Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 1, Jan 2016, Pages 30 - 38
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties

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Karahan,G., Erşahin,S., 2016. Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(1):30 - 38. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Karahan,G.,,& Erşahin,S. Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Karahan,G.,, and ,Erşahin,S."Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Karahan,G.,, and ,Erşahin,S. "Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
G,Karahan.S,Erşahin "Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Karahan,Gülay ;Erşahin,Sabit Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038

How to cite

Karahan, G., Erşahin, S., 2016. Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(1): 30 - 38. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038

Author information

Gülay Karahan , Program of Plant Growth Medium, Department of Landscape Architechture, Faculty of Forestry, Cankırı Karatekin University, Cankırı, Turkey
Sabit Erşahin , Program of Soil Science and Ecology, Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Cankırı Karatekin University, Cankırı, Turkey

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jan 2016
Article first published online : 14 Aug 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 13 Aug 2015
Manuscript Received: 02 Apr 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.030-038

Abstract

Many studies have been conducted to predict soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by parametric soil properties such as bulk density and particle-size distribution. Although soil morphological properties have a strong effect on Ks, studies predicting Ks by soil morphological properties such as type, size, and strength of soil structure; type, orientation and quantity of soil pores and roots and consistency are rare. This study aimed at evaluating soil morphological properties to predict Ks. Undisturbed soil samples (15 cm length and 8.0 cm id.) were collected from topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (15-30 cm) (120 samples) with a tractor operated soil sampler at sixty randomly selected sampling sites on a paddy field and an adjecent grassland in Central Anatolia (Cankırı), Turkey. Synchronized disturbed soil samples were taken from the same sampling sites and sampling depths for basic soil analyses. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured on the soil columns using a constant-head permeameter. Following the Ks measurements, the upper part of soil columns were covered to prevent evaporation and colums were left to drain in the laboratory. When the water flow through the column was stopped, a subsample were taken for bulk density and then soil columns were disturbed for describing the soil morphological properties. In addition, soil texture, bulk density, pH, field capacity, wilting point, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, aggregate stability, organic matter, and calcium carbonate were measured on the synchronized disturbed soil samples. The data were divided into training (80 data values) and validation (40 data values) sets. Measured values of Ks ranged from 0.0036 to 2.14 cmh-1 with a mean of 0.86 cmh-1. The Ks was predicted from the soil morphological and parametric properties by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Soil structure class, stickiness, pore-size, root-size, and pore-quantity contributed to the Ks prediction significantly (P

Keywords

Saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil morphological properties, multiple linear regression, pedotra

Corresponding author

References

Abbaspour, K.C., Moon, D.E., 1992. Relationships between conventional field information and some soil properties measured in the laboratory. Geoderma 55(1-2): 119-140.

Ahuja, L. R., Naney, J. W., Williams, R. D.1985. Estimating soil water characteristics from simpler properties or limited data. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 1100–1105.

Anderson, J.L., Bouma, J., 1973. Relationships between saturated hydraulic conductivity and morphometric data of an argillic horizon. Soil Science Society of American Proceedings 37: 408– 413.

Anonymous, 2011. Çankırı İl Çevre Durum Raporu. Çankırı Valiliği Çevre ve Şehircilik İl Müdürlüğü. Available at : http://www.csb.gov.tr/turkce/dosya/ced/icdr2011/cankiri_icdr2011.pdf

Anonymous, 2014. Maps of World. Available at: http://www.mapsofworld.com

Baver, LD. 1956. Soil Physics. Third Edition. John Willey& Sons, Inc., New York.

Beven, K., Germann, P. 1982. Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resources Research 18: 1311-1325.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 363-373. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Boivin, P., Garnier, P.P., Tessier, D., 2004. Relationship between clay content, clay type and shrinkage properties of soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(4): 1145-1153.

Bouma, J., 1992. Effect of Soil Structure, Tillage, and Aggregation upon Soil Hydraulic Properties. Book Chapter. Interacting Processes in Soil Science (Ed; RJ Wagenet, P Baveye, BA Stewart).

Carter, D.L., Mortland, M.M., Kemper, W.D.1986. Specific Surface. Book Chapter 16. Eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov.

Day, S. R., Daniel, D. E. 1985. Hydraulic conductivity of two prototype clay liners. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 111: 957-970.

Field, J.A., Parker, J.C., Powell., N.L., 1984. Comparison of field and laboratory-measured and predicted hydraulic properties of soil with macropores. Soil Science 138: 385–396.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size analysis. p. 383–411. In A. Klute (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 2nd ed. Agron. Manag. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Jurry, W.A., Gardner, W.R., Gardner, W.H., 1991. Soil Physics. 5th. Ed. W, NY, 328 p.

Kemper, W. D., Rosenau, R. C., 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 425-442. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Keng, J.C., Lin, C.S., 1982. A two-line approximation of hydraulic conductivity for structured soils. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 24: 77–80.

Keren, R., Singer, M.J., 1988. Effect of low electrolyte concentration on hydraulic conductivity of Na/Ca-montmorillonite-sand system. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 368-373.

