Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 4, Issue 3, Jul 2015, Pages 191 - 197
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Copyright © 2015 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification

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Zemfira,T., Milanovskiy,E., 2015. The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification. Eurasian J Soil Sci 4(3):191 - 197. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Zemfira,T.,,& Milanovskiy,E. The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Zemfira,T.,, and ,Milanovskiy,E."The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Zemfira,T.,, and ,Milanovskiy,E. "The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
T,Zemfira.E,Milanovskiy "The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Zemfira,Tyugai ;Milanovskiy,Evgeny The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197

How to cite

Zemfira, T., Milanovskiy, E., 2015. The contact angle of wetting of the solid phase of soil before and after chemical modification. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 4(3): 191 - 197. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197

Author information

Tyugai Zemfira , Moscow State University, Soil Science Faculty, Department of Soil Physics and Reclamation, Moscow, Russia
Evgeny Milanovskiy , Moscow State University, Soil Science Faculty, Department of Soil Physics and Reclamation, Moscow, Russia

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jul 2015
Article first published online : 01 Mar 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 26 Feb 2015
Manuscript Received: 18 Sep 2014
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2015.3.191-197

Abstract

Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. Wettability of surface is usually expressed in terms of contact angle (CA) measurement. If the CA between liquid and solid surface is less than 90°, the surface is called hydrophilic, otherwise the surface is called hydrophobic. If the CA of water droplet on hydrophilic surface is in a range of 0-30° this surface is called superhydrophilic. In case of superhydrophobic surfaces the CA exceeds 150° that means that these surfaces are extremely difficult to wet. CA of wetting of mineral soil particles depends on the overlying organic and iron compounds. The object of study is a sample of the humus-accumulative horizon of typical chernozem (Kursk, Russia) and two samples (horizons A1, B2) of red ferrallitic soils (Fr. Norfolk, NE Oceania). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, forms of non-silicate iron and hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition of humic substances. CA of wetting was determined in the intact samples and after removal of organic matter (H2O2 treatment), amorphous and crystallized forms of iron. Static contact angles were determined with the sessile drop method using a digital goniometer (Drop Shape Analysis System, DSA100, Krüss GmbH, Hamburg, Germany). The contact angle was calculated by the Young–Laplace method (fitting of Young–Laplace equation to the drop shape). The measurements were repeated 10-15 times for every sample. Oxidation of organic matter (H2O2 treatment) causes an increase in the values of CA of wetting (in chernozem from 9.3 to 28,0-29.5º, in ferrallitic soil from 18.0 − 27.3 to 22.4 − 33.4º). CA remained constant for chernozem and slightly decreased in the case of ferrallitic soil, when the removal of amorphous and crystallized forms of iron was performed on samples pretreated with H2O2. CA increase occurs after successive removal of nonsilicate forms of iron from soil samples of chernozem (9.3 − 17,9 − 29.5º) and ferrallitic soils (27.3 − 30.6 − 33,4 and 18.0 − 29.0 − 29.2 º). Relative hydrophobicity of the soil solid phase surface after treatment by Mehra and Jackson (1957) occurs in parallel to the carbon content reduction. Loss of carbon in the samples after the extraction of iron is related to the solubility of the hydrophilic components of humic substances. These results indicate that the main factor, which determines the wettability of soil solid phase, is the organic substance.

Keywords

Soil solid phase, contact angle, organic matter, hydrophobic-hydrophilic humic substances, nonsilica

Corresponding author

References

Afanasyeva, E. A., 1966. Chernozemy sredne-russkoi vozvishennosti. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)

Anderson, M.A., Hung, A.Y.C., Mills, D., Scott. M.S., 1995. Factors affecting the surface tension of soil solutions and solutions of humic acids. Soil Science 60: 111-116.

Bachmann, J., Guggenberger, G., Baumgartl, T., Ellerbrock, R.H., Urbanek, E., Goebel, M.O., Kaiser, K., Horn, R., Fischer, W.R., 2008. Physical carbon-sequestration mechanisms under special consideration of soil wettability. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171 (1): 14-26.

Bachmann, J., vander Ploeg, R.R., 2002. A Review on recent developments in soil water retention theory: Interfacial tension and temperature effects. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 165(4): 468-478.

Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth Science Review 51(1-4): 33-65.

Enya, O.O, Omueti, J.A.I, Akinbola, G.E., 2011. Particle size and free iron oxide distribution along two toposequence in South Western Nigeria. Continental Journal of Agromony 5(2): 22-31.

Eusterhues, K., Rumpel, C., Kogel-Knabne, I., 2005. Stabilization of soil organic matter isolated via oxidative degradation. Organic Geochemistry 36: 1567-1575

Feeney, D.S., Hallet, P.D., Rodger, S., Bengough, A.G., White, N.A., Young, I.M., 2006. Impact of fungal and bacterial biocides on microbial induced water repellency in arable soil. Geoderma 135: 72-80.

