Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 3, Jun 2024, Pages 263-272
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1491206
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan

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Naushabayev,A., Seitkali,N., Karayeva,K., Mazkirat,S., Toilybayev,M., Vassilina,T., 2024. Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(3):263-272. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Naushabayev,A.Seitkali,N.,Karayeva,K.Mazkirat,S.Toilybayev,M.,& Vassilina,T. Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(3):263-272. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Naushabayev,A.Seitkali,N.,Karayeva,K.Mazkirat,S.Toilybayev,M., and ,Vassilina,T."Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.3 (2024):263-272. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Naushabayev,A.Seitkali,N.,Karayeva,K.Mazkirat,S.Toilybayev,M., and ,Vassilina,T. "Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jun 2024):263-272 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206
A,Naushabayev.N,Seitkali.K,Karayeva.S,Mazkirat.M,Toilybayev.T,Vassilina "Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.3, pp.263-272 (Jun 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Naushabayev,Askhat ;Seitkali,Nurzikhan ;Karayeva,Karlyga ;Mazkirat,Shynar ;Toilybayev,Meirambay ;Vassilina,Tursunay Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.3:263-272. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206

How to cite

Naushabayev, A., Seitkali, N., Karayeva, K., Mazkirat, S., Toilybayev, M., Vassilina, T., 2024. Effective strategies for reclaiming soda-saline soils: Field experimentation and practical applications in Southeast Kazakhstan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(3): 263-272. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1491206

Author information

Askhat Naushabayev , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Abay Avenue 8, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Nurzikhan Seitkali , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Abay Avenue 8, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Karlyga Karayeva , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Abay Avenue 8, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Shynar Mazkirat , Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing, Almaty District, Almalybak 040909, Kazakhstan
Meirambay Toilybayev , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Abay Avenue 8, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Tursunay Vassilina , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Abay Avenue 8, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Publication information

Article first published online : 03 Jun 2024
Manuscript Accepted : 23 May 2024
Manuscript Received: 07 Dec 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1491206
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1491206

Abstract

Soda-saline soils pose significant challenges to agricultural productivity, particularly in regions like the foothill plain of the Ili Alatau in southeast Kazakhstan. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of different ameliorants, including phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid, in reclaiming soda-saline soils and enhancing crop yields. The study was conducted under real climatic and production conditions at the "Amiran" LLP farm. Using a randomized complete block design, we assessed the impact of these ameliorants on soil composition and alfalfa yield over two cutting cycles. The experiment involved the application of phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid to designated plots within the farm, each covering an area of 15m2. Soil samples were collected before and after treatment to assess changes in soil composition and salinity. Alfalfa, a resilient perennial crop, was selected for cultivation due to its tolerance to adverse soil conditions. Our findings reveal that all tested ameliorants successfully neutralized the toxic environment of soda-saline soils, resulting in improved soil conditions and increased crop productivity. Phosphogypsum treatment led to a reduction in bicarbonate and carbonate ions, an increase in sulfate ion concentration, and improved soil structure. Elemental sulfur incubation decreased bicarbonate and carbonate ions, further reducing absorbed sodium levels and enhancing soil fertility. Sulfuric acid treatment provided rapid results in reducing alkalinity and increasing sulfate ion concentration, leading to significant improvements in soil quality and crop yield. However, the reclamation of soda-saline solonetzes presented challenges related to soil heterogeneity and poor water permeability. To address these challenges, we recommend the implementation of mechanical destruction of the solonetz soil horizon and deep soil loosening, accompanied by the addition of ameliorants. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the potential of phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid as effective ameliorants for reclaiming soda-saline soils and improving agricultural productivity in challenging environments. By adopting recommended reclamation strategies, farmers can overcome soil limitations and achieve sustainable crop production in regions affected by soda-saline soil degradation.

Keywords

Soil reclamation, soda-saline soils, elemental sülfür, phosphogypsum, sulfuric acid, agricultural productivity.

Corresponding author

References

Bazilevich, N.I., Pankova, E.I., 1969. Classification of soils according to their chemistry and degree of salinization. Agrokémia és talajtan 18 (sup). pp. 219-226. [in Russian].

Doula, M.K., Sarris, A., 2016. Soil environment. In: Environment and Development : Basic Principles, Human Activities, and Environmental Implications. Poulopoulos, S.G., Inglezakis, V.J. (Eds.). Elsevier, pp. 213-286.

