Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 4, Issue 3, Jul 2015, Pages 161 - 168
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Copyright © 2015 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth

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Akça,M., Namlı,A., 2015. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth. Eurasian J Soil Sci 4(3):161 - 168. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Akça,M.,& Namlı,A. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Akça,M., and ,Namlı,A. "Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Akça,M., and ,Namlı,A. "Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
MO,Akça.A,Namlı "Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Akça,Muhittin ;Namlı,Ayten Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168

How to cite

Akça, M., O. Namlı, A., O.2015. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 4(3): 161 - 168. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168

Author information

Muhittin Akça , Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara, Turkey
Ayten Namlı , Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara, Turkey

Publication information

Issue published online: 01 Jul 2015
Article first published online : 12 Feb 2015
Manuscript Accepted : 25 Jan 2015
Manuscript Received: 15 Aug 2014
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.2015.3.161-168

Abstract

Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C) while concurrently improving soil functions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis poultry litter (PL) on the soil enzyme activities, organic matter content and growth of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants. In the experiment, the combination of 15.15.15 composite fertilizer with 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/da doses of PL biochar were applied into the clay loam soil. Compared to the control and chemical fertilizer alone, the soil organic matter was significantly increased after biochar amendments. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and arylsulphatase enzyme activities in soils were increased by the biochar applications significantly (P

Keywords

Biochar, soil, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease, arylsulphatase, organic matter, plants g

Corresponding author

References

Amador, J.A., Glucksman, A.M., Lyons, J.B., Gorres, J.H., 1997. Spatial distribution of soil phosphatase activity within a riparian forest. Soil Science 162: 808-825.

Bailey, V.L., Fansler, S.J., Smith, J.L., Bolton Jr., H., 2010. Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 296-301.

Boerner, R.E.J., Decker, K.L.M., Sutherland, E.K., 2000. Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: a landscape-scale analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 899-908.

Bolton Jr., H., Smith, J.L., Link, S.O., 1993. Soil microbial biomass and activity of a disturbed and undisturbed shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 545-552.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1951. A recalibration of the hidrometer for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43: 434-438.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Organic forms of nitrogen. In: Methods of soil analysis. SSSA. USA, pp.1238-1255.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, R.L., 1978. Urease activity in soils. In: Burns, R.G. (Ed.), Soil enzymes. Academic Press, New York, pp. 149-196.

Carter, S., Shackley, S., Sohi, S., Tan, B.S., Haefele, S., 2013. The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy 3(2): 404-418.

Chan, K.Y., Van Z.L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2008. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46: 437-444.

Dick, W.A., Tabatabai, M.A., 1992. Potential uses of soil enzymes. In: Meeting F.B. (Ed.), Soil microbial ecology: applications in agricultural and environmental management. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp.95-127.

Draper, K., Tomlinson, T., 2012. Poultry Litter Biochar – a US Perspective. Available at:

http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/Poultry_litter_final_2012.pdf

Eivazi, F., Bayan, M.R., 1996. Effects of long term prescribed burning on the activity of selected soil enzymes in an oak-hickory forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1799-1804.

Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., 1997. Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29: 171-177.

Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., Zech, W., 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal-A review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 219-230.

Hoffmann, G.G., Teicher, K., 1961. Ein kolorimetrisches verfahren zur bestimmung der urease aktivitat in boden, Z. Pflanzenernahr. Dung. Bodenk, 91, 55 - 63.

Hossain, M.K., Strezov, V., Chan, K.Y., Nelson, P.F., 2010. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere 78: 1167-1171.

Jackson, M., 1962. Soil Chemical Analysis. PrenticeHall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Jin, H., 2010. Characterization of microbial life colonizing biochar and biochar amended soils. PhD Dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Jones, D.L., Rousk, J., Edwards-Jones, G., DeLuca, T.H., Murphy, D.V., 2012. Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three year field trial. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 45: 113-124.

Karaca, A., Naseby, D.C., Lynch, J.M., 2002. Effect of cadmium contamination with sewage sludge and phosphate fertiliser amendments on soil enzyme activities, microbial structure and available cadmium. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 428-434.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Bayraklı, B., Sağlam, M., 2004. Microbiological characteristics of soils contaminated with heavy metals. European Journal of Soil Biology 40: 95-102

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30: 192-202

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167: 202-208.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2007. Microbiological properties in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38: 2861-2876

Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Aşkın, T., Yılmaz, R., Olekhov, V., Samofalove, I., Mudrykh, N., 2012. Effect of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1: 98-103.

