Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 5, Issue 1, Jan 2016, Pages 24 - 29
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Copyright © 2016 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

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Ella,V., Reyes,M., Mercado, Jr.,A., Ares,A., Padre,R., 2016. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(1):24 - 29. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Ella,V.Reyes,M.Mercado, Jr.,A.Ares,A.,,& Padre,R. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Ella,V.Reyes,M.Mercado, Jr.,A.Ares,A.,, and ,Padre,R."Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Ella,V.Reyes,M.Mercado, Jr.,A.Ares,A.,, and ,Padre,R. "Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
VB,Ella.MR,Reyes.A,Mercado, Jr..A,Ares.R,Padre "Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Ella,Victor ;Reyes,Manuel ;Mercado, Jr.,Agustin ;Ares,Adrian ;Padre,Rafael Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029

How to cite

Ella, V., B. Reyes, M., R. Mercado, Jr., A., R. Ares, A., R. Padre, R., R.2016. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 5(1): 24 - 29. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029

Author information

Victor Ella , Land and Water Resources Division, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering and Agro-industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna Philippines
Manuel Reyes , North Carolina A&T State University, North Carolina, USA
Agustin Mercado, Jr. , World Agroforestry Center, Claveria, Philippines
Adrian Ares , Office of International Research, Education and Development, Virginia Tech, USA
Rafael Padre , Land and Water Resources Division, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering and Agro-industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna Philippines

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jan 2016
Article first published online : 14 Jul 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 12 Jul 2015
Manuscript Received: 02 Jan 2015
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2016.1.024-029

Abstract

Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC) at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1) and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1) fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC) than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

Keywords

Upland agriculture, soil quality, climate change adaptation, cropping systems

Corresponding author

References

Bail, Z.G., Dent, D.L., Olsson, L., Schaepman, M.E., 2008. Proxy global assessment of land degradation. Soil Use and Management 24: 223–234.

Baker, J.M., Ochsner, T.E., Venterea, R.T., Griffis, T.J., 2006. Tillage and soil carbon sequestration-what do we really know? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118: 1-5.

Balesdent, J., Chenu, C., Balabane, M., 2000. Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 53: 215-230.

Boulakia, S., Phâlly, K., Sona, S., Vira, L., Kimchhorn, C., 2009. Five years of adaptative research for upland DMC based cropping systems creation in Cambodia. PADAC report.

Davidson, E.A., Ackerman, I.L., 1993. Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry 20: 161-193.

De Morais, J.C., 2011. Carbon sequestration, soil quality, crop profitability and environmental quality. Oral presentation at the Second International Conservation Agriculture Workshop and Conference in Southeast Asia. July 4-7. Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Derpsch, R., 2008. No-tillage and conservation agriculture: A progress report. In: No-till Farming Systems. T. Goddard, M.A. Zoebisch, Y.T. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, S. Sombatpanit (eds.). World Association of Soil and Water Conservation, Bangkok, pp. 7-39.

Diaz-Zorita, M., Duarte, G.A., Grove, J.H., 2002. A review of no-till systems and soil management for sustainable crop production in the subhumid and semiarid Pampas of Argentina. Soil and Tillage Research 65: 1-18.

Doanh, L.Q., Tuan, H.D., 2008. Conservation agriculture on sloping lands in northern mountainous regions of Vietnam. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture. M. Chanphengxay, M., M.A. Khamhung, M.K. Panysiri, M.A. Chabanne, M. F. Jullien, M.H. T. Quoc, M.P. Lienhard, M.F. Tivet (eds.) October 28 to November 1. Phonsavan, Lao PDR. pp. 27-36.

Dunnett, C.W., 1955. A multiple comparison procedure for comparing several treatments with a control. Journal of the American Statistical Association 50: 1096 -1121.

Erenstein, O., Sayre, K., Wall, P., Dixon, J., Hellin, J., 2008. Adapting no-tillage agriculture to the conditions of smallholder maize and wheat farmers in the tropics and sub-tropics. In: No-till Farming Systems. T. Goddard, M.A. Zoebisch, Y.T. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, S. Sombatpanit (eds.). World Association of Soil and Water Conservation, Bangkok, pp. 253-278.

Follet, R.F., Stewart, C.E., Pruessner, E.G., Kimble, J.M., 2012. Effects of climate change on soil carbon and nitrogen storage in the US Great Plains. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67: 331-342.

