Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 2, Issue 2, Oct 2013, Pages 114 - 121

Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121
Copyright © 2013 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays

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Kobaissi,A., Kanso,A., Kanbar,H., Kazpard,V., 2013. Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays. Eurasian J Soil Sci 2(2):114 - 121.
Kobaissi,A.,Kanso,A.Kanbar,H.,& Kazpard,V. Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121
Kobaissi,A.,Kanso,A.Kanbar,H., and ,Kazpard,V."Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121
Kobaissi,A.,Kanso,A.Kanbar,H., and ,Kazpard,V. "Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121
AN,Kobaissi.AA,Kanso.HJ,Kanbar.VA,Kazpard "Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121
Kobaissi,Ahmad ;Kanso,Ali ;Kanbar,Hussein ;Kazpard,Véronique Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.2013.2.114-121

How to cite

Kobaissi, A., N. Kanso, A., A. Kanbar, H., J. Kazpard, V., A.2013. Morpho-physiological changes caused by soil compaction and irrigation on Zea mays. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 2(2): 114 - 121.

Author information

Ahmad Kobaissi , Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences, Plant Biology and Environment, Rafic Hariri Campus, Hadath, Lebanon
Ali Kanso , Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences, Plant Biology and Environment, Rafic Hariri Campus, Hadath, Lebanon
Hussein Kanbar , Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences, Plant Biology and Environment, Rafic Hariri Campus, Hadath, Lebanon
Véronique Kazpard , Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences, Plant Biology and Environment, Rafic Hariri Campus, Hadath, Lebanon

Publication information

Issue published online: 15 Oct 2013
Article first published online : 30 Jun 2013
Manuscript Accepted : 27 Jun 2013
Manuscript Received: 18 Apr 2013

Abstract

Physical properties of soil, such as compaction, have immense effects on the physico-morphological characters of plants, namely on the roots. For this reason per se, roots are immersed in a soil matrix with distinct conditions that may affect their anatomy, structure and function. Soil’s physical characteristics, such as texture and compaction force, are some of the main factors affecting root growth and development. This study investigates how soil compaction, soil moisture and type of soil can modify the regular growth of Zea mays L., and thus reveal the changes influencing plant’s physiology and growth. This experiment focuses on simulating two magnitudes of compaction (1.25 and 1.45 g cm-3), two irrigation rates in two soil types, and assessing their effects on Z. mays. Despite intrinsic differences in the physico-chemical properties of the two soils, soil compaction had the highest influence on the decrease of leaf area, relative growth rate, total length of roots and shoot and dry mass of stem and roots, while it showed an increase in nitrate reductase activity and total chlorophyll content of the leaves and a limited bacterial growth. Soil moisture interactively aggravated the negative effects of soil compaction. In conclusion, soil compaction shows momentous effects on root anatomy and morphology during the seedling stage, with consequences on plant physiology and growth.

Keywords

Compaction, dry mass, growth, irrigation rate, leaf, stem, Zea mays

Corresponding author

References

Abu-Hamdeh, N.H. 2003. Compaction and subsoiling effects on corn growth and soil bulk density. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67(4), 1213–1219.

Alameda, D., Anten, N.P.R., Villar, R. 2012a. Soil compaction effects on growth and root traits of tobacco depend on light, water regime and mechanical stress. Soil & Tillage Research 120, 121–129.

Alameda, D., Villar, R. 2012b. Linking root traits to plant physiology and growth in Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. seedlings under soil compaction conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 79, 49– 57.

Arnon, D.I. 1994. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24(1), 1-15.

Arvidsson, J. 1999. Nutrient uptake and growth of barley as affected by soil compaction. Plant Soil 208(1), 9–19.

Beare, M.H., Gregorich, E.G., St-Georges, P. 2009. Compaction effects on CO2 and N2O production during drying and rewetting of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41(3), 611–621.

Benitez, E., Melgar, R., Sainz, H., Gomez, M., Nogales, R. 2000. Enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown with olive cake mulches. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 32(13), 1829-1835.

Campostrini, E., Yamanishi, O.K., Maldonado, J.F., Marin, S.L.D. 2002. Influence of root restriction on chlorophyll and carotenoids concentrations in leaves of four Papaya (Carica papaya L.) genotypes. Agronomia 36(1-2), 1-6.