Kourtev, P.S., Ehrenfeld, J.G., Haggblom, M., 2002. Exotic plant species alter the microbial community structure and function in the soil. Ecology 83: 3152-3166.

Kussainova, M., Durmuş, M., Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2013. Soil dehydrogenase activity of natural macro aggregates in a toposequence of forest soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 2:69-75

Laird, D.A., 2008. The charcoal vision: a wine wine win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality. Agronomy Journal 100: 178-181.

Lehmann, J., 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 381-387.

Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M., 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems: a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403-427.

Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., 2009. Biochar for environmental management: an introduction. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London, pp.1-12.

Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C., Crowley, D., 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota—a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1812-1836.

Lehmann, J., Rondon, M., 2005, ‘Bio-char soil management on highly-weathered soils in the humid tropics’, in N. Uphoff (ed.), Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems, Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Leirós, M.C., Trasar-Cepeda, C., Seoane, S., Gil-Sotres, F., 2000. Biochemical properties of acid soils under oak vegetation (Atlantic oakwood) in an area of the European temperate-humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain): general parameters. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32: 733–745.

Lin, Y., Munroe, P., Joseph, S., Henderson, R., Ziolkowski, A., 2012. Water extractable organic carbon in untreated and chemical treated biochar. Chemosphere 87: 151-157.

Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S.J., Lehmann, J., 2010. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil 333: 117-128.

Naseby, D.C., Lynch, J.M., 1997. Rhizosphere soil enzymes as indicators of perturbation caused by enzyme substrate addition and inoculation of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens on wheat seed. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29: 1353-1362.

Pascual, J.A., Hernandez, T., Garcia, C., Ayuso, M., 1998. Enzymatic activities in an arid soil amended with urban organic wastes: laboratory experiment. Bioresource Technology 64: 131-138.

Pascual, J.A., Moreno, J.L., Hernández, T., García, C., 2002. Persistence of immobilised and total urease and phosphatase activities in a soil amended with organic wastes. Bioresource Technology 82: 73-78

Paz-Ferreiro, J., Gascó, G., Gutiérrez, B., Méndez, A., 2012. Soil biochemical activities and the geometric mean of enzyme activities after application of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar to soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48: 511-517

Phoung-Thi, N., Pascal, J., Doan, T.T., Dang, D.K., Cornelia, R., 2013. Ramiran 2013, 15th International Conference of the FAO ESCORENA Network on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture. Versaişşes, France. 3-5 June 2013. Available at:

http://www.ramiran.net/doc13/Proceeding_2013/documents/S1.11..pdf

Schimel, J.P., Weintraub, M.N., 2003. The implications of exoenzyme activity on microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil: a theoretical model. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35: 549-563.

Sing, B.P., Cowie, A.L., 2014. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Scientific Reports 4: 3687. Available at:

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140121/srep03687/pdf/srep03687.pdf

Sinsabaugh, R.L., Carreiro, M.M., Repert, D.A., 2002. Allocation of extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to litter composition, N deposition, and mass loss. Biogeochemistry 60: 1-24.

Sinsabaugh, R.L., Moorhead, D., 1994. Resource allocation to extracellular enzyme production: a model for nitrogen and phosphorus control of litter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1305-1311.

Sohi, S., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., Bol, R., 2010. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy 105: 47-82.

Sun, Z., Bruun, E.W., Arthur, E, L.W., Moldrup, J.P., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Elsgaar, H.. 2014. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50:1087–1097.

Tabatabai, M.A., 1994. Soil enzymes. In. S.H. Mickelson, J.M. Bighan (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2 Microbiological and biochemical properties. Soil Science Socitety of America, Madison. pp.775-826.

Tscherko, D., Rustemeier, J., Richter, A., Wanek, W., Kandeler, E., 2003. Functional diversity of the soil microflora in the primary successon across two glacier forelands in the Central Alps. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 54: 685-696.

Turner, B.L., Hopkins, D.W., Haygarth, P.M., Ostle, N., 2002. b-Glucosidase activity in pasture soils. Applied Soil Ecology 20: 157-162.

Waldrop, M.P., Balser, T.C., Firestone, M.K., 2000. Linking microbial community composition to function in a tropical soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 1837–1846.

