Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 2, Apr 2016, Pages 89 - 96
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes

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Karadağ ,S., Eren,E., Çetinkaya,E., Özen,S., Deveci,S., 2016. Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(2):89 - 96. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Karadağ ,S.,Eren,E.Çetinkaya,E.Özen,S.,& Deveci,S. Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Karadağ ,S.,Eren,E.Çetinkaya,E.Özen,S., and ,Deveci,S."Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Karadağ ,S.,Eren,E.Çetinkaya,E.Özen,S., and ,Deveci,S. "Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
S,Karadağ .E,Eren.E,Çetinkaya.S,Özen.S,Deveci "Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Karadağ ,Sevinç ;Eren,Emel ;Çetinkaya,Ebru ;Özen,Selin ;Deveci,Seda Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096

How to cite

Karadağ , S., Eren, E., Çetinkaya, E., Özen, S., Deveci, S., 2016. Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD) and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(2): 89 - 96. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096

Author information

Sevinç Karadağ , Mir Arastirma ve Gelistirme A.S., Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Emel Eren , Mir Arastirma ve Gelistirme A.S., Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Ebru Çetinkaya , Mir Arastirma ve Gelistirme A.S., Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Selin Özen , Mir Arastirma ve Gelistirme A.S., Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Seda Deveci , Mir Arastirma ve Gelistirme A.S., Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Apr 2016
Article first published online : 02 Nov 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 31 Oct 2015
Manuscript Received: 15 Sep 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.2.089-096

Abstract

Rapid determination of sodium (Na) ions in soil samples using ion selective electrodes (ISE) was investigated in this study. The compatibility of ISEs with soil extraction solution is a challenging subject as various effects such as pH, ionic strength and other interferences have to be considered as well as efficiency of the extraction solution. Because almost every type of sodium salt is soluble in water, and the pH of water is suitable for ISE studies, it was chosen as the soil extractant. Firstly, the extraction parameters were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD), secondly thirty agricultural soil samples were extracted with water and the extracts were measured by Na-ISE in a previously developed flow system. The results were compared with ion chromatography (IC) as the reference method, and the regression analysis between IC and ISE results yielded a high correlation (R² = 0.9408). It was concluded that, ion selective electrodes can be used with water as an extraction solution for rapid determination of sodium in soil samples.

Keywords

Central composite design (CCD), ion selective electrodes (ISE), soil analysis, sodium

Corresponding author

References

Benton, J., Jones, Jr., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press, USA.

Bortolon, L., Gianello, C., 2010. Simultaneous Multi-element extraction with the mehlich-1 solution for southern Brazilian soils determined by ICP-OES and the effects on the nutrients recommendations to crops. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 34: 125-132.

Bortolon, L., Gianello, C., Welter, S., Almeida, R.G.O., Giasson, E., 2011. Simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils and potassium recommendations for crops in Southern Brazil. Pedosphere 21: 365–372.

Bratovcic, A., Odobasic, A., Catic, S., 2009. The advantages of the use of ion selective potentiometry in relation to UV/VIS spectroscopy. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 74: 139-142.

Carey, C.M., Riggan, W.B., 1994 Cyclic polyamine ionophores for use in a dibasic-phosphate-selective electrode. Analytical Chemistry 66: 3587–3591.

Ciesla, J., Ryżak, M., Bieganowski, A., Tkaczyk, P., Walczak, R.T., 2007. Use of ion-selective electrodes for determination of content of potassium in Egner-Rhiem soil extracts. Research in Agricultural Engineering 53: 29–33.

Eren, E., Öksüz, Y., Karadağ, S., Özen, S., Gemici, Z., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. Investigation of a novel soil analysis method in agricultural areas of Çarşamba plain for fertilizer recommendation. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 3: 123 - 130.

Eruz, E., 1979. Toprak tuzluluğu ye bitkiler üzerindeki genel etkileri. İstanbul University, Faculty of forestry, B Series, 29, No: 2.

Kacar, B., 2012. Temel bitki besleme. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish)

Kahveci, O., Atalay, İ.Z., 2010. Alaşehir ve Salihli bağ topraklarının alınabilir potasyum analizlerinde değiştirilmiş 1N NH4OAc yöntemine alternatif yöntemlerin belirlenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 47: 275-286.

