Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 1, Jan 2016, Pages 53 - 61
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region

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Ali,S., Ibin-i Zamir ,M., Farid,M., Farooq,M., Rizwan,M., Ahmad,R., Hannan,F., 2016. Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(1):53 - 61. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Ali,S.,Ibin-i Zamir ,M.Farid,M.Farooq,M.Rizwan,M.Ahmad,R.,& Hannan,F. Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Ali,S.,Ibin-i Zamir ,M.Farid,M.Farooq,M.Rizwan,M.Ahmad,R., and ,Hannan,F."Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Ali,S.,Ibin-i Zamir ,M.Farid,M.Farooq,M.Rizwan,M.Ahmad,R., and ,Hannan,F. "Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
S,Ali.MS,Ibin-i Zamir .M,Farid.MA,Farooq.M,Rizwan.R,Ahmad.F,Hannan "Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Ali,Shafaqat ;Ibin-i Zamir ,Muhammad ;Farid,Mujahid ;Farooq,Muhammad ;Rizwan,Muhammad ;Ahmad,Rehan ;Hannan,Fakhir Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061

How to cite

Ali, S., Ibin-i Zamir , M., S. Farid, M., S. Farooq, M., A. Rizwan, M., A. Ahmad, R., A. Hannan, F., A.2016. Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(1): 53 - 61. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061

Author information

Shafaqat Ali , Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Ibin-i Zamir , Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Mujahid Farid , Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan
Muhammad Farooq , Faculty of Agriculture, Life and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Muhammad Rizwan , Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Rehan Ahmad , Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fakhir Hannan , Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jan 2016
Article first published online : 18 Sep 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 16 Sep 2015
Manuscript Received: 13 Aug 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.053-061

Abstract

Tillage practices and row spacing can be manipulated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth, therefore maximizing sunlight, soil water use efficiency, nutrients and grain yield on sustainable basis. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage and row spacing on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during wheat season. The treatments were comprised of two tillage practices viz. zero tillage and conventional tillage and four row spacing viz. 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm. The experimental results revealed that zero tillage significantly enhanced the plant height, tillers m-2, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and yield and yield components of wheat plants as compared to conventional tillage. Wheat plants resulted in a significant increase in tillers m-2 and accumulated higher biomass and grain yield under 15-cm row spacing than all three other row spacing. The grain yield increase was mainly attributed to more tillers m-2 at 15-cm than the other row spacing. So, zero tillage and narrow row spacing (15 cm) proved to be involved in higher wheat yield for the wheat-maize cropping system in semi-arid regions.

Keywords

Grain, growth, maize, tillage, wheat, yield

Corresponding author

References

Auld, B.A., Kemp, D.R., Medd, R.W., 1983. The influence of spatial arrangement on grain yield of wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 34: 99-108.

Bahera, A.K., 1994. Response of wheat to sowing dates. Indian Journal of Agronomy 39: 171-173.

Balesdent, J., Chenu, D., Balabane, M., 2000. Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 53: 215-230.

Beare, M.H., Hendrix, P.F., Coleman, D.C., 1994. Water stable aggregates and organic carbon fractions in conventional and no-tillage soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 777-786.

Bonfil, D.J., Mufradi, I., Klitman, S., Asido, S., 1999. Wheat grain yield and soil profile water distribution in a no-till arid environment. Agronomy Journal 91: 368-373.

Carter, M.R., 1992. Influence of reduced tillage systems on organic matter, microbial biomass, macro-aggregate distribution and structural stability of the surface soil in humid climate. Soil and Tillage Research 23: 361-372.

Cassel, D.K., Raczkowski, C.W., Denton H.P., 1995. Tillage effects on corn production and soil physical conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59: 1436-1443.

Chen, C., Neill, K., Wichman, D., Westcott, M., 2008. Hard red spring wheat response to row spacing, seeding rate, and nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 100: 1296-1302.

Chen, S., Zhang, X., Sun, H., Ren, T., Wang, Y., 2010. Effects of winter wheat row spacing on evapotranspiration, grain yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management 97: 1126–1132.

Derpsch, R., 1999. Frontiers in conservation tillage and advances in conservation practice. 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting, May 24-29, 1999. Purdue University and USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, USA.

Drews, S., Neuhoff, D., Köpke, U., 2009. Weed suppression ability of three winter wheat varieties at different row spacing under organic farming conditions. Weed Research 49: 526-533.

