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DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1496891
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Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1496891
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Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage

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Sindesi,O., Lewu,M., Ncube,B., Meyer,A., Mulidzi,A., Lewu,F., 2024. Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage. Eurasian J Soil Sci DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891
Sindesi,O.,Lewu,M.Ncube,B.Meyer,A.Mulidzi,A.,& Lewu,F. Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891
Sindesi,O.,Lewu,M.Ncube,B.Meyer,A.Mulidzi,A., and ,Lewu,F."Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891
Sindesi,O.,Lewu,M.Ncube,B.Meyer,A.Mulidzi,A., and ,Lewu,F. "Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891
O,Sindesi.M,Lewu.B,Ncube.A,Meyer.A,Mulidzi.F,Lewu "Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol., no., pp., DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891
Sindesi,Olwetu Antonia ;Lewu,Muinat Nike ;Ncube,Bongani ;Meyer,André ;Mulidzi,Azwimbavhi Reckson ;Lewu,Francis Bayo Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891

How to cite

Sindesi, O., Lewu, M., Ncube, B., Meyer, A., Mulidzi, A., Lewu, F., 2024. Effect of zeolite application on soil enzyme activity of potted sandy soil cultivated with Swiss chard and cabbage. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1496891

Author information

Olwetu Antonia Sindesi , Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington 7654, South Africa
Muinat Nike Lewu , Soil and Water Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
Bongani Ncube , Centre for Water and Sanitation Research, Faculty of Engineering & the Built Environment, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa
André Meyer , Soil and Water Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
Azwimbavhi Reckson Mulidzi , Soil and Water Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
Francis Bayo Lewu , Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington 7654, South Africa

Publication information

Article first published online : 06 Jun 2024
Manuscript Accepted : 03 Jun 2024
Manuscript Received: 07 Dec 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1496891
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1496891

Abstract

A zeolite pot experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij in Stellenbosch, South Africa, under greenhouse conditions. The experiment aimed to investigate the impact of zeolite application on soil enzyme activities in sandy soils cultivated with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris Var. cicla) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var. capitata L.) over two years (2018-2019). Different zeolite-to-soil ratios (0:1, 1:9, 2:8, and 3:7 w/w) were used, with each pot containing 12 kg of soil. The experiment involved 72 pots for each vegetable, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Soil enzyme activities, including acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and urease, as well as soil chemical properties (pH, total plant-available nitrogen, organic carbon, and phosphorus), were analyzed. Key findings indicate that the effect of zeolite application on enzyme activities varied between the vegetable species. Zeolite application significantly increased (P<0.05) soil pH across all treatments. However, higher zeolite levels decreased (P<0.05) soil phosphorus availability, likely due to phosphorus adsorption by zeolite. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with rising zeolite levels, possibly due to increased soil pH. Additionally, zeolite application reduced (P<0.05) soil organic carbon, which may explain some of the enzyme activity responses. Alteration Index Three (AI3) scores suggested improved soil biological activity with zeolite application, although responses varied between crops. Cabbage soils showed improvement in all treatments, while Swiss chard soils exhibited mixed responses. In conclusion, while zeolite application can enhance soil pH and nutrient retention, it may also reduce phosphorus availability and organic carbon. The enzyme activity responses observed are complex and crop-specific, highlighting the need for tailored soil management practices. Further research is recommended to explore the long-term impacts and optimal integration of zeolite with organic amendments for sustainable soil fertility management.

Keywords

Zeolite, organic carbon content, soil amendment, urease, phosphates, β-glucosidase.

Corresponding author

References

Abdi, Gh., Khosh-Khui, M., Eshghi, S., 2006. Effects of natural zeolite on growth and flowering of strawberry (Fragariaxananassa Duch.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 1(4): 384-389.

Al, C., Sun, J.W., Wang, X.B., Liand, G.Q., He, P., Zhou, W., 2015. Advances in the study of the relationship between plant rhizodeposition and soil microorganism. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 21(5): 1343-1351. [in Chinese].