Franco, C.M.M., Clarke, P.J., Tate, M.E., Oades, J.M., 2000. Hydrophobic properties and chemical characterisation of natural water repellent materials in Australian sands. Journal of Hydrology 231-232: 47-58.

Fredlund, D.G., Xing, A., Huang, S., 1994. Predicting the Permeability Function for Unsaturated Soils Using the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31: 533-546.

Goebel, M.O., Bachmann, J., Woche, S.K., Fischer, W.R., 2005. Soil wettability, aggregate stability, and the decomposition of soil organic matter. Geoderma 128: 80-93.

Grant, S.A., Salehzadeh, A., 1996. Calculation of temperature effects on wetting coefficients of porous solids and their capillary pressure functions. Water Resources Research 32(2): 261-270.

Hubbert, K.R., Preisler, H.K., Wohlgemuth, P.M., Graham, R.C., Narog, M.G., 2006. Prescribed burning effects on soil physical properties and soil water repellency in a steep chaparral watershed, southern California, USA. Geoderma 130: 284-298.

Hurrass, J., Schaumann, G.E., 2006. Properties of soil organic matter and aqueous extracts of actually water repellent and wettable soil samples. Geoderma 132: 222-239.

Ivesona, S.M., Holtb, S., Biggs, S., 2004. Advancing contact angle of iron ores as a function of their hematite and goethite content: Implications for pelletising and sintering. International Journal of Mineral Processing 74: 281- 287.

Kursk Encyclopedia, 2011. Available at http://www.mke.su (in Russian)

Letey, J., Osborn, J., Pelishek. R.E., 1962. Measurement of Liquid Solid Contact Angles in Soil and Sand. Soil Science 93: 149-153.

Lu, N., Likos, W.J., 2004. Unsaturated Soil Mechanics. Wiley, New York.

Margolina, N.Ya., Aleksandrovskii, A.L., Il'ichev, B.A., 1988. The Age and Evolution of Chernozems. Nauka, Moscow, (in Russian).

Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1958. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite citra system buffered with Na bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals 7: 317-327.

Milanovskiy, E.Yu., 2009. Humic Substances as Natural Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Compounds. GEOS, Moscow, (in Russian).

Schwertmann, U., 1964. The Differentiation of iron oxide in soils by a photochemical extraction with acid ammonium oxalate. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung Dungung Bodenkunde 105: 194 -202.

Targulian, V.O., E.Y. Milanovskiy E.Y. 1999. Inherited soil features and recent pedogenetic processes in red fersialitic and ferralitic soils of subhumid and humid subtropical climates. In: J. Bech (Eds.), 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. pp. 593-595.

Tschapek, M., 1984. Criteria for determining the hydrophilicity-hydropho bicit of soils. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung Dungung Bodenkunde 147: 127-149

Wu, W., 2001. Baseline Studies of the Clay Minerals Society Source Clays: Colloid and Surface Phenomena. Clays and Clay Minerals 49(5): 446-452

Abstract
Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. Wettability of surface is usually expressed in terms of contact angle (CA) measurement. If the CA between liquid and solid surface is less than 90°, the surface is called hydrophilic, otherwise the surface is called hydrophobic. If the CA of water droplet on hydrophilic surface is in a range of 0-30° this surface is called superhydrophilic. In case of superhydrophobic surfaces the CA exceeds 150° that means that these surfaces are extremely difficult to wet. CA of wetting of mineral soil particles depends on the overlying organic and iron compounds. The object of study is a sample of the humus-accumulative horizon of typical chernozem (Kursk, Russia) and two samples (horizons A1, B2) of red ferrallitic soils (Fr. Norfolk, NE Oceania). The soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, forms of non-silicate iron and hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition of humic substances. CA of wetting was determined in the intact samples and after removal of organic matter (H2O2 treatment), amorphous and crystallized forms of iron. Static contact angles were determined with the sessile drop method using a digital goniometer (Drop Shape Analysis System, DSA100, Krüss GmbH, Hamburg, Germany). The contact angle was calculated by the Young–Laplace method (fitting of Young–Laplace equation to the drop shape). The measurements were repeated 10-15 times for every sample. Oxidation of organic matter (H2O2 treatment) causes an increase in the values of CA of wetting (in chernozem from 9.3 to 28,0-29.5º, in ferrallitic soil from 18.0 − 27.3 to 22.4 − 33.4º). CA remained constant for chernozem and slightly decreased in the case of ferrallitic soil, when the removal of amorphous and crystallized forms of iron was performed on samples pretreated with H2O2. CA increase occurs after successive removal of nonsilicate forms of iron from soil samples of chernozem (9.3 − 17,9 − 29.5º) and ferrallitic soils (27.3 − 30.6 − 33,4 and 18.0 − 29.0 − 29.2 º). Relative hydrophobicity of the soil solid phase surface after treatment by Mehra and Jackson (1957) occurs in parallel to the carbon content reduction. Loss of carbon in the samples after the extraction of iron is related to the solubility of the hydrophilic components of humic substances. These results indicate that the main factor, which determines the wettability of soil solid phase, is the organic substance.