Wu, F., Jia, Z., Wang, S., Chang, S.X., Startsev, A., 2013. Contrasting effects of wheat straw and its biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and enzyme activities in a Chernozemic soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49: 555–565.

Yoo, G., Kang, H., 2012. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 1193–1202.

Abstract
Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C) while concurrently improving soil functions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis poultry litter (PL) on the soil enzyme activities, organic matter content and growth of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants. In the experiment, the combination of 15.15.15 composite fertilizer with 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/da doses of PL biochar were applied into the clay loam soil. Compared to the control and chemical fertilizer alone, the soil organic matter was significantly increased after biochar amendments. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and arylsulphatase enzyme activities in soils were increased by the biochar applications significantly (P<0.05).  Plant fresh and dry weight of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants were higher in 4kg/ha PL biochar treatment than in the other treatments. The results showed that PL biochar amendment to soils in the agricultural use increased yield of plants and enzyme activities with increasing soil organic matter content as well as improving soil properties.

Keywords: Biochar, soil, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease, arylsulphatase, organic matter, plants growth

References

Amador, J.A., Glucksman, A.M., Lyons, J.B., Gorres, J.H., 1997. Spatial distribution of soil phosphatase activity within a riparian forest. Soil Science 162: 808-825.

Bailey, V.L., Fansler, S.J., Smith, J.L., Bolton Jr., H., 2010. Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 296-301.

Boerner, R.E.J., Decker, K.L.M., Sutherland, E.K., 2000. Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: a landscape-scale analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 899-908.

Bolton Jr., H., Smith, J.L., Link, S.O., 1993. Soil microbial biomass and activity of a disturbed and undisturbed shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 545-552.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1951. A recalibration of the hidrometer for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 43: 434-438.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Organic forms of nitrogen. In: Methods of soil analysis. SSSA. USA, pp.1238-1255.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, R.L., 1978. Urease activity in soils. In: Burns, R.G. (Ed.), Soil enzymes. Academic Press, New York, pp. 149-196.

Carter, S., Shackley, S., Sohi, S., Tan, B.S., Haefele, S., 2013. The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy 3(2): 404-418.

Chan, K.Y., Van Z.L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2008. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46: 437-444.

Dick, W.A., Tabatabai, M.A., 1992. Potential uses of soil enzymes. In: Meeting F.B. (Ed.), Soil microbial ecology: applications in agricultural and environmental management. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp.95-127.

Draper, K., Tomlinson, T., 2012. Poultry Litter Biochar – a US Perspective. Available at:

http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/Poultry_litter_final_2012.pdf

Eivazi, F., Bayan, M.R., 1996. Effects of long term prescribed burning on the activity of selected soil enzymes in an oak-hickory forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1799-1804.

Garcia, C., Hernandez, T., 1997. Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29: 171-177.

Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., Zech, W., 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal-A review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 219-230.

Hoffmann, G.G., Teicher, K., 1961. Ein kolorimetrisches verfahren zur bestimmung der urease aktivitat in boden, Z. Pflanzenernahr. Dung. Bodenk, 91, 55 - 63.

Hossain, M.K., Strezov, V., Chan, K.Y., Nelson, P.F., 2010. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere 78: 1167-1171.

Jackson, M., 1962. Soil Chemical Analysis. PrenticeHall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. 498p.

Jin, H., 2010. Characterization of microbial life colonizing biochar and biochar amended soils. PhD Dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Jones, D.L., Rousk, J., Edwards-Jones, G., DeLuca, T.H., Murphy, D.V., 2012. Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three year field trial. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 45: 113-124.

Karaca, A., Naseby, D.C., Lynch, J.M., 2002. Effect of cadmium contamination with sewage sludge and phosphate fertiliser amendments on soil enzyme activities, microbial structure and available cadmium. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 428-434.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Bayraklı, B., Sağlam, M., 2004. Microbiological characteristics of soils contaminated with heavy metals. European Journal of Soil Biology 40: 95-102

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30: 192-202

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167: 202-208.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2007. Microbiological properties in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38: 2861-2876

Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Aşkın, T., Yılmaz, R., Olekhov, V., Samofalove, I., Mudrykh, N., 2012. Effect of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1: 98-103.

Kourtev, P.S., Ehrenfeld, J.G., Haggblom, M., 2002. Exotic plant species alter the microbial community structure and function in the soil. Ecology 83: 3152-3166.