Albano, X., Whitmore, A.P., Sakrabani, R., Thomas, C.L., Sizmur, T., Ritz, K., Harris, J., Pawlett, M., Watts, C., Haefele, S.M., 2023. Effect of different organic amendments on actual and achievable yields in a cereal-based cropping system. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 23: 2122–2137.

Alkorta, I., Aizpurua, A., Riga, P., Albizu, I., Amézaga, I., Garbisu, C., 2003. Soil enzyme activities as biological indicators of soil health. Reviews on Environmental Health 18(1): 65-73.

Asadishad, B., Chahal, S., Akbari, A., Cianciarelli, V., Azodi, M., Ghoshal, S., Tufenkji, N., 2018. Amendment of agricultural soil with metal nanoparticles: effects on soil enzyme activity and microbial community composition. Environmental Science and Technology 52(4): 1908-1918.

Celestina, C., Hunt, J.R., Sale, P.W., Franks, A.E., 2019. Attribution of crop yield responses to application of organic amendments: A critical review. Soil and Tillage Research 186: 135-145.

de Almeida, R.F., Naves, E.R., da Mota, R.P., 2015. Soil quality: Enzymatic activity of soil β-glucosidase. Global Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews 3(2): 146-450.

de Campos Bernardi, A.C., Oliviera, P.P.A., de Melo Monte, M.B., Souza-Barros, F., 2013. Brazilian sedimentary zeolite use in agriculture. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 167: 16-21.

Dick, C.F., Dos-Santos, A.L.A., Meyer-Fernandes, J.R., 2011. Inorganic phosphate as an important regulator of phosphatases. Enzyme Research Article ID 103980.

Eivazi, F., Tabatabai, M.A., 1990. Factors affecting glucosidase and galactosidase activities in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22(7): 891-897.

Fujino, C., Wada, S., Konoike, T., Toyota, K., Suga, Y., Ikeda, J.I., 2008. Effect of different organic amendments on the resistance and resilience of the organic matter decomposing ability of soil and the role of aggregated soil structure. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 54(4): 534-542.

Furtak, K., Gałązka, A., 2019. Enzymatic activity as a popular parameter used to determine the quality of the soil environment. Polish Journal of Agronomy 37: 22-30.

Ghosh, A., Singh, A.B., Kumar, R.V., Manna, M.C., Bhattacharyya, R., Rahman, M.M., Sharma, P., Rajput, P.S., Misra, S., 2020. Soil enzymes and microbial elemental stoichiometry as bio-indicators of soil quality in diverse cropping systems and nutrient management practices of Indian Vertisols. Applied Soil Ecology 145: 103304.

Guangming, L., Xuechen, Z., Xiuping, W., Hongbo, S., Jingsong, Y., Xiangping, W., 2017. Soil enzymes as indicators of saline soil fertility under various soil amendments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 237: 274-279.

Hoult, E.H., McGarity, J.W., 1986. The measurement and distribution of urease activity in a pasture system. Plant and Soil 93: 359-366.

Howa, J.D., Lott, M.J., Ehleringer, J.R., 2014. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28(13): 1530-1534.

Icoz, I., Stotzky, G., 2008. Fate and effects of insect-resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40(3): 559-586.

Igalavithana, A.D., Farooq, M., Kim, K.H., Lee, Y.H., Qayyum, M.F., Al-Wabel, M.I., Lee, S.S., Ok, Y.S., 2017. Determining soil quality in urban agricultural regions by soil enzyme-based index. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 39: 1531-1544.

Kakar, K., Xuan, T.D., Noori, Z., Aryan, S., Gulab, G., 2020. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer application on growth, yield, and grain quality of rice. Agriculture 10(11): 544.

Kandeler, E., Gerber, H., 1988 Short-term assay of soil urease activity using colorimetric determination of ammonium. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6: 68-72.

Kanté, M., Riah-Anglet, W., Cliquet, J.B., Trinsoutrot-Gattin, I., 2021. Soil enzyme activity and stoichiometry: Linking soil microorganism resource requirement and legume carbon rhizodeposition. Agronomy 11(11): 2131.

Kaurin, A., Cernilogar, Z., Lestan, D., 2018. Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance. Chemosphere 193: 726-736.