Kanber, R., Unlu, M., 2010. Tarımda su ve toprak tuzluluğu. Cukurova Universitesi, Adana, Turkey. (in Turkish)

Khuri, A., Mukhopadhyay, S., 2010. Response surface methodology. John Wiley & Sons, 2, 128–149.

Knoll, M., Cammann, K., Dumschat, C., Borchardt, M., Hogg, G., 1994. Microfibre matrix-supported ion-selective PVC membranes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 20: 1–5.

Levitchev, S., Smirnova, A., Bratov, A., Vlasov, Y., 1998.. Electrochemical properties of photocurable membranes for all-solid-state chemical sensors. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry 361: 252–254.

Liu, J.J., Li, S.P., Wang, Y.T., 2006. Optimization for quantitative determination of four flavonoids in Epimedium by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with diode array detection using central composite design. Journal of Chromatography A 1103(3): 344–349.

Madurapperuma, W.S., Kumaragamage, D., 2008. Evaluation of Ammonium Bicarbonate–Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic Acid as a multinutrient extractant for acidic lowland rice soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39: 1773–1790.

Matula, J., 2009. A relationship between multi-nutrient soil tests (Mehlich 3, ammonium acetate, and water extraction) and bioavailability of nutrients from soils for barley. Plant, Soil and Environment 55: 173–180.

Montgomery, D.C., 1997. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, USA.

Tsukada, K., Sebata, M., Miyahara, Y., Miyagi, H., 1989. Long-life multiple ISFETs with polymeric gates. Sensors and Actuators 18: 329–336.

Wang, J.J., Harrell, D.L., Henderson, R.E., Bell, P.F., 2004. Comparison of soil-test extractants for phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in Louisiana soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35: 145–160.

Wang, J.J., Scott, A.D., 2001. Determination of exchangeable potassium in soil using ion-selective electrodes in soil suspensions. European Journal of Soil Science 52: 143-150.

Wroblewski, W., Wojciechowski, K., Dybko, A., Brzozka, Z., Egberink, R.J.M., Snellink-Ruel, B.H.M., Reinhoudt, D.N., 2000. Uranyl salophenes as ionophores for phosphate-selective electrodes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 68: 313–318.

Xiao, D., Yuan, H.Y., Li, J., Yu, R.Q., 1995. Surface-modified cobalt-based sensor as a phosphate-sensitive electrode. Analytical Chemistry 67: 288–291.

Zbiral, J., Nemec, P., 2005. Comparison of Mehlich 2, Mehlich 3, Cal, Schachtschabel, 0.01M CaCl2 and Aqua Regia extractants for determination of potassium in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36: 795–803.

Abstract

Rapid determination of sodium (Na) ions in soil samples using ion selective electrodes (ISE) was investigated in this study. The compatibility of ISEs with soil extraction solution is a challenging subject as various effects such as pH, ionic strength and other interferences have to be considered as well as efficiency of the extraction solution. Because almost every type of sodium salt is soluble in water, and the pH of water is suitable for ISE studies, it was chosen as the soil extractant. Firstly, the extraction parameters were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD), secondly thirty agricultural soil samples were extracted with water and the extracts were measured by Na-ISE in a previously developed flow system. The results were compared with ion chromatography (IC) as the reference method, and the regression analysis between IC and ISE results yielded a high correlation (R² = 0.9408). It was concluded that, ion selective electrodes can be used with water as an extraction solution for rapid determination of sodium in soil samples.

Keywords: Central composite design (CCD), ion selective electrodes (ISE), soil analysis, sodium

References

Benton, J., Jones, Jr., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press, USA.

Bortolon, L., Gianello, C., 2010. Simultaneous Multi-element extraction with the mehlich-1 solution for southern Brazilian soils determined by ICP-OES and the effects on the nutrients recommendations to crops. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 34: 125-132.

Bortolon, L., Gianello, C., Welter, S., Almeida, R.G.O., Giasson, E., 2011. Simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils and potassium recommendations for crops in Southern Brazil. Pedosphere 21: 365–372.

