Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 3, Jun 2024, Pages 234-246
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1476125
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance

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Ghosh,A., Nag,A., Acharyya ,S., Saha,S., Majumder,S., Chakraborty,S., Bhattacharya,M., 2024. Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(3):234-246. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Ghosh,A.Nag,A.Acharyya ,S.Saha,S.Majumder,S.Chakraborty,S.,& Bhattacharya,M. (2024). Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(3):234-246. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Ghosh,A.Nag,A.Acharyya ,S.Saha,S.Majumder,S.Chakraborty,S., and ,Bhattacharya,M. "Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.3 (2024):234-246. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Ghosh,A.Nag,A.Acharyya ,S.Saha,S.Majumder,S.Chakraborty,S., and ,Bhattacharya,M. "Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jun 2024):234-246 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125
A,Ghosh.A,Nag.S,Acharyya .S,Saha.S,Majumder.S,Chakraborty.M,Bhattacharya "Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.3, pp.234-246 (Jun 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Ghosh,Arindam ;Nag,Arnab ;Acharyya ,Sukanya ;Saha,Sumedha ;Majumder,Soumya ;Chakraborty,Sourav ;Bhattacharya,Malay Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.3:234-246. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125

How to cite

Ghosh, A., Nag, A., Acharyya , S., Saha, S., Majumder, S., Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2024. Tea plantation shade tree leaf influences the susceptibility of rhizosphere microbial consortium: A comprehensive study on their leaf extract cross tolerance. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(3): 234-246. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1476125

Author information

Arindam Ghosh , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Arnab Nag , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Sukanya Acharyya , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Sumedha Saha , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Soumya Majumder , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Sourav Chakraborty , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India
Malay Bhattacharya , Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. Rajarammohanpur, Siliguri, Darjeeling- 734013, India

Publication information

Article first published online : 30 Apr 2024
Manuscript Accepted : 26 Apr 2024
Manuscript Received: 02 Nov 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1476125
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1476125

Abstract

Leguminous shade trees are ubiquitous parts of tea plantations of the Terai region. However, their shed leaves might have an effect on the soil microflora under those shade trees, so it is important to find out how leaf litter affect the soil microflora. Isolation of soil microbial consortia followed by downstream experiments were conducted to observe the tolerance/susceptible pattern of those soil microflora against the fallen leaves. Sample from under Albizia odoratissima has higher organic carbon, organic matter and nitrogen content but the same property was found to be low in the sample collected under Melia azedarach. Isolation of consortia was done on nutrient agar. In vitro tolerance assay was conducted to find out the tolerance pattern against leaf extracts, heavy metal salts, pesticides, antibiotics and antifungals. Heavy metals salts like Arsenic trioxide (AS2O3) and Cupric chloride (CuCl2); and pesticides like Thiamethoxam; Spiromesifen; Phorate etc. showed no inhibition against all the isolated consortia. Co-Trimoxazole and Augmentin have not showed any inhibition except consortia under Derris robusta, whereas no antifungals but Itraconazole had an impact over all the consortia. Shade trees, being a crucial member of the tea plantations, cannot be removed but replacement of these with other species could be a probable option, besides this limited use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers should be taken into consideration strictly to restrain the microbial population in tea garden soil. So, this study has disclosed the acceptability of each and every shade tree used in this region.

Keywords

Shade tree, tea plantation, rhizosphere, soil microbes, tolerance.

Corresponding author

References

Acharyya, S., Saha, S., Majumder, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Characterization of a mercury tolerant strain of Staphylococcus arlettae from Darjeeling hills with an account of its antibiotic resistance pattern and metabolome. Archive in Microbiology 203: 5745-5754.

Adeyemi, M.A., Ekunseitan D.A., Abiola S.S., Dipeolu M.A., Egbeyale L.T., Sogunle, O.M., 2017. Phytochemical analysis and GC-MS determination of Lagenaria breviflora R. fruit.  International Journal of Pharmacognosy Phytochemical Research 9: 1045-1050.

Ajala, E.O., Ajala, M.A., Tijani, I.A., Adebisi, A.A., Suru, I., 2020. Kinetics modelling of acid hydrolysis of cassava (Manihot esculanta Cranz) peel and its hydrolysate chemical characterisation. Journal of King Saud University- Science 32: 2284-2292.