Canbolat, M.Y., Bilen, S., Çakmakçi, R., Şahin, F., Aydin, A. 2006. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria and soil compaction on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, soil properties and rhizosphere microflora. Biology and fertility of soils 42(4), 350–357.

Engelaar, W.M.H.G., Visser, E.J.W., Veen, B.W., Blom, C.W.P.M. 1995. Contents, uptake rates and reduction of nitrate of Rumex palustris and Plantago major spp. major grown on compacted soil. Functional Ecology 9(2), 334-339.

Fox, T.R., Comerford, N.B. 1992. Rhizosphere phosphatase activity and phosphatase hydrolyzable organic phosphorus in two forested spodosols. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(6), 579-583.

Grzesiak, M.T. 2009. Impact of soil compaction on root architecture, leaf water status, gas exchange and growth of maize and triticale seedlings. Plant Root 3, 10-16.

Grzesiak, S., Grzesiak, M.T., Hura, T., Marcińska, I., Rzepka, A. 2013. Changes in root system structure, leaf water potential and gas exchange of maize and triticale seedlings affected by soil compaction. Environmental and Experimental Botany 88, 2-10.

Hoffmann, C., Jungk, A. 1995. Growth and phosphorus supply of sugar beet as affected by soil compaction and water tension. Plant Soil 176(1), 15–25.

Hunt, R. 1990. Basic Growth Analysis. Illustrated ed. London. 112p.

Jaworski, E.G. 1971. Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 43(6), 1274-1279.

Jusoff, K. 1991. Effect of compaction of soils on growth of Acacia mangium Willd. under glasshouse conditions. New Forests 5(1), 61–66.

Kim, H., Anderson, S.H., Motavalli, P.P., Gantzer, C.J. 2010. Compaction effects on soil macropore geometry and related parameters for an arable field. Geoderma 160(2), 244–251.

Konôpka, B., Pagès, L., Doussan, C. 2008. Impact of soil compaction heterogeneity and moisture on maize (Zea mays L.) root and shoot development. Plant, Soil and Environment 54(12), 509–519.

Kooistra, M.J., Schoonderbeek, D., Boone, F.R., Veen, B.W., Vannoordwijk, M. 1992. Root-soil contact of maize, as measured by a thin-section technique. Effects of soil compaction. Plant Soil 139(1), 119–129.

Li, C.H., Ma, B.L., Zhang, T.Q. 2002. Soil bulk density effects on soil microbial populations and enzyme activities during the growth of maize (Zea mays L.) planted in large pots under field exposure. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 82(2), 147–154.

Lipiec, J., Ishioka, T., Szustak, A., Pietrusiewicz, J., Stepniewski, W. 1996. Effects of soil compaction and transient oxygen deficiency on growth, water use and stomata resistance in maize. Acta agriculture scandinavica: section b, soil & plant science 46(3), 186–191.

Montagu, K.D., Conroy, J.P., Atwell, B.J. 2001. The position of localized soil compaction determines root and subsequent shoot growth responses. Journal of Experimental Botany 52(364), 2127-2133.

Pengthamkeerati, P., Motavalli, P.P., Kremer, R.J. 2011. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and ß-glucosaminidase activity response to surface compaction and poultry-litter application in a claypan soil. Applied Soil Ecology 51, 79– 86.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P. 2004. Environmental Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed. San Diego, California. 226p.

Pupin, B., Freddi, O., Nahas, E. 2009. Microbial alterations of the soil influenced by induced compaction. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Sol 33, 1207-1213.

Smeltzer, D.L.K., Bergdhal, D.R., Donnelly, J.R. 1986. Forest ecosystem responses to artificially induced soil compaction. II. Selected soil microorganism populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16(4), 870-872.

Soane, B.D., Van Ouwerkerk, C. 1994. Soil compaction in crop production. 1st ed. Amsterdam. 684p.

Tan, X., Chang, S.X. 2007. Soil compaction and forest litter amendment affect carbon and net nitrogen mineralization in a boreal forest soil. Soil & Tillage Research 93(1), 77–86.

Tarawally, M.A., Medina, H., Frómeta, M.E., Itza, C.A. 2004. Field compaction at different soil-water status: effects on pore size distribution and soil water characteristics of a Rhodic Ferralsol in Western Cuba. Soil & Tillage Research 76(2), 95–103.

Tardieu, F. 1991. Spatial arrangement of maize roots in the field. Development in Agricultural and Managed-forest Ecology 24, 506–514.