Bratovcic, A., Odobasic, A., Catic, S., 2009. The advantages of the use of ion selective potentiometry in relation to UV/VIS spectroscopy. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 74: 139-142.

Carey, C.M., Riggan, W.B., 1994 Cyclic polyamine ionophores for use in a dibasic-phosphate-selective electrode. Analytical Chemistry 66: 3587–3591.

Ciesla, J., Ryżak, M., Bieganowski, A., Tkaczyk, P., Walczak, R.T., 2007. Use of ion-selective electrodes for determination of content of potassium in Egner-Rhiem soil extracts. Research in Agricultural Engineering 53: 29–33.

Eren, E., Öksüz, Y., Karadağ, S., Özen, S., Gemici, Z., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. Investigation of a novel soil analysis method in agricultural areas of Çarşamba plain for fertilizer recommendation. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 3: 123 - 130.

Eruz, E., 1979. Toprak tuzluluğu ye bitkiler üzerindeki genel etkileri. İstanbul University, Faculty of forestry, B Series, 29, No: 2.

Kacar, B., 2012. Temel bitki besleme. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish)

Kahveci, O., Atalay, İ.Z., 2010. Alaşehir ve Salihli bağ topraklarının alınabilir potasyum analizlerinde değiştirilmiş 1N NH4OAc yöntemine alternatif yöntemlerin belirlenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 47: 275-286.

Kanber, R., Unlu, M., 2010. Tarımda su ve toprak tuzluluğu. Cukurova Universitesi, Adana, Turkey. (in Turkish)

Khuri, A., Mukhopadhyay, S., 2010. Response surface methodology. John Wiley & Sons, 2, 128–149.

Knoll, M., Cammann, K., Dumschat, C., Borchardt, M., Hogg, G., 1994. Microfibre matrix-supported ion-selective PVC membranes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 20: 1–5.

Levitchev, S., Smirnova, A., Bratov, A., Vlasov, Y., 1998.. Electrochemical properties of photocurable membranes for all-solid-state chemical sensors. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry 361: 252–254.

Liu, J.J., Li, S.P., Wang, Y.T., 2006. Optimization for quantitative determination of four flavonoids in Epimedium by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with diode array detection using central composite design. Journal of Chromatography A 1103(3): 344–349.

Madurapperuma, W.S., Kumaragamage, D., 2008. Evaluation of Ammonium Bicarbonate–Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic Acid as a multinutrient extractant for acidic lowland rice soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39: 1773–1790.

Matula, J., 2009. A relationship between multi-nutrient soil tests (Mehlich 3, ammonium acetate, and water extraction) and bioavailability of nutrients from soils for barley. Plant, Soil and Environment 55: 173–180.

Montgomery, D.C., 1997. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, USA.

Tsukada, K., Sebata, M., Miyahara, Y., Miyagi, H., 1989. Long-life multiple ISFETs with polymeric gates. Sensors and Actuators 18: 329–336.

Wang, J.J., Harrell, D.L., Henderson, R.E., Bell, P.F., 2004. Comparison of soil-test extractants for phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in Louisiana soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35: 145–160.

Wang, J.J., Scott, A.D., 2001. Determination of exchangeable potassium in soil using ion-selective electrodes in soil suspensions. European Journal of Soil Science 52: 143-150.

Wroblewski, W., Wojciechowski, K., Dybko, A., Brzozka, Z., Egberink, R.J.M., Snellink-Ruel, B.H.M., Reinhoudt, D.N., 2000. Uranyl salophenes as ionophores for phosphate-selective electrodes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 68: 313–318.

Xiao, D., Yuan, H.Y., Li, J., Yu, R.Q., 1995. Surface-modified cobalt-based sensor as a phosphate-sensitive electrode. Analytical Chemistry 67: 288–291.

Zbiral, J., Nemec, P., 2005. Comparison of Mehlich 2, Mehlich 3, Cal, Schachtschabel, 0.01M CaCl2 and Aqua Regia extractants for determination of potassium in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36: 795–803.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science