Erenstein, O., Farooq, U., Malik, R.K., Sharif, M., 2007. Adoption and impacts of zero tillage as a resource conserving technology in the ırrigated plains of South Asia. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture-Research Report 19. IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Erenstein, O., Laxmi, V., 2008. Zero tillage impacts in India’s rice-wheat systems: A review. Soil and Tillage Research 100: 1-14.

Franchini, J.C., Crispino, C.C., Souza, R.A., Torres, E., Hungria, M., 2007. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in Southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 92: 18-29.

Franzluebbers, A.J., Langdale, G.W., Schomberg, H.H., 1999. Soil carbon, nitrogen, and aggregation in response to type and frequency of tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 349-355.

Frederick, J.R., Marshall, H.G., 1985. Grain yield and yield components of soft red winter wheat as affected by management practices. Agronomy Journal 77: 495-499.

GOP, 2009. Pakistan Economic Survey. Government of Pakistan (2008-09), Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Live Stock, Federal Beauru of Statistics Islamabad.

Green, V.S., Stott, D.E., Cruz, J.C., Curi, N., 2007. Tillage impacts on soil biological activity and aggregation in a Brazilian Cerrado Oxisol. Soil and Tillage Research 92: 114-121.

Gupta, P.K., Sahai, S., Singh, N., Dixit C.K., Singh, D.P., Sharma, C., Tiwari, M.K., Gupta, R.K., Garg, S.C., 2004. Residue burning in rice–wheat cropping system: Causes and implications. Current Science 87: 1713-1717.

Halvorson, A.D., Black, A.L., Krupinsky, J.M., Merrill, S.D., Weinhold, B.J., Tanaka, D.L., 2000. Spring wheat response to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rotation with sunflower and winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 92: 136-144.

Hiltbrunner, J., Liedgens, M., Stamp, P., Streit, B., 2005. Effects of row spacing and liquid manure on directly drilled winter wheat in organic farming. European Journal of Agronomy 22: 441- 47.

Hussain, T., 1997. Comparative growth and yield performance of various wheat cultivars. Master’s Thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Iqbal, M., Khan, A., Anwar, M.Z., 2002. Zero-tillage Technology and Farm Profits: A Case Study of Wheat Growers in the Rice Zone of Punjab. The Pakistan Development Review 41, 665-682.

Johnson, J.W., Hargrove, W.L., Moss, R.B., 1988. Optimizing row spacing and seeding rate for soft red winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 80: 164-166.

Johri, A.K., Singh, G., Sharma, D., 1992. Nutrient-uptake by wheat and associated weeds as influenced by management-practices. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 69: 391-393.

Joseph, K.D.S.M., Alley, M.M., Brann, D.E., Gravelle, W.D., 1985. Row spacing and seeding rate effects on yield and yield components of soft red winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 77: 211-214.

Lafond, G.P., 1994. Effects of row spacing, seeding rate, and nitrogen on yield of barley and wheat under zero-till management. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 74: 703-711.

Lafond, G.P., Gan, Y., 1999. Row spacing and seeding rate studies in no-till winter wheat for the northern Great Plains. Journal of Production Agriculture 12: 624-629.

Lopez-Garrido, R., Díaz-Espejo, A., Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., 2009. Carbon losses by tillage under semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture (SW Spain). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 7: 706-716.

Malhi, S.S., Lemke, R., Wang, Z.H., Chhabra, B.S., 2006. Tillage, nitrogen and crop residue effects on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions. Soil and Tillage Research 90: 171-183.

Malik, R.K., Yadav, A., Gupta, R.K., Singh. S., Hobbs, P.R., Bellinder, R.R., 2005. Introduction and success of zero tillage in wheat under rice–wheat cropping system in Haryana, India-related stories. In Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-Wheat System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, Proceedings of the Project Workshop June 1-2, 2005. Directorate of Extension Education, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India, pp. 1-17.

Marshall, G.C., Ohm, H.W., 1987. Yield responses of 16 winter wheat cultivars to row spacing and seeding rate. Agronomy Journal 79: 1027-1030.

Mcleod, J.G., Campbell, C.A., Gan, Y., Dyck, F.B., Vera, C.L., 1996. Seeding depth, rate and row spacing for winter wheat grown on stubble and chemical fallow in the semiarid prairies. Canadian Journal Plant Science 76: 207-214.

Mehla, R.S., Verma, J.K., Gupta, R.K., Hobbs, P.R., 2000. Stagnation in the productivity of wheat in the indo-gangetic plains: Zero-till-seed-cum-fertilizer drill as an ıntegrated solution. Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series 8 RWC, New Delhi, India.