FAO, 1984. Prognosis of salinity and alkalinity. FAO Soils Bulletins No. 31. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy, 260p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.fao.org/4/ar112e/ar112e.pdf

FAO, 2015. Status of the World’s Soil Resources: Main Report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS), Rome, Italy, 650p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://openknowledge.fao.org/server/api/core/bitstreams/6ec24d75-19bd-4f1f-b1c5-5becf50d0871/content

Funakawa, S., Suzuki, R., Karbozova, E., Kosaki, T., Ishida, N., 2000. Salt-affected soils under rice-based irrigation agriculture in Southern Kazakhstan. Geoderma 97(1-2): 61–85.

Hopmans, J. W., Qureshi, A. S., Kisekka, I., Munns, R., Grattan, S. R., Rengasamy, P., Ben-Gal, A., Assouline, S., Javaux, M., Minhas, P.S., Raats, P.A.C., Skaggs, T.H., Wang, G., De Jong van Lier, Q., Jiao, H., Lavado, R.S., Lazarovitch, N., Li, B., Taleisnik, E., 2021. Critical knowledge gaps and research priorities in global soil salinity. Advances in Agronomy 169: 1-191.

Ivushkin, K., Bartholomeus, H., Bregt, A. K., Pulatov, A., Kempen, B., de Sousa, L., 2019. Global mapping of soil salinity change. Remote Sensing of Environment 231: 111260.

Kussainova, M., Spaeth, K., Zhaparkulova, E., 2020. Efficiency of using the rangeland hydrology and erosion model for assessing the degradation of pastures and forage lands in Aydarly, Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 186 - 193.

Laiskhanov, S.U., Otarov, A., Savin, I.Y., Tanirbergenov, S.I., Mamutov, Z.U., Duisekov, S.N., Zhogolev, A., 2016. Dynamics of soil salinity in irrigation areas in South Kazakhstan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25(6): 2469–2476.

Liu, W., Ma, L., Smanov, Z., Samarkhanov, K., Abuduwaili, J., 2022. Clarifying soil texture and salinity using local spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Gi* and Moran’s I) in Kazakh–Uzbekistan Border Area, Central Asia. Agronomy 12: 332.

Ma, L., Abuduwaili, J., Smanov, Z., Ge, Y., Samarkhanov, K., Saparov, G., Issanova, G., 2019 Spatial and vertical variations and heavy metal enrichments in irrigated soils of the Syr Darya River watershed, Aral Sea Basin, Kazakhstan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(22):4398.

Negacz, K., Malek, Ž., de Vos, A., Vellinga, P., 2022. Saline soils worldwide: Identifying the most promising areas for saline agriculture. Journal of Arid Environments 203: 104775.

Otarov, A., 2014. Concentration of heavy metals in irrigated soils in Southern Kazakhstan. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 641–652.

Pachikin, K., Erokhina, O., Funakawa, S., 2014. Soils of Kazakhstan, their distribution and mapping. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 519–533.

Qadir, M., Schubert, S., 2002. Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degradation & Development 13(4): 275-294.

Saparov, A., 2014. Soil resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Current status, problems and solutions. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 61–73.

Sarybaeva, G.M., Naushabayev, А.K., 2021. Formation of Soda-Saline Semi-Hydromorphic Solonetz of The Ili Depression. Izdenister Natigeler 2(90): 192–204. [in Russian].

Schirawski, J., Perlin, M.H., 2018. Plant–microbe interaction 2017—the good, the bad and the diverse. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(5): 1374.

Shankar, V., Evelin, H., 2019. Strategies for reclamation of saline soils. In: Microorganisms in Saline Environments: Strategies and Functions. Giri, B., Varma, A. (Eds.). Soil Biology, vol 56. Springer, Cham. pp. 439-449.

Suska-Malawska, M., Sulwiński, M., Wilk, M., Otarov, A., Metrak, M., 2019. Potential eolian dust contribution to accumulation of selected heavy metals and rare earth elements in the aboveground biomass of Tamarix spp. from saline soils in Kazakhstan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191: 57.

Suska-Malawska, M., Vyrakhamanova, A., Ibraeva, M., Poshanov, M., Sulwiński, M., Toderich, K., Metrak, M., 2022. Spatial and in-depth distribution of soil salinity and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu) in arable irrigated soils in Southern Kazakhstan. Agronomy 12: 1207.

