2015]: http://www.who.int/whr/1995/en/whr95_en.pdf?ua=1

Zarei, H., 1995. Investigation of nitrate accumulation in vegetables lettuce and spinach in relation to nitrogen fertilizers. MSc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University. Tehran, Iran

Zong, N.W., Song, Z.Y., Yong, L.X., 1997. The effect of different K sources on yield and quality of some vegetable crops. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis (China) 9 (3): 143–148. [in Chinese]



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science