Govaerts, B., Verhulst, N., Castellanos-Navarette, A., Sayre, K.D. Dixon J., Dendooven, L., 2009. Conservation agriculture and soil carbon sequestration: Between myth and farmer reality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 28: 97-122.

Jandl, R., Rodeghiero, M., Martinez, C., Cotrufo, M.F., Bampa, F., van Wesemael, B., Harrison, R.B., Guerrini, I.A., D. Richter Jr., D., Rustad, L., K. Lorenz, K., Chabbi, A. Miglietta, F., 2013. Current status, uncertainty and future needs in soil organic carbon monitoring. Science of the Total Environment 468-469: 376-383.

Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., López, M.V., Arrue, J.L., Alvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero, C., 2009. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on soil biochemical properties in Mediterranean Spanish areas. Soil and Tillage Research 105: 55-62.

Martinez, I., Ovalle, C., Del Pozo, A., Uribe, H., Valderrama, N., Prat, Ch., Sandoval, M., Fernández, F., Zagal, E. (2011). Influence of conservation tillage and soil wáter content on crop yield in dryland compacted alfisol of central Chile. Chilean Journal of Agriculture Research 71: 615-622.

Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins, W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, J.A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., A.J. Weaver, A.J., Zhao, Z.C., 2007. Global climate projections. In Climate change: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA.

Mercado, Jr., A.R., Ella, V.B., Reyes, M.R., 2012. Yield, biomass and soil quality of conservation agriculture systems in the Philippines. In Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Conservation Agriculture in Southeast Asia. Hauswirth et al. (eds.), December 10-15, Hanoi, Vietnam, p. 256-58.

Mishra, U., Ussiri, D.A.N., Lal, R., 2010. Tillage effects on soil organic carbon storage and dynamics in Corn Belt of Ohio USA. Soil and Tillage Research 107: 88-96.

Murty, D., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., McMurtrie, R.E., McGilvray, H.M., 2002. Does conversion of forest to agricultural land change soil carbon and nitrogen? A review of literature. Global Change Biology 8: 105-123.

Parajuli, P.B., Duffy, S. 2013. Evaluation of soil organic carbón and soil moisture content from agricultural fields in Mississippi. Open Journal of Soil Science 3: 81-90.

Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Y.A., Ritchie, J.C., Sobecki, T.M., Bloodworth, H., 2003. Effect of soil organic carbon on soil water retention. Geoderma 116: 61-76.

Thierfelder Ch., Wall, P.C., 2009. Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Soil and Tillage Research 105:217-227.

Tivet, F., Quoc, H.T., Boyer, J., Chabanne, A., Inthavong, C., S. Senephansiri, S., Keodouangsy, L., Chounlamountry, T., Khamxaykhay, C., K. Panyasiri, K., Seguy, L., 2008. Soil aggregation, water holding capacity and biological activity under no-till systems and cropping sequences in the Lao PDR. In Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture, XX (eds.). October 28 to November 1, Phonsavan, Lao PDR, p. 130.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-38.

Abstract

Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed.  In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC) at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1) and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1) fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC) than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

Keywords: Upland agriculture, soil quality, climate change adaptation, cropping systems

References

Bail, Z.G., Dent, D.L., Olsson, L., Schaepman, M.E., 2008. Proxy global assessment of land degradation. Soil Use and Management 24: 223–234.

Baker, J.M., Ochsner, T.E., Venterea, R.T., Griffis, T.J., 2006. Tillage and soil carbon sequestration-what do we really know? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118: 1-5.

Balesdent, J., Chenu, C., Balabane, M., 2000. Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 53: 215-230.

Boulakia, S., Phâlly, K., Sona, S., Vira, L., Kimchhorn, C., 2009. Five years of adaptative research for upland DMC based cropping systems creation in Cambodia. PADAC report.

Davidson, E.A., Ackerman, I.L., 1993. Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry 20: 161-193.

De Morais, J.C., 2011. Carbon sequestration, soil quality, crop profitability and environmental quality. Oral presentation at the Second International Conservation Agriculture Workshop and Conference in Southeast Asia. July 4-7. Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Derpsch, R., 2008. No-tillage and conservation agriculture: A progress report. In: No-till Farming Systems. T. Goddard, M.A. Zoebisch, Y.T. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, S. Sombatpanit (eds.). World Association of Soil and Water Conservation, Bangkok, pp. 7-39.