Klute, A. 1986. Methods of soil analysis, Part 1: Physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. 1188 p.

Klute, A., Dirksen, C., 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: laboratory methods. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 687-734. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Kosmas, C., Moustakas, N., 1990. Hydraulic conductivity and leaching of an organic saline-sodic soil. Geoderma 46: 363-370.

Lilly, A., Nemes, A., Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Ya.A., 2008. Probabilistic approach to the identification of input variables to estimate hydraulic conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 16–24.

Lin, H.S., McInnes, K.J., Wilding, L.P., Hallmark, C.T., 1999. Effects of soil morphology on hydraulic properties: II. Hydraulic pedotransfer functions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(4): 955-961.

McKeague, J.A., Wang, C., Topp, G.C., 1982. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity from soil morphology. Soil Science Society of America Journal 46: 1239–1244.

McKenzie, N.J., Jacquier, D.W., Ashton, L.J., Cresswell, H.P., 2000. Estimation of Soil Properties Using the Atlas of Australian Soils. Technical Report 11/00, CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra ACT.

Mesri, G., Olson, R. E., 1971. Mechanisms controlling the permeability of clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 19(3): 151-158.

Mitchell, J. K. 1976. Fundamentals of Soil Behavior. Series in Geotechnical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 422.

Mulla, D.J., McBratney, A.B., 2002. Soil spatial variability. In A.W. Warrick (Ed.), Soil Physics Companion (pp. 343-373). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Pachepsky, Y.A, Rawls, W.J, Lin, H.S., 2006. Hydropedology and pedotransfer functions. Geoderma 131(3-4): 308–316.

Pachepsky, Y., Nez, D.G., Lilly, A., Nemes, A., 2008. Promises of hydropedology. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3 (040): 1-19.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties Second Edition. SSSA Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin USA.

Rahman, F. 2000. Hydraulic conductivity and chemical compatibility of some Victorian soils used as liners for waste containment. Ph.D Thesis. School of the Built Environment. Victoria University of Technology. Melbourne, Australia.

Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Ya. A., 2002. Soil consistence and structure as predictors of water retention. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1115–1126.

Schafer, W.M., Singer, M.J., 1976. A new method of measuring shrink -swell potential using soil pastes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40: 805-806.

Sharma, M., Uehara, G., 1968. Influence of soil structure on water relations in low humic latosols: I. Water retention. Soil Science Society of America Journal 32: 765-770.

Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manuel. United States Department of Agriculture Handbook No: 18, USDA, Washington.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. Version 2.0. National Soil Survey Center Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Department of Agriculture, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Wösten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Y.A., Rawls, W.J., 2001. Pedotranfer functions: Bridging the gap between available basic soil data and missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 251: 123–150.

Abstract

Many studies have been conducted to predict soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by parametric soil properties such as bulk density and particle-size distribution. Although soil morphological properties have a strong effect on Ks, studies predicting Ks by soil morphological properties such as type, size, and strength of soil structure; type, orientation and quantity of soil pores and roots and consistency are rare. This study aimed at evaluating soil morphological properties to predict Ks.  Undisturbed soil samples (15 cm length and 8.0 cm id.) were collected from topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (15-30 cm) (120 samples) with a tractor operated soil sampler at sixty randomly selected sampling sites on a paddy field and an adjecent grassland in Central Anatolia (Cankırı), Turkey. Synchronized disturbed soil samples were taken from the same sampling sites and sampling depths for basic soil analyses. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured on the soil columns using a constant-head permeameter. Following the Ks measurements, the upper part of soil columns were covered to prevent evaporation and colums were left to drain in the laboratory. When the water flow through the column was stopped, a subsample were taken for bulk density and then soil columns were disturbed for describing the soil morphological properties.  In addition, soil texture, bulk density, pH, field capacity, wilting point, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, aggregate stability, organic matter, and calcium carbonate were measured on the synchronized disturbed soil samples. The data were divided into training (80 data values) and validation (40 data values) sets. Measured values of Ks ranged from 0.0036 to 2.14 cmh-1 with a mean of 0.86 cmh-1. The Ks was predicted from the soil morphological and parametric properties by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Soil structure class, stickiness, pore-size, root-size, and pore-quantity contributed to the Ks prediction significantly (P<0.001, R2 = 0.95). Soil morphological properties can be used along with basic soil properties  in predicting Ks.

Keywords: Saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil morphological properties, multiple linear
regression, pedotransfer functions, soil stickness, soil structure

References

Abbaspour, K.C., Moon, D.E., 1992. Relationships between conventional field information and some soil properties measured in the laboratory. Geoderma 55(1-2): 119-140.

Ahuja, L. R., Naney, J. W., Williams, R. D.1985. Estimating soil water characteristics from simpler properties or limited data. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49: 1100–1105.

Anderson, J.L., Bouma, J., 1973. Relationships between saturated hydraulic conductivity and morphometric data of an argillic horizon. Soil Science Society of American Proceedings 37: 408– 413.