Thien, S.J., Graveel, J.G. 2003. Laboratory Manual for Soil Science: Agricultural & Environmental Principles. Preliminary Edition, Iowa. 314p.

Tippkotter, R. 1983. Morphology, spatial arrangement and origin of macropores in some hapludalfs, West Germany. Geoderma 29(4), 355–371.

Whalley, W.R., Watts, C.W., Gregory, A.S., Mooney, S.J., Clark, L.J., Whitmore, A.P. 2008. The effect of soil strength on the yield of wheat. Plant Soil 306(1-2), 237–247.

Zhao, F.J., Lopez-Bellido, F.J., Gray, C.W., Whalley, W.R., Clark, L.J., Mcgrath, S.P. 2007. Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains. Science of the Total Environment 372(2-3), 433–439.

Abstract

Physical properties of soil, such as compaction, have immense effects on the physico-morphological characters of plants, namely on the roots. For this reason per se, roots are immersed in a soil matrix with distinct conditions that may affect their anatomy, structure and function. Soil’s physical characteristics, such as texture and compaction force, are some of the main factors affecting root growth and development. This study investigates how soil compaction, soil moisture and type of soil can modify the regular growth of Zea mays L., and thus reveal the changes influencing plant’s physiology and growth. This experiment focuses on simulating two magnitudes of compaction (1.25 and 1.45 g cm-3), two irrigation rates in two soil types, and assessing their effects on Z. mays. Despite intrinsic differences in the physico-chemical properties of the two soils, soil compaction had the highest influence on the decrease of leaf area, relative growth rate, total length of roots and shoot and dry mass of stem and roots, while it showed an increase in nitrate reductase activity and total chlorophyll content of the leaves and a limited bacterial growth. Soil moisture interactively aggravated the negative effects of soil compaction. In conclusion, soil compaction shows momentous effects on root anatomy and morphology during the seedling stage, with consequences on plant physiology and growth.

Keywords: Compaction, dry mass, growth, irrigation rate, leaf, stem, Zea mays

References

Abu-Hamdeh, N.H. 2003. Compaction and subsoiling effects on corn growth and soil bulk density. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67(4), 1213–1219.

Alameda, D., Anten, N.P.R., Villar, R. 2012a. Soil compaction effects on growth and root traits of tobacco depend on light, water regime and mechanical stress. Soil & Tillage Research 120, 121–129.

Alameda, D., Villar, R. 2012b. Linking root traits to plant physiology and growth in Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. seedlings under soil compaction conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 79, 49– 57.

Arnon, D.I. 1994. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24(1), 1-15.

Arvidsson, J. 1999. Nutrient uptake and growth of barley as affected by soil compaction. Plant Soil 208(1), 9–19.

Beare, M.H., Gregorich, E.G., St-Georges, P. 2009. Compaction effects on CO2 and N2O production during drying and rewetting of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41(3), 611–621.

Benitez, E., Melgar, R., Sainz, H., Gomez, M., Nogales, R. 2000. Enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown with olive cake mulches. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 32(13), 1829-1835.

Campostrini, E., Yamanishi, O.K., Maldonado, J.F., Marin, S.L.D. 2002. Influence of root restriction on chlorophyll and carotenoids concentrations in leaves of four Papaya (Carica papaya L.) genotypes. Agronomia 36(1-2), 1-6.

Canbolat, M.Y., Bilen, S., Çakmakçi, R., Şahin, F., Aydin, A. 2006. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria and soil compaction on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, soil properties and rhizosphere microflora. Biology and fertility of soils 42(4), 350–357.

Engelaar, W.M.H.G., Visser, E.J.W., Veen, B.W., Blom, C.W.P.M. 1995. Contents, uptake rates and reduction of nitrate of Rumex palustris and Plantago major spp. major grown on compacted soil. Functional Ecology 9(2), 334-339.

Fox, T.R., Comerford, N.B. 1992. Rhizosphere phosphatase activity and phosphatase hydrolyzable organic phosphorus in two forested spodosols. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(6), 579-583.

Grzesiak, M.T. 2009. Impact of soil compaction on root architecture, leaf water status, gas exchange and growth of maize and triticale seedlings. Plant Root 3, 10-16.