Miransari, M., Bahrami, H.A., Rejali, F., Malakouti, M.J., Torabi, H., 2007. Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 2014-2026.

Mirbahar, A.A., Markhand, G.S., Mahar, A.R., Saeed, A., Kanhar, N.A., 2009. Effect of water on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 1303-1310.

Moitra, R., Ghosh, D.C., Sarkar, S., 1996. Water use pattern and productivity of rainfed yellow sarson (Brassica rapa L. var glauca) in relation to tillage and mulching. Soil and Tillage Research 38: 153-160.

Muñoz-Romero, V., Benítez-Vega, J., López-Bellido, R.J., Fontán, J.M., López-Bellido, L., 2010. Effect of tillage system on the root growth of spring wheat. Plant and Soil 326: 97-107.

Ortega A., 1991. Relative importance of pests in conventional and conservation tillage: A review of the literature. Maize conservation tillage: CIMMYT, pp. 71-96.

Razzaq, A., Shah, P., Zada, K., Saeed, K., 1986. Effect of date of sowing on emergence, growth rate and days to earings of wheat varieties. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 2: 23-28.

Sarkar, S., Singh, S.R., 2007. Interactive effect of tillage depth and mulch on soil temperature, productivity and water use pattern of rainfed barley (Hordium vulgare L.). Soil and Tillage Research 92: 79-86.

Sarwar, M.N., Goheer, M.A., 2007. Adoption and Impact of Zero Tillage technology for wheat in Rice-Wheat System-water and cost saving technology. Proc. International Forum on Water Environmental Governance in Asia, Bangkok March 14-15, 2007.

Sayre, K.D., Ramos, O.H.M., 1997. Application of raised bed planting system to wheat. CIMMYT Report. WPSR No. 37 A.

Sen, A., Sharma, S.N., Singh, R.K., Pandey, M.D., 2002. Effect of different tillage systems on the performance of wheat. In Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice– Wheat Cropping System. CCSHAU, Hisar, India, pp. 115-116.

Sidiras, N., Henklain, J.C., Derpsch, R., 1982. Comparison of three different tillage systems with respect to aggregate stability, the soil and water conservation and the yields of soybean and wheat on an Oxisol. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Sciences 151: 137-148.

Tompkins, D.K., Hultgreen, G.E., Wright, A.T., Fowler, D.B., 1991. Seed rate and row spacing of no-till winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 83: 684-689.

Torabi, H., Naghdibadi, H.A., Omidi, H., Amirshekari, H., Miransari, M., 2008. Effects of soil tillage, canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars and planting date on canola yield, and oil and some biological and physical properties of soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Sciences 54: 175-188.

Warren, R., 1983. Technology transfer in zero tillage crop production in the third world agriculture. No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics. Proc. Symp., Monrovia, Liberia. Int. Plant. Prot. Center, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR, USA, pp. 25-31.

Weiner, J., Griepentrog, H.W., Kristensen, L., 2001. Suppression of weeds by spring wheat triticum aestivum ıncreases with crop density and spatial uniformity. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 784-790.

Wibberley, F.J., 1989. Cereal Husbandry Farming Press Book, Ipswich, U.K. pp. 93.

Abstract

Tillage practices and row spacing can be manipulated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth, therefore maximizing sunlight, soil water use efficiency, nutrients and grain yield on sustainable basis. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage and row spacing on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during wheat season. The treatments were comprised of two tillage practices viz. zero tillage and conventional tillage and four row spacing viz. 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm. The experimental results revealed that zero tillage significantly enhanced the plant height, tillers m-2, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and yield and yield components of wheat plants as compared to conventional tillage. Wheat plants resulted in a significant increase in tillers m-2 and accumulated higher biomass and grain yield under 15-cm row spacing than all three other row spacing. The grain yield increase was mainly attributed to more tillers m-2 at 15-cm than the other row spacing. So, zero tillage and narrow row spacing (15 cm) proved to be involved in higher wheat yield for the wheat-maize cropping system in semi-arid regions.

Keywords: Grain, growth, maize, tillage, wheat, yield

References

Auld, B.A., Kemp, D.R., Medd, R.W., 1983. The influence of spatial arrangement on grain yield of wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 34: 99-108.

Bahera, A.K., 1994. Response of wheat to sowing dates. Indian Journal of Agronomy 39: 171-173.

Balesdent, J., Chenu, D., Balabane, M., 2000. Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 53: 215-230.

Beare, M.H., Hendrix, P.F., Coleman, D.C., 1994. Water stable aggregates and organic carbon fractions in conventional and no-tillage soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 777-786.