Anonymous, 2011. Çankırı İl Çevre Durum Raporu. Çankırı Valiliği Çevre ve Şehircilik İl Müdürlüğü. Available at : http://www.csb.gov.tr/turkce/dosya/ced/icdr2011/cankiri_icdr2011.pdf

Anonymous, 2014. Maps of World. Available at: http://www.mapsofworld.com

Baver, LD. 1956. Soil Physics. Third Edition. John Willey& Sons, Inc., New York.

Beven, K., Germann, P. 1982. Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resources Research 18: 1311-1325.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 363-373. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Boivin, P., Garnier, P.P., Tessier, D., 2004. Relationship between clay content, clay type and shrinkage properties of soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68(4): 1145-1153.

Bouma, J., 1992. Effect of Soil Structure, Tillage, and Aggregation upon Soil Hydraulic Properties. Book Chapter. Interacting Processes in Soil Science (Ed; RJ Wagenet, P Baveye, BA Stewart).

Carter, D.L., Mortland, M.M., Kemper, W.D.1986. Specific Surface. Book Chapter 16. Eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov.

Day, S. R., Daniel, D. E. 1985. Hydraulic conductivity of two prototype clay liners. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 111: 957-970.

Field, J.A., Parker, J.C., Powell., N.L., 1984. Comparison of field and laboratory-measured and predicted hydraulic properties of soil with macropores. Soil Science 138: 385–396.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size analysis. p. 383–411. In A. Klute (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 2nd ed. Agron. Manag. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Jurry, W.A., Gardner, W.R., Gardner, W.H., 1991. Soil Physics. 5th. Ed. W, NY, 328 p.

Kemper, W. D., Rosenau, R. C., 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 425-442. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Keng, J.C., Lin, C.S., 1982. A two-line approximation of hydraulic conductivity for structured soils. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 24: 77–80.

Keren, R., Singer, M.J., 1988. Effect of low electrolyte concentration on hydraulic conductivity of Na/Ca-montmorillonite-sand system. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 368-373.

Klute, A. 1986. Methods of soil analysis, Part 1: Physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. 1188 p.

Klute, A., Dirksen, C., 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: laboratory methods. In: Methods of soil analysis. Klute, A., (Ed.), Part 1, 2nd edition pp. 687-734. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Kosmas, C., Moustakas, N., 1990. Hydraulic conductivity and leaching of an organic saline-sodic soil. Geoderma 46: 363-370.

Lilly, A., Nemes, A., Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Ya.A., 2008. Probabilistic approach to the identification of input variables to estimate hydraulic conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72: 16–24.

Lin, H.S., McInnes, K.J., Wilding, L.P., Hallmark, C.T., 1999. Effects of soil morphology on hydraulic properties: II. Hydraulic pedotransfer functions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(4): 955-961.

McKeague, J.A., Wang, C., Topp, G.C., 1982. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity from soil morphology. Soil Science Society of America Journal 46: 1239–1244.

McKenzie, N.J., Jacquier, D.W., Ashton, L.J., Cresswell, H.P., 2000. Estimation of Soil Properties Using the Atlas of Australian Soils. Technical Report 11/00, CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra ACT.

Mesri, G., Olson, R. E., 1971. Mechanisms controlling the permeability of clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 19(3): 151-158.

Mitchell, J. K. 1976. Fundamentals of Soil Behavior. Series in Geotechnical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 422.

Mulla, D.J., McBratney, A.B., 2002. Soil spatial variability. In A.W. Warrick (Ed.), Soil Physics Companion (pp. 343-373). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Pachepsky, Y.A, Rawls, W.J, Lin, H.S., 2006. Hydropedology and pedotransfer functions. Geoderma 131(3-4): 308–316.

Pachepsky, Y., Nez, D.G., Lilly, A., Nemes, A., 2008. Promises of hydropedology. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3 (040): 1-19.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties Second Edition. SSSA Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin USA.

Rahman, F. 2000. Hydraulic conductivity and chemical compatibility of some Victorian soils used as liners for waste containment. Ph.D Thesis. School of the Built Environment. Victoria University of Technology. Melbourne, Australia.

Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Ya. A., 2002. Soil consistence and structure as predictors of water retention. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1115–1126.

Schafer, W.M., Singer, M.J., 1976. A new method of measuring shrink -swell potential using soil pastes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40: 805-806.

Sharma, M., Uehara, G., 1968. Influence of soil structure on water relations in low humic latosols: I. Water retention. Soil Science Society of America Journal 32: 765-770.

Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manuel. United States Department of Agriculture Handbook No: 18, USDA, Washington.

USDA-NRCS, 2002. Version 2.0. National Soil Survey Center Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Department of Agriculture, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Wösten, J.H.M., Pachepsky, Y.A., Rawls, W.J., 2001. Pedotranfer functions: Bridging the gap between available basic soil data and missing soil hydraulic characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 251: 123–150.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science