Keywords: Soil solid phase, contact angle, organic matter, hydrophobic-hydrophilic humic substances, nonsilicate iron forms

References

Afanasyeva, E. A., 1966. Chernozemy sredne-russkoi vozvishennosti. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)

Anderson, M.A., Hung, A.Y.C., Mills, D., Scott. M.S., 1995. Factors affecting the surface tension of soil solutions and solutions of humic acids. Soil Science 60: 111-116.

Bachmann, J., Guggenberger, G., Baumgartl, T., Ellerbrock, R.H., Urbanek, E., Goebel, M.O., Kaiser, K., Horn, R., Fischer, W.R., 2008. Physical carbon-sequestration mechanisms under special consideration of soil wettability. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171 (1): 14-26.

Bachmann, J., vander Ploeg, R.R., 2002. A Review on recent developments in soil water retention theory: Interfacial tension and temperature effects. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 165(4): 468-478.

Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth Science Review 51(1-4): 33-65.

Enya, O.O, Omueti, J.A.I, Akinbola, G.E., 2011. Particle size and free iron oxide distribution along two toposequence in South Western Nigeria. Continental Journal of Agromony 5(2): 22-31.

Eusterhues, K., Rumpel, C., Kogel-Knabne, I., 2005. Stabilization of soil organic matter isolated via oxidative degradation. Organic Geochemistry 36: 1567-1575

Feeney, D.S., Hallet, P.D., Rodger, S., Bengough, A.G., White, N.A., Young, I.M., 2006. Impact of fungal and bacterial biocides on microbial induced water repellency in arable soil. Geoderma 135: 72-80.

Franco, C.M.M., Clarke, P.J., Tate, M.E., Oades, J.M., 2000. Hydrophobic properties and chemical characterisation of natural water repellent materials in Australian sands. Journal of Hydrology 231-232: 47-58.

Fredlund, D.G., Xing, A., Huang, S., 1994. Predicting the Permeability Function for Unsaturated Soils Using the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 31: 533-546.

Goebel, M.O., Bachmann, J., Woche, S.K., Fischer, W.R., 2005. Soil wettability, aggregate stability, and the decomposition of soil organic matter. Geoderma 128: 80-93.

Grant, S.A., Salehzadeh, A., 1996. Calculation of temperature effects on wetting coefficients of porous solids and their capillary pressure functions. Water Resources Research 32(2): 261-270.

Hubbert, K.R., Preisler, H.K., Wohlgemuth, P.M., Graham, R.C., Narog, M.G., 2006. Prescribed burning effects on soil physical properties and soil water repellency in a steep chaparral watershed, southern California, USA. Geoderma 130: 284-298.

Hurrass, J., Schaumann, G.E., 2006. Properties of soil organic matter and aqueous extracts of actually water repellent and wettable soil samples. Geoderma 132: 222-239.

Ivesona, S.M., Holtb, S., Biggs, S., 2004. Advancing contact angle of iron ores as a function of their hematite and goethite content: Implications for pelletising and sintering. International Journal of Mineral Processing 74: 281- 287.

Kursk Encyclopedia, 2011. Available at http://www.mke.su (in Russian)

Letey, J., Osborn, J., Pelishek. R.E., 1962. Measurement of Liquid Solid Contact Angles in Soil and Sand. Soil Science 93: 149-153.

Lu, N., Likos, W.J., 2004. Unsaturated Soil Mechanics. Wiley, New York.

Margolina, N.Ya., Aleksandrovskii, A.L., Il'ichev, B.A., 1988. The Age and Evolution of Chernozems. Nauka, Moscow, (in Russian).

Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1958. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite citra system buffered with Na bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals 7: 317-327.

Milanovskiy, E.Yu., 2009. Humic Substances as Natural Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Compounds. GEOS, Moscow, (in Russian).

Schwertmann, U., 1964. The Differentiation of iron oxide in soils by a photochemical extraction with acid ammonium oxalate. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung Dungung Bodenkunde 105: 194 -202.

Targulian, V.O., E.Y. Milanovskiy E.Y. 1999. Inherited soil features and recent pedogenetic processes in red fersialitic and ferralitic soils of subhumid and humid subtropical climates. In: J. Bech (Eds.), 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. pp. 593-595.

Tschapek, M., 1984. Criteria for determining the hydrophilicity-hydropho bicit of soils. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung Dungung Bodenkunde 147: 127-149

Wu, W., 2001. Baseline Studies of the Clay Minerals Society Source Clays: Colloid and Surface Phenomena. Clays and Clay Minerals 49(5): 446-452



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science