Akpuaka, A., Ekwenchi, M.M., Dashak, D.A., Dildar, A., 2013. Biological activities of characterized isolates of n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaves. Nature and Science. 11: 141-147.

Añides, J.A., Dapar, M.L.G., Aranas, A.T., Mindo, R.A.R., Manting, M.M.E., Torres, M.A.J., Demayo, C.G., 2019. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the white variety of ‘Sibujing’(Allium ampeloprasum). Pharmacophore 10: 1-12.

Arora, S., Kumar, G., 2017. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of bioactive constituents from the methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of Cenchrus setigerus Vahl (Poaceae). The Pharma Innovation Journal 6(11): 635-640.

Bihana, S., Dhiman, A., Singh, G., Satija, S., 2018. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive compounds in the whole plant parts of ethanolic extract of Asclepias Curassavica L. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 12(2): 107-114.

Burčová, Z., Kreps, F., Greifová, M., Jablonský, M., Ház, A., Schmidt, Š., Šurina, I., 2018. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of phytosterols and methyl dehydroabietate of Norway spruce bark extracts. Journal of Biotechnology 282: 18-24.

Elfadil, H., Fahal, A., Kloezen, W., Ahmed, E.M., van de Sande, W., 2015. The in vitro antifungal activity of Sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease 9: e0003488.

Freires, I.A., Denny, C., Benso, B., Alencar, S.M.D., Rosalen, P.L., 2015. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their isolated constituents against cariogenic bacteria: a systematic review. Molecules 20: 7329–7358.

Ghosh, A., Majumder, S., Saha, S., Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Leaves and barks of Albizia shade trees in tea plantation shows both insect attractant and pesticidal properties: a GC-MS based investigation. Asian Journal of Agriculture 5: 84-89.

Ghosh, A., Majumder, S., Sarkar, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2022. Insights into physicochemical assessment of shade tree litter biomass in tea plantations of Terai region. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research 9: 46-54.

Hameed, I.H., Hussein, H.J., Kareem, M.A., Hamad, N.S., 2015. Identification of five newly described bioactive chemical compounds in methanolic extract of Mentha viridis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 7: 107-125.

Hartmann, M.S., Mousavi, S., Bereswill, S., Heimesaat, M.M., 2020. Vitamin E as promising adjunct treatment option in the combat of infectious diseases caused by bacterial including multi-drug resistant pathogens–Results from a comprehensive literature survey. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 10: 193-201.

Islam, M.T., Ali, E.S., Uddin, S.J., Shaw, S., Islam, M.A., Ahmed, M.I., Shill, M.C., Karmakar, U.K., Yarla, N.S., Khan, I.N., Billah, M., Pieczynska M.D., Zengin, G., Malainer, C., Nicoletti, F., Gulei, D., Neagoe, L.B., Apostol, A., Banach, M., Yeung, A.W.K., Atanasov, A.G., 2018.  Phytol: A review of biomedical activities. Food and Chemical Toxicology 121: 82-94.

Malviya, M.K., Solanki, M.K., Li, C.N., Htun, R., Singh, R.K., Singh, P., Li, Y.R., 2021. Sugarcane microbiome: role in sustainable production. In: Microbiomes and Plant Health. Kumari, B., Solanki, M.K., Kashyap, P.L., Ansari, R.A.,  Academic Press, Elsevier pp. 225-242.

Mickymaray, S., Alturaiki, W., 2018. Antifungal efficacy of marine macroalgae against fungal isolates from bronchial asthmatic cases. Molecules 23: 3032.

Muflihunna, A., Mu’nisa, A., Hala, Y., 2021. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and antioxidant activity of sea-cucumber (Holothurian atra and Holothurian edulis) from Selayar Island. Journal of Physics Conference Series, IOP Publishing. 1752, 012057.

Mukherjee, M., Chakraborty, S., Sarkar, S., Saha, S., Majumder, S., Ghosh, A., Bhattacharya, M., 2020. Soil nutritional status of tea plantations in plains of sub–Himalayan West Bengal, India. Current Agricultural Research 8(3): 239-246.

Nambi, S.K., Raju, R., 2017. GC-MS analysis of n-Hexane Extract of Fruits of Trichopus zeylanicus ssp. travancoricus Burkill ex K. Narayanan. Pharmacognosy Journal 9: 99-102.