Diaz-Zorita, M., Duarte, G.A., Grove, J.H., 2002. A review of no-till systems and soil management for sustainable crop production in the subhumid and semiarid Pampas of Argentina. Soil and Tillage Research 65: 1-18.

Doanh, L.Q., Tuan, H.D., 2008. Conservation agriculture on sloping lands in northern mountainous regions of Vietnam. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture. M. Chanphengxay, M., M.A. Khamhung, M.K. Panysiri, M.A. Chabanne, M. F. Jullien, M.H. T. Quoc, M.P. Lienhard, M.F. Tivet (eds.) October 28 to November 1. Phonsavan, Lao PDR. pp. 27-36.

Dunnett, C.W., 1955. A multiple comparison procedure for comparing several treatments with a control. Journal of the American Statistical Association 50: 1096 -1121.

Erenstein, O., Sayre, K., Wall, P., Dixon, J., Hellin, J., 2008. Adapting no-tillage agriculture to the conditions of smallholder maize and wheat farmers in the tropics and sub-tropics. In: No-till Farming Systems. T. Goddard, M.A. Zoebisch, Y.T. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson, S. Sombatpanit (eds.). World Association of Soil and Water Conservation, Bangkok, pp. 253-278.

Follet, R.F., Stewart, C.E., Pruessner, E.G., Kimble, J.M., 2012. Effects of climate change on soil carbon and nitrogen storage in the US Great Plains. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67: 331-342.

Govaerts, B., Verhulst, N., Castellanos-Navarette, A., Sayre, K.D. Dixon J., Dendooven, L., 2009. Conservation agriculture and soil carbon sequestration: Between myth and farmer reality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 28: 97-122.

Jandl, R., Rodeghiero, M., Martinez, C., Cotrufo, M.F., Bampa, F., van Wesemael, B., Harrison, R.B., Guerrini, I.A., D. Richter Jr., D., Rustad, L., K. Lorenz, K., Chabbi, A. Miglietta, F., 2013. Current status, uncertainty and future needs in soil organic carbon monitoring. Science of the Total Environment 468-469: 376-383.

Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., López, M.V., Arrue, J.L., Alvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero, C., 2009. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on soil biochemical properties in Mediterranean Spanish areas. Soil and Tillage Research 105: 55-62.

Martinez, I., Ovalle, C., Del Pozo, A., Uribe, H., Valderrama, N., Prat, Ch., Sandoval, M., Fernández, F., Zagal, E. (2011). Influence of conservation tillage and soil wáter content on crop yield in dryland compacted alfisol of central Chile. Chilean Journal of Agriculture Research 71: 615-622.

Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins, W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, J.A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., A.J. Weaver, A.J., Zhao, Z.C., 2007. Global climate projections. In Climate change: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA.

Mercado, Jr., A.R., Ella, V.B., Reyes, M.R., 2012. Yield, biomass and soil quality of conservation agriculture systems in the Philippines. In Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Conservation Agriculture in Southeast Asia. Hauswirth et al. (eds.), December 10-15, Hanoi, Vietnam, p. 256-58.

Mishra, U., Ussiri, D.A.N., Lal, R., 2010. Tillage effects on soil organic carbon storage and dynamics in Corn Belt of Ohio USA. Soil and Tillage Research 107: 88-96.

Murty, D., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., McMurtrie, R.E., McGilvray, H.M., 2002. Does conversion of forest to agricultural land change soil carbon and nitrogen? A review of literature. Global Change Biology 8: 105-123.

Parajuli, P.B., Duffy, S. 2013. Evaluation of soil organic carbón and soil moisture content from agricultural fields in Mississippi. Open Journal of Soil Science 3: 81-90.

Rawls, W.J., Pachepsky, Y.A., Ritchie, J.C., Sobecki, T.M., Bloodworth, H., 2003. Effect of soil organic carbon on soil water retention. Geoderma 116: 61-76.

Thierfelder Ch., Wall, P.C., 2009. Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Soil and Tillage Research 105:217-227.

Tivet, F., Quoc, H.T., Boyer, J., Chabanne, A., Inthavong, C., S. Senephansiri, S., Keodouangsy, L., Chounlamountry, T., Khamxaykhay, C., K. Panyasiri, K., Seguy, L., 2008. Soil aggregation, water holding capacity and biological activity under no-till systems and cropping sequences in the Lao PDR. In Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture, XX (eds.). October 28 to November 1, Phonsavan, Lao PDR, p. 130.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-38.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science