Bonfil, D.J., Mufradi, I., Klitman, S., Asido, S., 1999. Wheat grain yield and soil profile water distribution in a no-till arid environment. Agronomy Journal 91: 368-373.

Carter, M.R., 1992. Influence of reduced tillage systems on organic matter, microbial biomass, macro-aggregate distribution and structural stability of the surface soil in humid climate. Soil and Tillage Research 23: 361-372.

Cassel, D.K., Raczkowski, C.W., Denton H.P., 1995. Tillage effects on corn production and soil physical conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59: 1436-1443.

Chen, C., Neill, K., Wichman, D., Westcott, M., 2008. Hard red spring wheat response to row spacing, seeding rate, and nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 100: 1296-1302.

Chen, S., Zhang, X., Sun, H., Ren, T., Wang, Y., 2010. Effects of winter wheat row spacing on evapotranspiration, grain yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management 97: 1126–1132.

Derpsch, R., 1999. Frontiers in conservation tillage and advances in conservation practice. 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting, May 24-29, 1999. Purdue University and USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, USA.

Drews, S., Neuhoff, D., Köpke, U., 2009. Weed suppression ability of three winter wheat varieties at different row spacing under organic farming conditions. Weed Research 49: 526-533.

Erenstein, O., Farooq, U., Malik, R.K., Sharif, M., 2007. Adoption and impacts of zero tillage as a resource conserving technology in the ırrigated plains of South Asia. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture-Research Report 19. IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Erenstein, O., Laxmi, V., 2008. Zero tillage impacts in India’s rice-wheat systems: A review. Soil and Tillage Research 100: 1-14.

Franchini, J.C., Crispino, C.C., Souza, R.A., Torres, E., Hungria, M., 2007. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in Southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 92: 18-29.

Franzluebbers, A.J., Langdale, G.W., Schomberg, H.H., 1999. Soil carbon, nitrogen, and aggregation in response to type and frequency of tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 349-355.

Frederick, J.R., Marshall, H.G., 1985. Grain yield and yield components of soft red winter wheat as affected by management practices. Agronomy Journal 77: 495-499.

GOP, 2009. Pakistan Economic Survey. Government of Pakistan (2008-09), Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Live Stock, Federal Beauru of Statistics Islamabad.

Green, V.S., Stott, D.E., Cruz, J.C., Curi, N., 2007. Tillage impacts on soil biological activity and aggregation in a Brazilian Cerrado Oxisol. Soil and Tillage Research 92: 114-121.

Gupta, P.K., Sahai, S., Singh, N., Dixit C.K., Singh, D.P., Sharma, C., Tiwari, M.K., Gupta, R.K., Garg, S.C., 2004. Residue burning in rice–wheat cropping system: Causes and implications. Current Science 87: 1713-1717.

Halvorson, A.D., Black, A.L., Krupinsky, J.M., Merrill, S.D., Weinhold, B.J., Tanaka, D.L., 2000. Spring wheat response to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rotation with sunflower and winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 92: 136-144.

Hiltbrunner, J., Liedgens, M., Stamp, P., Streit, B., 2005. Effects of row spacing and liquid manure on directly drilled winter wheat in organic farming. European Journal of Agronomy 22: 441- 47.

Hussain, T., 1997. Comparative growth and yield performance of various wheat cultivars. Master’s Thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Iqbal, M., Khan, A., Anwar, M.Z., 2002. Zero-tillage Technology and Farm Profits: A Case Study of Wheat Growers in the Rice Zone of Punjab. The Pakistan Development Review 41, 665-682.

Johnson, J.W., Hargrove, W.L., Moss, R.B., 1988. Optimizing row spacing and seeding rate for soft red winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 80: 164-166.

Johri, A.K., Singh, G., Sharma, D., 1992. Nutrient-uptake by wheat and associated weeds as influenced by management-practices. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 69: 391-393.

Joseph, K.D.S.M., Alley, M.M., Brann, D.E., Gravelle, W.D., 1985. Row spacing and seeding rate effects on yield and yield components of soft red winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 77: 211-214.

Lafond, G.P., 1994. Effects of row spacing, seeding rate, and nitrogen on yield of barley and wheat under zero-till management. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 74: 703-711.

Lafond, G.P., Gan, Y., 1999. Row spacing and seeding rate studies in no-till winter wheat for the northern Great Plains. Journal of Production Agriculture 12: 624-629.

Lopez-Garrido, R., Díaz-Espejo, A., Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., 2009. Carbon losses by tillage under semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture (SW Spain). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 7: 706-716.