Grzesiak, S., Grzesiak, M.T., Hura, T., Marcińska, I., Rzepka, A. 2013. Changes in root system structure, leaf water potential and gas exchange of maize and triticale seedlings affected by soil compaction. Environmental and Experimental Botany 88, 2-10.

Hoffmann, C., Jungk, A. 1995. Growth and phosphorus supply of sugar beet as affected by soil compaction and water tension. Plant Soil 176(1), 15–25.

Hunt, R. 1990. Basic Growth Analysis. Illustrated ed. London. 112p.

Jaworski, E.G. 1971. Nitrate reductase assay in intact plant tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 43(6), 1274-1279.

Jusoff, K. 1991. Effect of compaction of soils on growth of Acacia mangium Willd. under glasshouse conditions. New Forests 5(1), 61–66.

Kim, H., Anderson, S.H., Motavalli, P.P., Gantzer, C.J. 2010. Compaction effects on soil macropore geometry and related parameters for an arable field. Geoderma 160(2), 244–251.

Konôpka, B., Pagès, L., Doussan, C. 2008. Impact of soil compaction heterogeneity and moisture on maize (Zea mays L.) root and shoot development. Plant, Soil and Environment 54(12), 509–519.

Kooistra, M.J., Schoonderbeek, D., Boone, F.R., Veen, B.W., Vannoordwijk, M. 1992. Root-soil contact of maize, as measured by a thin-section technique. Effects of soil compaction. Plant Soil 139(1), 119–129.

Li, C.H., Ma, B.L., Zhang, T.Q. 2002. Soil bulk density effects on soil microbial populations and enzyme activities during the growth of maize (Zea mays L.) planted in large pots under field exposure. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 82(2), 147–154.

Lipiec, J., Ishioka, T., Szustak, A., Pietrusiewicz, J., Stepniewski, W. 1996. Effects of soil compaction and transient oxygen deficiency on growth, water use and stomata resistance in maize. Acta agriculture scandinavica: section b, soil & plant science 46(3), 186–191.

Montagu, K.D., Conroy, J.P., Atwell, B.J. 2001. The position of localized soil compaction determines root and subsequent shoot growth responses. Journal of Experimental Botany 52(364), 2127-2133.

Pengthamkeerati, P., Motavalli, P.P., Kremer, R.J. 2011. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and ß-glucosaminidase activity response to surface compaction and poultry-litter application in a claypan soil. Applied Soil Ecology 51, 79– 86.

Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P. 2004. Environmental Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed. San Diego, California. 226p.

Pupin, B., Freddi, O., Nahas, E. 2009. Microbial alterations of the soil influenced by induced compaction. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Sol 33, 1207-1213.

Smeltzer, D.L.K., Bergdhal, D.R., Donnelly, J.R. 1986. Forest ecosystem responses to artificially induced soil compaction. II. Selected soil microorganism populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16(4), 870-872.

Soane, B.D., Van Ouwerkerk, C. 1994. Soil compaction in crop production. 1st ed. Amsterdam. 684p.

Tan, X., Chang, S.X. 2007. Soil compaction and forest litter amendment affect carbon and net nitrogen mineralization in a boreal forest soil. Soil & Tillage Research 93(1), 77–86.

Tarawally, M.A., Medina, H., Frómeta, M.E., Itza, C.A. 2004. Field compaction at different soil-water status: effects on pore size distribution and soil water characteristics of a Rhodic Ferralsol in Western Cuba. Soil & Tillage Research 76(2), 95–103.

Tardieu, F. 1991. Spatial arrangement of maize roots in the field. Development in Agricultural and Managed-forest Ecology 24, 506–514.

Thien, S.J., Graveel, J.G. 2003. Laboratory Manual for Soil Science: Agricultural & Environmental Principles. Preliminary Edition, Iowa. 314p.

Tippkotter, R. 1983. Morphology, spatial arrangement and origin of macropores in some hapludalfs, West Germany. Geoderma 29(4), 355–371.

Whalley, W.R., Watts, C.W., Gregory, A.S., Mooney, S.J., Clark, L.J., Whitmore, A.P. 2008. The effect of soil strength on the yield of wheat. Plant Soil 306(1-2), 237–247.

Zhao, F.J., Lopez-Bellido, F.J., Gray, C.W., Whalley, W.R., Clark, L.J., Mcgrath, S.P. 2007. Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains. Science of the Total Environment 372(2-3), 433–439.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science