Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 2, Issue 2, Oct 2013, Pages 122 - 130

Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130
Copyright © 2013 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils

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Stefanou,S., Papazafeiriou,A., 2013. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils. Eurasian J Soil Sci 2(2):122 - 130.
Stefanou,S.,,& Papazafeiriou,A. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130
Stefanou,S.,, and ,Papazafeiriou,A."Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130
Stefanou,S.,, and ,Papazafeiriou,A. "Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130
S,Stefanou.AZ,Papazafeiriou "Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130
Stefanou,Stefanos ;Papazafeiriou,Agapi Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.122-130

How to cite

Stefanou, S., Papazafeiriou, A., Z.2013. Effects of iron and aluminum oxides and clay content on penetration resistance of five Greek soils. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 2(2): 122 - 130.

Author information

Stefanos Stefanou , Alexander Technological Educational Institute (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, Department of Agricultural Technology, Laboratory of Soil Science, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
Agapi Papazafeiriou , Alexander Technological Educational Institute (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, Department of Agricultural Technology, Laboratory of Soil Science, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece

Publication information

Issue published online: 15 Oct 2013
Article first published online : 15 Sep 2013
Manuscript Accepted : 08 Sep 2013
Manuscript Received: 14 May 2013

Abstract

The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly). The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

Keywords

Penetration resistance, soil water suction, Fe and Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides, clay

Corresponding author

References

Ajmone Marsan, F., Torrent, J. 1989. Fragipan bonding by silica and iron oxides in a soil from Northwestern Italy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 1140-1145.

Bengough,, A.G., Campbell, D.J., O'Sullivan, M.F. 2001. Penetrometer techniques in relation to soil compaction and root growth. In: Smith, K.A., Mullins, C.E. (Eds.), Soil and Environmental Analysis. Physical Methods. 2nd Edition. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 377

Bengough, A.G., Mullins, C.E. 1990. Mechanical impedance to root growth: a review of experimental techniques and root growth responses. Soil Science 41: 341-358.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part I. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp.363-375. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.. 2007. The Nature and properties of soils. 14th edn. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.

Chadwick, O.A., Hendricks, D.M., Nettleton, W.D. 1987. Silica in duric soils: I. A depositional model. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (4): 975-982.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle – size Analysis. In: Μethods of Soil Analysis. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp. 383-409. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Harlan, P.W., Franzmeier, D.P., Roth, C.B. 1977. Soil formation on loess in Southwestern Indiana: II. Distribution of clay and free oxides and fragipan formation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41: 99-103.

Jackson, M.L., Lim, C.H., Zelazny, L.W. 1986. Oxides, hydroxides and aluminosilicates. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp. 101-150. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Ley, G.J. 1988. A study of hard-setting behavior of structurally weak tropical soils. Ph.D. thesis, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, UK.

Lindbo, D.L., Veneman, P.L.M. 1993. Morphological and Physical Properties of Selected Fragipan Soils in Massachusets. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57 (2): 429-436.

McLean, E.O. 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. (ed. A.L. Page et al.), pp.199-223. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America Madison, WI.

Mullins, C.E., MacLeod, D.A., Northcote, K.H., Tisdall, J.M., Young, I.M. 1990. Hardsetting soils: Behavior, Occurrence and Management. In: Advance in Soil Science. Vol. 11 (ed. B.A. Stewart), pp.37-108.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd edn. (ed. A.L. Klute et al.) pp. 539-577. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Oades, J.M. 1989. An introduction to organic matter in mineral soils. In: Minerals in Soil Environments, J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (ed). pp 89-159. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Panayiotopoulos, K.P., Papadopoulou, C.P., Hatjiioannidou, A. 1994. Compaction and penetration resistance of an Alfisol and Entisol and their influence on root growth of maize seedlings. Soil and Tillage Research 31 (4): 323-337.

Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA-SCS Agric. Handb. 436. U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Schwertmann, U., Cornell, R.M. 1991. Iron Oxides in the Laboratory: Preparation and characterization, VCH.

Schwertmann, U., R.M. Taylor. 1977. Iron oxides. pp. 145-180. In: J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (ed.) Minerals in soil environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Shadfan, H., Dixon J.B., Calhoun, F.G. 1985. Iron oxide properties versus strength of ferruginous crust and iron-glaebules in soils. Soil Science 140 (5): 317-325.

Smith, B.R., Callahan, L.L. 1987. Soils with Bx horizons in the upper Coastal Plains of South Carolina. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 158-164.

Steele, F., Daniels, R.B., Gamble, E.E., Nelson, L.A. 1969. Fragipan horizons and Be masses in the Middle Coastal Plain of North Central Carolina. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 33: 752-755.

Tsaousidou, P., Gartzos, E., Tsagalides, A., Haidouti, C., Gasparatos, D. 2008. Iron oxides in four Red Mediterranean soils metarhyolite and metadolerite in Kilkis, Greece. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 54 (2): 227-235.

Witty, J.E., Knox, E.G. 1989. Identification, role of soil taxonomy and worldwide distribution of fragipans. p. 1-10. In: N.E. Smeck and E.J. Ciolkosz (ed.) Fragipans: Their occurrence, classification and genesis. SSSA Spec. Publ. 24. SSSA, Madison, WI.