Keller, T.C., Isabettini, S., Verboekend, D., Rodrigues, E.G., Pérez-Ramírez, J., 2014. Hierarchical high-silica zeolites as superior base catalysts. Chemical Science 5(2): 677-684.

Li, Y., Han, C., Sun, S., Zhao, C., 2021. Effects of tree species and soil enzyme activities on soil nutrients in dryland plantations. Forests 12(9): 1153.

Liu, Z., Rong, Q., Zhou, W., Liang, G., 2017. Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil.  PLOS ONE 12(3): e0172767.

Margalef, O., Sardans, J., Fernández-Martínez, M., Molowny-Horas, R., Janssens, I.A., Ciais, P., Goll, D., Richter, A., Obersteiner, M., Asensio, D. and Peñuelas, J., 2017. Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports 7: 1337.

Mazorra, M.T., Rubio, J.A., Blasco, J., 2002. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the clam Scrobicularia plana: kinetic characteristics and effects of heavy metals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 131(2): 241-249.

Meena, A., Rao, K.S., 2021. Assessment of soil microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere zone under different land use/cover of a semiarid region, India. Ecological Processes 10: 16.

Meyer, A.H., Wooldridge, J., Dames, J.F., 2014. Relationship between soil alteration index three (AI3), soil organic matter and tree performance in a ‘Cripps Pink’/M7 apple orchard. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 31(3): 173-175.

Miśkowiec, P., Olech, Z., 2020. Searching for the correlation between the activity of urease and the content of nickel in the soil samples: The role of metal speciation. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 20: 1904-1911.

Munir, A., Nawaz, S., Bajwa, M.A., 2012. Farm manure improved soil fertility in mungbean-wheat cropping system and rectified the deleterious effects of brackish water. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences 49(4): 511–519.

Nannipieri, P., Giagnoni, L., Landi, L., Renella, G., 2011. Role of Phosphatase Enzymes in Soil. In: Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling. Soil Biology. Bünemann, E., Oberson, A., Frossard, E., (Eds.). Vol 26. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 215-243.

Non-Affiliated Soil Analysis Work Committee, 1990. Handbook of standard soil testing methods for advisory purposes. Soil Science Society of South Africa, Pretoria.

Nur Aainaa, H., Haruna Ahmed, O., Ab-Majid, N.M., 2018. Effects of clinoptilolite zeolite on phosphorus dynamics and yield of Zea Mays L. cultivated on an acid soil. PLOS ONE 13(9): e0204401.

Okalebo, J.R., Gathua, K.W., Woomer, P.L., 2002. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: A working manual. Second edition. Sacred African Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya.

Onyango, M.S., Kuchar, D., Kubota, M., Matsuda, H., 2007. Adsorptive removal of phosphate ions from aqueous solution using synthetic zeolite. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 46(3): 894-900.

Pabalan, R.T., Bertetti, F.P., 2001. Cation-exchange properties of natural zeolites. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 45(1): 453-518.

Ramesh, V., Jyothi, J.S., Shibli, S.M.A., 2015. Effect of zeolites on soil quality, plant growth and nutrient uptake efficiency in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Journal of Root Crops 41(1): 25-31.

Sindesi, O.A., Lewu, M.N., Ncube, B., Mulidzi, R., Lewu, F.B., 2021. Mineral Composition of Potted Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var, Capitata L.) grown in Zeolite amended sandy soil. Agriculture (Pol’nohospodárstvo) 67(3): 103-112.

Sindesi, O.A., Lewu, M.N., Ncube, B., Mulidzi, R., Lewu, F.B., 2023a. Residual effect of zeolite on soil exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity in sandy soil cultivated with Swiss Chard. 35th International Conference on "Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering" (ICCBEE-22), 28-29 November 2023. Johannesburg, South Africa. pp. 36-39.

Sindesi, O.A., Ncube, B., Lewu, M.N., Mulidzi, A.R., Lewu, F.B., 2023b. Cabbage and Swiss chard yield, irrigation requirement and soil chemical responses in zeolite-amended sandy soil. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2023(1): 202111387.