Malhi, S.S., Lemke, R., Wang, Z.H., Chhabra, B.S., 2006. Tillage, nitrogen and crop residue effects on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions. Soil and Tillage Research 90: 171-183.

Malik, R.K., Yadav, A., Gupta, R.K., Singh. S., Hobbs, P.R., Bellinder, R.R., 2005. Introduction and success of zero tillage in wheat under rice–wheat cropping system in Haryana, India-related stories. In Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-Wheat System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, Proceedings of the Project Workshop June 1-2, 2005. Directorate of Extension Education, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India, pp. 1-17.

Marshall, G.C., Ohm, H.W., 1987. Yield responses of 16 winter wheat cultivars to row spacing and seeding rate. Agronomy Journal 79: 1027-1030.

Mcleod, J.G., Campbell, C.A., Gan, Y., Dyck, F.B., Vera, C.L., 1996. Seeding depth, rate and row spacing for winter wheat grown on stubble and chemical fallow in the semiarid prairies. Canadian Journal Plant Science 76: 207-214.

Mehla, R.S., Verma, J.K., Gupta, R.K., Hobbs, P.R., 2000. Stagnation in the productivity of wheat in the indo-gangetic plains: Zero-till-seed-cum-fertilizer drill as an ıntegrated solution. Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series 8 RWC, New Delhi, India.

Miransari, M., Bahrami, H.A., Rejali, F., Malakouti, M.J., Torabi, H., 2007. Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39: 2014-2026.

Mirbahar, A.A., Markhand, G.S., Mahar, A.R., Saeed, A., Kanhar, N.A., 2009. Effect of water on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 1303-1310.

Moitra, R., Ghosh, D.C., Sarkar, S., 1996. Water use pattern and productivity of rainfed yellow sarson (Brassica rapa L. var glauca) in relation to tillage and mulching. Soil and Tillage Research 38: 153-160.

Muñoz-Romero, V., Benítez-Vega, J., López-Bellido, R.J., Fontán, J.M., López-Bellido, L., 2010. Effect of tillage system on the root growth of spring wheat. Plant and Soil 326: 97-107.

Ortega A., 1991. Relative importance of pests in conventional and conservation tillage: A review of the literature. Maize conservation tillage: CIMMYT, pp. 71-96.

Razzaq, A., Shah, P., Zada, K., Saeed, K., 1986. Effect of date of sowing on emergence, growth rate and days to earings of wheat varieties. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 2: 23-28.

Sarkar, S., Singh, S.R., 2007. Interactive effect of tillage depth and mulch on soil temperature, productivity and water use pattern of rainfed barley (Hordium vulgare L.). Soil and Tillage Research 92: 79-86.

Sarwar, M.N., Goheer, M.A., 2007. Adoption and Impact of Zero Tillage technology for wheat in Rice-Wheat System-water and cost saving technology. Proc. International Forum on Water Environmental Governance in Asia, Bangkok March 14-15, 2007.

Sayre, K.D., Ramos, O.H.M., 1997. Application of raised bed planting system to wheat. CIMMYT Report. WPSR No. 37 A.

Sen, A., Sharma, S.N., Singh, R.K., Pandey, M.D., 2002. Effect of different tillage systems on the performance of wheat. In Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice– Wheat Cropping System. CCSHAU, Hisar, India, pp. 115-116.

Sidiras, N., Henklain, J.C., Derpsch, R., 1982. Comparison of three different tillage systems with respect to aggregate stability, the soil and water conservation and the yields of soybean and wheat on an Oxisol. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Sciences 151: 137-148.

Tompkins, D.K., Hultgreen, G.E., Wright, A.T., Fowler, D.B., 1991. Seed rate and row spacing of no-till winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 83: 684-689.

Torabi, H., Naghdibadi, H.A., Omidi, H., Amirshekari, H., Miransari, M., 2008. Effects of soil tillage, canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars and planting date on canola yield, and oil and some biological and physical properties of soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Sciences 54: 175-188.

Warren, R., 1983. Technology transfer in zero tillage crop production in the third world agriculture. No-tillage Crop Production in the Tropics. Proc. Symp., Monrovia, Liberia. Int. Plant. Prot. Center, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR, USA, pp. 25-31.

Weiner, J., Griepentrog, H.W., Kristensen, L., 2001. Suppression of weeds by spring wheat triticum aestivum ıncreases with crop density and spatial uniformity. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 784-790.

Wibberley, F.J., 1989. Cereal Husbandry Farming Press Book, Ipswich, U.K. pp. 93.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science