Kussainova, M., Durmuş, M., Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2013. Soil dehydrogenase activity of natural macro aggregates in a toposequence of forest soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 2:69-75

Laird, D.A., 2008. The charcoal vision: a wine wine win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality. Agronomy Journal 100: 178-181.

Lehmann, J., 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 381-387.

Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M., 2006. Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems: a review. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403-427.

Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., 2009. Biochar for environmental management: an introduction. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London, pp.1-12.

Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C., Crowley, D., 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota—a review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1812-1836.

Lehmann, J., Rondon, M., 2005, ‘Bio-char soil management on highly-weathered soils in the humid tropics’, in N. Uphoff (ed.), Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems, Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Leirós, M.C., Trasar-Cepeda, C., Seoane, S., Gil-Sotres, F., 2000. Biochemical properties of acid soils under oak vegetation (Atlantic oakwood) in an area of the European temperate-humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain): general parameters. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32: 733–745.

Lin, Y., Munroe, P., Joseph, S., Henderson, R., Ziolkowski, A., 2012. Water extractable organic carbon in untreated and chemical treated biochar. Chemosphere 87: 151-157.

Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S.J., Lehmann, J., 2010. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil 333: 117-128.

Naseby, D.C., Lynch, J.M., 1997. Rhizosphere soil enzymes as indicators of perturbation caused by enzyme substrate addition and inoculation of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens on wheat seed. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29: 1353-1362.

Pascual, J.A., Hernandez, T., Garcia, C., Ayuso, M., 1998. Enzymatic activities in an arid soil amended with urban organic wastes: laboratory experiment. Bioresource Technology 64: 131-138.

Pascual, J.A., Moreno, J.L., Hernández, T., García, C., 2002. Persistence of immobilised and total urease and phosphatase activities in a soil amended with organic wastes. Bioresource Technology 82: 73-78

Paz-Ferreiro, J., Gascó, G., Gutiérrez, B., Méndez, A., 2012. Soil biochemical activities and the geometric mean of enzyme activities after application of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar to soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48: 511-517

Phoung-Thi, N., Pascal, J., Doan, T.T., Dang, D.K., Cornelia, R., 2013. Ramiran 2013, 15th International Conference of the FAO ESCORENA Network on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture. Versaişşes, France. 3-5 June 2013. Available at:

http://www.ramiran.net/doc13/Proceeding_2013/documents/S1.11..pdf

Schimel, J.P., Weintraub, M.N., 2003. The implications of exoenzyme activity on microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil: a theoretical model. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35: 549-563.

Sing, B.P., Cowie, A.L., 2014. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Scientific Reports 4: 3687. Available at:

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140121/srep03687/pdf/srep03687.pdf

Sinsabaugh, R.L., Carreiro, M.M., Repert, D.A., 2002. Allocation of extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to litter composition, N deposition, and mass loss. Biogeochemistry 60: 1-24.

Sinsabaugh, R.L., Moorhead, D., 1994. Resource allocation to extracellular enzyme production: a model for nitrogen and phosphorus control of litter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1305-1311.

Sohi, S., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., Bol, R., 2010. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy 105: 47-82.

Sun, Z., Bruun, E.W., Arthur, E, L.W., Moldrup, J.P., Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Elsgaar, H.. 2014. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50:1087–1097.

Tabatabai, M.A., 1994. Soil enzymes. In. S.H. Mickelson, J.M. Bighan (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2 Microbiological and biochemical properties. Soil Science Socitety of America, Madison. pp.775-826.

Tscherko, D., Rustemeier, J., Richter, A., Wanek, W., Kandeler, E., 2003. Functional diversity of the soil microflora in the primary successon across two glacier forelands in the Central Alps. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 54: 685-696.

Turner, B.L., Hopkins, D.W., Haygarth, P.M., Ostle, N., 2002. b-Glucosidase activity in pasture soils. Applied Soil Ecology 20: 157-162.

Waldrop, M.P., Balser, T.C., Firestone, M.K., 2000. Linking microbial community composition to function in a tropical soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 1837–1846.

Wu, F., Jia, Z., Wang, S., Chang, S.X., Startsev, A., 2013. Contrasting effects of wheat straw and its biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and enzyme activities in a Chernozemic soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49: 555–565.

Yoo, G., Kang, H., 2012. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 1193–1202.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science