Tejada, M., Gonzalez, J.L., García-Martínez, A.M., Parrado, J., 2008. Effects of different green manures on soil biological properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technology 99(6): 1758-1767.

Tiwari, R., Dwivedi, B.S., Sharma, Y.M., Sharma, A., Dwivedi, A.K., 2019. Activities of β-glucosidase, phosphatase and dehydrogenase as soil quality indicators: A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(6): 834-846.

Tully, K., Sullivan, C., Weil, R., Sanchez, P., 2015. The state of soil degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Baselines, trajectories, and solutions. Sustainability 7(6): 6523-6552.

van Huyssteen, I., Mulidzi, A.R., Meyer, A.H., Wooldridge, J., 2020. Alteration index three facilitates interpretation of ß-Glucosidase, acid-phosphatase and urease activities in soils irrigated with diluted winery wastewater. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 41(2): 238-244.

Vilar, R.P., Ikuma, K., 2021. Adsorption of urease as part of a complex protein mixture onto soil and its implications for enzymatic activity. Biochemical Engineering Journal 171: 108026.

Walkley, A., Black. I.A., 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chronic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Yin, R., Deng, H., Wang, H.L., Zhang, B., 2014. Vegetation type affects soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity following re-vegetation of a severely eroded red soil in sub-tropical China. Catena 115: 96-103.

Abstract

A zeolite pot experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij in Stellenbosch, South Africa, under greenhouse conditions. The experiment aimed to investigate the impact of zeolite application on soil enzyme activities in sandy soils cultivated with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris Var. cicla) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var. capitata L.) over two years (2018-2019). Different zeolite-to-soil ratios (0:1, 1:9, 2:8, and 3:7 w/w) were used, with each pot containing 12 kg of soil. The experiment involved 72 pots for each vegetable, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Soil enzyme activities, including acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and urease, as well as soil chemical properties (pH, total plant-available nitrogen, organic carbon, and phosphorus), were analyzed. Key findings indicate that the effect of zeolite application on enzyme activities varied between the vegetable species. Zeolite application significantly increased (P<0.05) soil pH across all treatments. However, higher zeolite levels decreased (P<0.05) soil phosphorus availability, likely due to phosphorus adsorption by zeolite. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with rising zeolite levels, possibly due to increased soil pH. Additionally, zeolite application reduced (P<0.05) soil organic carbon, which may explain some of the enzyme activity responses. Alteration Index Three (AI3) scores suggested improved soil biological activity with zeolite application, although responses varied between crops. Cabbage soils showed improvement in all treatments, while Swiss chard soils exhibited mixed responses. In conclusion, while zeolite application can enhance soil pH and nutrient retention, it may also reduce phosphorus availability and organic carbon. The enzyme activity responses observed are complex and crop-specific, highlighting the need for tailored soil management practices. Further research is recommended to explore the long-term impacts and optimal integration of zeolite with organic amendments for sustainable soil fertility management.

Keywords: Zeolite, organic carbon content, soil amendment, urease, phosphates, β-glucosidase.

References

Abdi, Gh., Khosh-Khui, M., Eshghi, S., 2006. Effects of natural zeolite on growth and flowering of strawberry (Fragariaxananassa Duch.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 1(4): 384-389.

Al, C., Sun, J.W., Wang, X.B., Liand, G.Q., He, P., Zhou, W., 2015. Advances in the study of the relationship between plant rhizodeposition and soil microorganism. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 21(5): 1343-1351. [in Chinese].

Albano, X., Whitmore, A.P., Sakrabani, R., Thomas, C.L., Sizmur, T., Ritz, K., Harris, J., Pawlett, M., Watts, C., Haefele, S.M., 2023. Effect of different organic amendments on actual and achievable yields in a cereal-based cropping system. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 23: 2122–2137.

Alkorta, I., Aizpurua, A., Riga, P., Albizu, I., Amézaga, I., Garbisu, C., 2003. Soil enzyme activities as biological indicators of soil health. Reviews on Environmental Health 18(1): 65-73.

Asadishad, B., Chahal, S., Akbari, A., Cianciarelli, V., Azodi, M., Ghoshal, S., Tufenkji, N., 2018. Amendment of agricultural soil with metal nanoparticles: effects on soil enzyme activity and microbial community composition. Environmental Science and Technology 52(4): 1908-1918.