USDA, 2014. Soil Survey Field and Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 51, Version 2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service, Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory. 457p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2023-01/SSIR51.pdf

USDA, 2022. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 6.0. Part 1: Current Methods. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory, National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 796p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2022-10/SSIR42-v6-pt1.pdf

Volobuev, V.R., 1975. Calculation of washing saline soils. Kolos, Moscow.

Yertayeva, Z. , Kızılkaya, R., Kaldybayev, S., Seitkali, N., Abdraimova, N., Zhamangarayeva, A., 2019. Changes in biological soil quality indicators under saline soil condition after amelioration with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivation in meadow Solonchak. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8 (3): 189-195.

Zhang, W., Ma, L., Abuduwaili, J., Ge, Y., Issanova, G., Saparov, G., 2019. Hydrochemical characteristics and irrigation suitability of surface water in the Syr Darya River, Kazakhstan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191: 572.

Abstract

Soda-saline soils pose significant challenges to agricultural productivity, particularly in regions like the foothill plain of the Ili Alatau in southeast Kazakhstan. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of different ameliorants, including phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid, in reclaiming soda-saline soils and enhancing crop yields. The study was conducted under real climatic and production conditions at the "Amiran" LLP farm. Using a randomized complete block design, we assessed the impact of these ameliorants on soil composition and alfalfa yield over two cutting cycles. The experiment involved the application of phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid to designated plots within the farm, each covering an area of 15m2. Soil samples were collected before and after treatment to assess changes in soil composition and salinity. Alfalfa, a resilient perennial crop, was selected for cultivation due to its tolerance to adverse soil conditions. Our findings reveal that all tested ameliorants successfully neutralized the toxic environment of soda-saline soils, resulting in improved soil conditions and increased crop productivity. Phosphogypsum treatment led to a reduction in bicarbonate and carbonate ions, an increase in sulfate ion concentration, and improved soil structure. Elemental sulfur incubation decreased bicarbonate and carbonate ions, further reducing absorbed sodium levels and enhancing soil fertility. Sulfuric acid treatment provided rapid results in reducing alkalinity and increasing sulfate ion concentration, leading to significant improvements in soil quality and crop yield. However, the reclamation of soda-saline solonetzes presented challenges related to soil heterogeneity and poor water permeability. To address these challenges, we recommend the implementation of mechanical destruction of the solonetz soil horizon and deep soil loosening, accompanied by the addition of ameliorants. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the potential of phosphogypsum, elemental sulfur, and sulfuric acid as effective ameliorants for reclaiming soda-saline soils and improving agricultural productivity in challenging environments. By adopting recommended reclamation strategies, farmers can overcome soil limitations and achieve sustainable crop production in regions affected by soda-saline soil degradation.

Keywords: Soil reclamation, soda-saline soils, elemental sülfür, phosphogypsum, sulfuric acid, agricultural productivity.

References

Bazilevich, N.I., Pankova, E.I., 1969. Classification of soils according to their chemistry and degree of salinization. Agrokémia és talajtan 18 (sup). pp. 219-226. [in Russian].

Doula, M.K., Sarris, A., 2016. Soil environment. In: Environment and Development : Basic Principles, Human Activities, and Environmental Implications. Poulopoulos, S.G., Inglezakis, V.J. (Eds.). Elsevier, pp. 213-286.

FAO, 1984. Prognosis of salinity and alkalinity. FAO Soils Bulletins No. 31. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy, 260p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.fao.org/4/ar112e/ar112e.pdf

FAO, 2015. Status of the World’s Soil Resources: Main Report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS), Rome, Italy, 650p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://openknowledge.fao.org/server/api/core/bitstreams/6ec24d75-19bd-4f1f-b1c5-5becf50d0871/content

Funakawa, S., Suzuki, R., Karbozova, E., Kosaki, T., Ishida, N., 2000. Salt-affected soils under rice-based irrigation agriculture in Southern Kazakhstan. Geoderma 97(1-2): 61–85.

Hopmans, J. W., Qureshi, A. S., Kisekka, I., Munns, R., Grattan, S. R., Rengasamy, P., Ben-Gal, A., Assouline, S., Javaux, M., Minhas, P.S., Raats, P.A.C., Skaggs, T.H., Wang, G., De Jong van Lier, Q., Jiao, H., Lavado, R.S., Lazarovitch, N., Li, B., Taleisnik, E., 2021. Critical knowledge gaps and research priorities in global soil salinity. Advances in Agronomy 169: 1-191.