Young, I.M. 1987. Soil strength and hard-setting behavior of some structurally unstable British soils. Ph.D. thesis, Aberdeen University. Aberdeen, UK.

Abstract

The effect of amorphous and crystalline iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and oxy-hydroxides as well as clay on soil penetration resistance of five Greek soils, as a function of soil water suction was studied for the whole range of soil moisture. The soils tested were of loamy texture and were collected from cultivated and non-cultivated areas of north and central Greece (Macedonia and Thessaly). The study aimed at understanding the role of the above mentioned soil components on penetration resistance. The findings showed that the increase of iron and aluminum oxides and oxy-hydroxides content resulted in an increase of soil penetration resistance and the relationships between them were significant. Crystalline iron forms found to have a more profound effect on penetration resistance as compared to amorphous iron forms. Finally, positive and significant relationships were also found between penetration resistance and clay content. However, it is not entirely clear which of the two soil components plays the most important role in penetration resistance changes in soils.

Keywords: Penetration resistance, soil water suction, Fe and Al oxides and oxy-hydroxides, clay

References

Ajmone Marsan, F., Torrent, J. 1989. Fragipan bonding by silica and iron oxides in a soil from Northwestern Italy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 1140-1145.

Bengough,, A.G., Campbell, D.J., O'Sullivan, M.F. 2001. Penetrometer techniques in relation to soil compaction and root growth. In: Smith, K.A., Mullins, C.E. (Eds.), Soil and Environmental Analysis. Physical Methods. 2nd Edition. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 377

Bengough, A.G., Mullins, C.E. 1990. Mechanical impedance to root growth: a review of experimental techniques and root growth responses. Soil Science 41: 341-358.

Blake, G.R., Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk density. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part I. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp.363-375. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R.. 2007. The Nature and properties of soils. 14th edn. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.

Chadwick, O.A., Hendricks, D.M., Nettleton, W.D. 1987. Silica in duric soils: I. A depositional model. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (4): 975-982.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W. 1986. Particle – size Analysis. In: Μethods of Soil Analysis. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp. 383-409. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Harlan, P.W., Franzmeier, D.P., Roth, C.B. 1977. Soil formation on loess in Southwestern Indiana: II. Distribution of clay and free oxides and fragipan formation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41: 99-103.

Jackson, M.L., Lim, C.H., Zelazny, L.W. 1986. Oxides, hydroxides and aluminosilicates. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. 2nd ed. (ed. A. Klute), pp. 101-150. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Ley, G.J. 1988. A study of hard-setting behavior of structurally weak tropical soils. Ph.D. thesis, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, UK.

Lindbo, D.L., Veneman, P.L.M. 1993. Morphological and Physical Properties of Selected Fragipan Soils in Massachusets. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57 (2): 429-436.

McLean, E.O. 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. (ed. A.L. Page et al.), pp.199-223. American Society of Agronomy & Soil Science Society of America Madison, WI.

Mullins, C.E., MacLeod, D.A., Northcote, K.H., Tisdall, J.M., Young, I.M. 1990. Hardsetting soils: Behavior, Occurrence and Management. In: Advance in Soil Science. Vol. 11 (ed. B.A. Stewart), pp.37-108.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1982. Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd edn. (ed. A.L. Klute et al.) pp. 539-577. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Oades, J.M. 1989. An introduction to organic matter in mineral soils. In: Minerals in Soil Environments, J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (ed). pp 89-159. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Panayiotopoulos, K.P., Papadopoulou, C.P., Hatjiioannidou, A. 1994. Compaction and penetration resistance of an Alfisol and Entisol and their influence on root growth of maize seedlings. Soil and Tillage Research 31 (4): 323-337.

Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA-SCS Agric. Handb. 436. U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Schwertmann, U., Cornell, R.M. 1991. Iron Oxides in the Laboratory: Preparation and characterization, VCH.

Schwertmann, U., R.M. Taylor. 1977. Iron oxides. pp. 145-180. In: J.B. Dixon and S.B. Weed (ed.) Minerals in soil environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Shadfan, H., Dixon J.B., Calhoun, F.G. 1985. Iron oxide properties versus strength of ferruginous crust and iron-glaebules in soils. Soil Science 140 (5): 317-325.

Smith, B.R., Callahan, L.L. 1987. Soils with Bx horizons in the upper Coastal Plains of South Carolina. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 158-164.

Steele, F., Daniels, R.B., Gamble, E.E., Nelson, L.A. 1969. Fragipan horizons and Be masses in the Middle Coastal Plain of North Central Carolina. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 33: 752-755.

Tsaousidou, P., Gartzos, E., Tsagalides, A., Haidouti, C., Gasparatos, D. 2008. Iron oxides in four Red Mediterranean soils metarhyolite and metadolerite in Kilkis, Greece. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 54 (2): 227-235.

Witty, J.E., Knox, E.G. 1989. Identification, role of soil taxonomy and worldwide distribution of fragipans. p. 1-10. In: N.E. Smeck and E.J. Ciolkosz (ed.) Fragipans: Their occurrence, classification and genesis. SSSA Spec. Publ. 24. SSSA, Madison, WI.

Young, I.M. 1987. Soil strength and hard-setting behavior of some structurally unstable British soils. Ph.D. thesis, Aberdeen University. Aberdeen, UK.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science