Celestina, C., Hunt, J.R., Sale, P.W., Franks, A.E., 2019. Attribution of crop yield responses to application of organic amendments: A critical review. Soil and Tillage Research 186: 135-145.

de Almeida, R.F., Naves, E.R., da Mota, R.P., 2015. Soil quality: Enzymatic activity of soil β-glucosidase. Global Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews 3(2): 146-450.

de Campos Bernardi, A.C., Oliviera, P.P.A., de Melo Monte, M.B., Souza-Barros, F., 2013. Brazilian sedimentary zeolite use in agriculture. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 167: 16-21.

Dick, C.F., Dos-Santos, A.L.A., Meyer-Fernandes, J.R., 2011. Inorganic phosphate as an important regulator of phosphatases. Enzyme Research Article ID 103980.

Eivazi, F., Tabatabai, M.A., 1990. Factors affecting glucosidase and galactosidase activities in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22(7): 891-897.

Fujino, C., Wada, S., Konoike, T., Toyota, K., Suga, Y., Ikeda, J.I., 2008. Effect of different organic amendments on the resistance and resilience of the organic matter decomposing ability of soil and the role of aggregated soil structure. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 54(4): 534-542.

Furtak, K., Gałązka, A., 2019. Enzymatic activity as a popular parameter used to determine the quality of the soil environment. Polish Journal of Agronomy 37: 22-30.

Ghosh, A., Singh, A.B., Kumar, R.V., Manna, M.C., Bhattacharyya, R., Rahman, M.M., Sharma, P., Rajput, P.S., Misra, S., 2020. Soil enzymes and microbial elemental stoichiometry as bio-indicators of soil quality in diverse cropping systems and nutrient management practices of Indian Vertisols. Applied Soil Ecology 145: 103304.

Guangming, L., Xuechen, Z., Xiuping, W., Hongbo, S., Jingsong, Y., Xiangping, W., 2017. Soil enzymes as indicators of saline soil fertility under various soil amendments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 237: 274-279.

Hoult, E.H., McGarity, J.W., 1986. The measurement and distribution of urease activity in a pasture system. Plant and Soil 93: 359-366.

Howa, J.D., Lott, M.J., Ehleringer, J.R., 2014. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28(13): 1530-1534.

Icoz, I., Stotzky, G., 2008. Fate and effects of insect-resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40(3): 559-586.

Igalavithana, A.D., Farooq, M., Kim, K.H., Lee, Y.H., Qayyum, M.F., Al-Wabel, M.I., Lee, S.S., Ok, Y.S., 2017. Determining soil quality in urban agricultural regions by soil enzyme-based index. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 39: 1531-1544.

Kakar, K., Xuan, T.D., Noori, Z., Aryan, S., Gulab, G., 2020. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer application on growth, yield, and grain quality of rice. Agriculture 10(11): 544.

Kandeler, E., Gerber, H., 1988 Short-term assay of soil urease activity using colorimetric determination of ammonium. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6: 68-72.

Kanté, M., Riah-Anglet, W., Cliquet, J.B., Trinsoutrot-Gattin, I., 2021. Soil enzyme activity and stoichiometry: Linking soil microorganism resource requirement and legume carbon rhizodeposition. Agronomy 11(11): 2131.

Kaurin, A., Cernilogar, Z., Lestan, D., 2018. Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance. Chemosphere 193: 726-736.

Keller, T.C., Isabettini, S., Verboekend, D., Rodrigues, E.G., Pérez-Ramírez, J., 2014. Hierarchical high-silica zeolites as superior base catalysts. Chemical Science 5(2): 677-684.

Li, Y., Han, C., Sun, S., Zhao, C., 2021. Effects of tree species and soil enzyme activities on soil nutrients in dryland plantations. Forests 12(9): 1153.

Liu, Z., Rong, Q., Zhou, W., Liang, G., 2017. Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil.  PLOS ONE 12(3): e0172767.