Ivushkin, K., Bartholomeus, H., Bregt, A. K., Pulatov, A., Kempen, B., de Sousa, L., 2019. Global mapping of soil salinity change. Remote Sensing of Environment 231: 111260.

Kussainova, M., Spaeth, K., Zhaparkulova, E., 2020. Efficiency of using the rangeland hydrology and erosion model for assessing the degradation of pastures and forage lands in Aydarly, Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 186 - 193.

Laiskhanov, S.U., Otarov, A., Savin, I.Y., Tanirbergenov, S.I., Mamutov, Z.U., Duisekov, S.N., Zhogolev, A., 2016. Dynamics of soil salinity in irrigation areas in South Kazakhstan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25(6): 2469–2476.

Liu, W., Ma, L., Smanov, Z., Samarkhanov, K., Abuduwaili, J., 2022. Clarifying soil texture and salinity using local spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Gi* and Moran’s I) in Kazakh–Uzbekistan Border Area, Central Asia. Agronomy 12: 332.

Ma, L., Abuduwaili, J., Smanov, Z., Ge, Y., Samarkhanov, K., Saparov, G., Issanova, G., 2019 Spatial and vertical variations and heavy metal enrichments in irrigated soils of the Syr Darya River watershed, Aral Sea Basin, Kazakhstan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(22):4398.

Negacz, K., Malek, Ž., de Vos, A., Vellinga, P., 2022. Saline soils worldwide: Identifying the most promising areas for saline agriculture. Journal of Arid Environments 203: 104775.

Otarov, A., 2014. Concentration of heavy metals in irrigated soils in Southern Kazakhstan. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 641–652.

Pachikin, K., Erokhina, O., Funakawa, S., 2014. Soils of Kazakhstan, their distribution and mapping. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 519–533.

Qadir, M., Schubert, S., 2002. Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degradation & Development 13(4): 275-294.

Saparov, A., 2014. Soil resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Current status, problems and solutions. In: Novel measurement and assessment tools for monitoring and management of land and water resources in agricultural landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G. (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. pp 61–73.

Sarybaeva, G.M., Naushabayev, А.K., 2021. Formation of Soda-Saline Semi-Hydromorphic Solonetz of The Ili Depression. Izdenister Natigeler 2(90): 192–204. [in Russian].

Schirawski, J., Perlin, M.H., 2018. Plant–microbe interaction 2017—the good, the bad and the diverse. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(5): 1374.

Shankar, V., Evelin, H., 2019. Strategies for reclamation of saline soils. In: Microorganisms in Saline Environments: Strategies and Functions. Giri, B., Varma, A. (Eds.). Soil Biology, vol 56. Springer, Cham. pp. 439-449.

Suska-Malawska, M., Sulwiński, M., Wilk, M., Otarov, A., Metrak, M., 2019. Potential eolian dust contribution to accumulation of selected heavy metals and rare earth elements in the aboveground biomass of Tamarix spp. from saline soils in Kazakhstan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191: 57.

Suska-Malawska, M., Vyrakhamanova, A., Ibraeva, M., Poshanov, M., Sulwiński, M., Toderich, K., Metrak, M., 2022. Spatial and in-depth distribution of soil salinity and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu) in arable irrigated soils in Southern Kazakhstan. Agronomy 12: 1207.

USDA, 2014. Soil Survey Field and Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 51, Version 2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service, Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory. 457p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2023-01/SSIR51.pdf

USDA, 2022. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 6.0. Part 1: Current Methods. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory, National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 796p. Available at [Access date: 07.12.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2022-10/SSIR42-v6-pt1.pdf

Volobuev, V.R., 1975. Calculation of washing saline soils. Kolos, Moscow.

Yertayeva, Z. , Kızılkaya, R., Kaldybayev, S., Seitkali, N., Abdraimova, N., Zhamangarayeva, A., 2019. Changes in biological soil quality indicators under saline soil condition after amelioration with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivation in meadow Solonchak. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8 (3): 189-195.

Zhang, W., Ma, L., Abuduwaili, J., Ge, Y., Issanova, G., Saparov, G., 2019. Hydrochemical characteristics and irrigation suitability of surface water in the Syr Darya River, Kazakhstan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191: 572.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science