Octarya, Z., Novianty, R., Suraya, N., Saryono, S., 2021. Antimicrobial activity and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus 269 isolated from Sungai Pinang Hot Spring, Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 22: 75-85.

Pandey, A., Tripathi, A., Srivastava, P., Choudhary, K.K., Dikshit, A., 2019. Plant growth-promoting microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, In: Role of plant growth promoting microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nanotechnology. Kumar, A., Singh, A.K., Choudhary, K.K. (Eds.). Elsevier Science. Amsterdam, pp. 1-19.

Pelo, S.P., Adebo, O.A., Green, E., 2021. Chemotaxonomic profiling of fungal endophytes of Solanum mauritianum (alien weed) using gas chromatography high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRTOF-MS). Metabolomics 17: 1-13.

Premjanu, N., Jaynthy, C., 2014. Antimicrobial activity of diethyl phthalate: an in-silico approach. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 7: 141-142.

Rautela, I., Sharma, M.D., Sharma, N., Kishor, K., Singh, K., Sharma, N., 2017. Comparative GC-MS analysis of leaf and root extract of medicinal plant Withania somnifera. World of Journal Pharmaceutical Research 7: 956-972. 

Saha, S., Acharyya, S., Sarkar, S., & Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Study of tolerance ability in phosphate solubilising microorganisms isolated from tea plantations soil of lower Darjeeling hills. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 45: 109.

Saha, S., Chakraborty, S., Acharyya, S., Sahadeb, S., Маjumder, S., Ghosh, А., Bhattacharya, М., 2020. Phosphate solubilizing microorganism consortium of virgin Tiger hill forest soil shows high level tolerance to pesticide, antibiotic, antifungal and heavy metals. Ecobiotech 3: 578-588.

Saha, S., Ghosh, A., Acharyya, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2022. Metabolites of Albizia inhibit in vitro growth of phosphate solubilizing microbial consortia isolated from tea garden soil of Darjeeling hills, India. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 23: 2865-2870.

Sharma, A., Dutta, A.K., Bora, M.K., Dutta, P.P., 2019. Study of energy management in a tea processing industry in Assam, India. In: AIP Conference Proceedings: Current Trends in Renewable and Alternate Energy. 4–6 December 2018. Guwahati, India. 2091 (1): 020012.

Singh, R., Dar, S.A., Sharma, P., 2012. Antibacterial activity and toxicological evaluation of semi purified hexane extract of Urtica dioica leaves. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 6: 123-135.

Subavathy, P., Thilaga, R.D., 2016. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from whole body tissue methanolic extract of Cypraea arabica (L. 1758). World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 5: 800-806.

Sun, F., Xu, Z., Fan, L., 2021. Response of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes and related microorganisms to different heavy metals in activated sludge. Journal of Environmental Management 300: 113754.

Tyagi, S., Singh, R.K., Tiwari, S.P., 2021. Anti-enterococcal and anti-oxidative potential of a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. HNBGU 003. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(7): 4022-4028.

Vanitha, V., Vijayakumar, S., Nilavukkarasi, M., Punitha, V.N., Vidhya, E., Praseetha, P.K., 2020. Heneicosane—A novel microbicidal bioactive alkane identified from Plumbago zeylanica L. Industrial Crops and Products 154: 112748.

Abstract

Leguminous shade trees are ubiquitous parts of tea plantations of the Terai region. However, their shed leaves might have an effect on the soil microflora under those shade trees, so it is important to find out how leaf litter affect the soil microflora. Isolation of soil microbial consortia followed by downstream experiments were conducted to observe the tolerance/susceptible pattern of those soil microflora against the fallen leaves. Sample from under Albizia odoratissima has higher organic carbon, organic matter and nitrogen content but the same property was found to be low in the sample collected under Melia azedarach. Isolation of consortia was done on nutrient agar. In vitro tolerance assay was conducted to find out the tolerance pattern against leaf extracts, heavy metal salts, pesticides, antibiotics and antifungals. Heavy metals salts like Arsenic trioxide (AS2O3) and Cupric chloride (CuCl2); and pesticides like Thiamethoxam; Spiromesifen; Phorate etc. showed no inhibition against all the isolated consortia. Co-Trimoxazole and Augmentin have not showed any inhibition except consortia under Derris robusta, whereas no antifungals but Itraconazole had an impact over all the consortia. Shade trees, being a crucial member of the tea plantations, cannot be removed but replacement of these with other species could be a probable option, besides this limited use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers should be taken into consideration strictly to restrain the microbial population in tea garden soil. So, this study has disclosed the acceptability of each and every shade tree used in this region.