Margalef, O., Sardans, J., Fernández-Martínez, M., Molowny-Horas, R., Janssens, I.A., Ciais, P., Goll, D., Richter, A., Obersteiner, M., Asensio, D. and Peñuelas, J., 2017. Global patterns of phosphatase activity in natural soils. Scientific Reports 7: 1337.

Mazorra, M.T., Rubio, J.A., Blasco, J., 2002. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the clam Scrobicularia plana: kinetic characteristics and effects of heavy metals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 131(2): 241-249.

Meena, A., Rao, K.S., 2021. Assessment of soil microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere zone under different land use/cover of a semiarid region, India. Ecological Processes 10: 16.

Meyer, A.H., Wooldridge, J., Dames, J.F., 2014. Relationship between soil alteration index three (AI3), soil organic matter and tree performance in a ‘Cripps Pink’/M7 apple orchard. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 31(3): 173-175.

Miśkowiec, P., Olech, Z., 2020. Searching for the correlation between the activity of urease and the content of nickel in the soil samples: The role of metal speciation. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 20: 1904-1911.

Munir, A., Nawaz, S., Bajwa, M.A., 2012. Farm manure improved soil fertility in mungbean-wheat cropping system and rectified the deleterious effects of brackish water. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences 49(4): 511–519.

Nannipieri, P., Giagnoni, L., Landi, L., Renella, G., 2011. Role of Phosphatase Enzymes in Soil. In: Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling. Soil Biology. Bünemann, E., Oberson, A., Frossard, E., (Eds.). Vol 26. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 215-243.

Non-Affiliated Soil Analysis Work Committee, 1990. Handbook of standard soil testing methods for advisory purposes. Soil Science Society of South Africa, Pretoria.

Nur Aainaa, H., Haruna Ahmed, O., Ab-Majid, N.M., 2018. Effects of clinoptilolite zeolite on phosphorus dynamics and yield of Zea Mays L. cultivated on an acid soil. PLOS ONE 13(9): e0204401.

Okalebo, J.R., Gathua, K.W., Woomer, P.L., 2002. Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis: A working manual. Second edition. Sacred African Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya.

Onyango, M.S., Kuchar, D., Kubota, M., Matsuda, H., 2007. Adsorptive removal of phosphate ions from aqueous solution using synthetic zeolite. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 46(3): 894-900.

Pabalan, R.T., Bertetti, F.P., 2001. Cation-exchange properties of natural zeolites. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 45(1): 453-518.

Ramesh, V., Jyothi, J.S., Shibli, S.M.A., 2015. Effect of zeolites on soil quality, plant growth and nutrient uptake efficiency in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Journal of Root Crops 41(1): 25-31.

Sindesi, O.A., Lewu, M.N., Ncube, B., Mulidzi, R., Lewu, F.B., 2021. Mineral Composition of Potted Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var, Capitata L.) grown in Zeolite amended sandy soil. Agriculture (Pol’nohospodárstvo) 67(3): 103-112.

Sindesi, O.A., Lewu, M.N., Ncube, B., Mulidzi, R., Lewu, F.B., 2023a. Residual effect of zeolite on soil exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity in sandy soil cultivated with Swiss Chard. 35th International Conference on "Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering" (ICCBEE-22), 28-29 November 2023. Johannesburg, South Africa. pp. 36-39.

Sindesi, O.A., Ncube, B., Lewu, M.N., Mulidzi, A.R., Lewu, F.B., 2023b. Cabbage and Swiss chard yield, irrigation requirement and soil chemical responses in zeolite-amended sandy soil. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2023(1): 202111387.

Tejada, M., Gonzalez, J.L., García-Martínez, A.M., Parrado, J., 2008. Effects of different green manures on soil biological properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technology 99(6): 1758-1767.

Tiwari, R., Dwivedi, B.S., Sharma, Y.M., Sharma, A., Dwivedi, A.K., 2019. Activities of β-glucosidase, phosphatase and dehydrogenase as soil quality indicators: A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(6): 834-846.

Tully, K., Sullivan, C., Weil, R., Sanchez, P., 2015. The state of soil degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Baselines, trajectories, and solutions. Sustainability 7(6): 6523-6552.

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