Keywords: Shade tree, tea plantation, rhizosphere, soil microbes, tolerance.

References

Acharyya, S., Saha, S., Majumder, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Characterization of a mercury tolerant strain of Staphylococcus arlettae from Darjeeling hills with an account of its antibiotic resistance pattern and metabolome. Archive in Microbiology 203: 5745-5754.

Adeyemi, M.A., Ekunseitan D.A., Abiola S.S., Dipeolu M.A., Egbeyale L.T., Sogunle, O.M., 2017. Phytochemical analysis and GC-MS determination of Lagenaria breviflora R. fruit.  International Journal of Pharmacognosy Phytochemical Research 9: 1045-1050.

Ajala, E.O., Ajala, M.A., Tijani, I.A., Adebisi, A.A., Suru, I., 2020. Kinetics modelling of acid hydrolysis of cassava (Manihot esculanta Cranz) peel and its hydrolysate chemical characterisation. Journal of King Saud University- Science 32: 2284-2292.

Akpuaka, A., Ekwenchi, M.M., Dashak, D.A., Dildar, A., 2013. Biological activities of characterized isolates of n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaves. Nature and Science. 11: 141-147.

Añides, J.A., Dapar, M.L.G., Aranas, A.T., Mindo, R.A.R., Manting, M.M.E., Torres, M.A.J., Demayo, C.G., 2019. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the white variety of ‘Sibujing’(Allium ampeloprasum). Pharmacophore 10: 1-12.

Arora, S., Kumar, G., 2017. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of bioactive constituents from the methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of Cenchrus setigerus Vahl (Poaceae). The Pharma Innovation Journal 6(11): 635-640.

Bihana, S., Dhiman, A., Singh, G., Satija, S., 2018. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive compounds in the whole plant parts of ethanolic extract of Asclepias Curassavica L. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 12(2): 107-114.

Burčová, Z., Kreps, F., Greifová, M., Jablonský, M., Ház, A., Schmidt, Š., Šurina, I., 2018. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of phytosterols and methyl dehydroabietate of Norway spruce bark extracts. Journal of Biotechnology 282: 18-24.

Elfadil, H., Fahal, A., Kloezen, W., Ahmed, E.M., van de Sande, W., 2015. The in vitro antifungal activity of Sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease 9: e0003488.

Freires, I.A., Denny, C., Benso, B., Alencar, S.M.D., Rosalen, P.L., 2015. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their isolated constituents against cariogenic bacteria: a systematic review. Molecules 20: 7329–7358.

Ghosh, A., Majumder, S., Saha, S., Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Leaves and barks of Albizia shade trees in tea plantation shows both insect attractant and pesticidal properties: a GC-MS based investigation. Asian Journal of Agriculture 5: 84-89.

Ghosh, A., Majumder, S., Sarkar, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2022. Insights into physicochemical assessment of shade tree litter biomass in tea plantations of Terai region. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research 9: 46-54.

Hameed, I.H., Hussein, H.J., Kareem, M.A., Hamad, N.S., 2015. Identification of five newly described bioactive chemical compounds in methanolic extract of Mentha viridis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 7: 107-125.

Hartmann, M.S., Mousavi, S., Bereswill, S., Heimesaat, M.M., 2020. Vitamin E as promising adjunct treatment option in the combat of infectious diseases caused by bacterial including multi-drug resistant pathogens–Results from a comprehensive literature survey. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 10: 193-201.

Islam, M.T., Ali, E.S., Uddin, S.J., Shaw, S., Islam, M.A., Ahmed, M.I., Shill, M.C., Karmakar, U.K., Yarla, N.S., Khan, I.N., Billah, M., Pieczynska M.D., Zengin, G., Malainer, C., Nicoletti, F., Gulei, D., Neagoe, L.B., Apostol, A., Banach, M., Yeung, A.W.K., Atanasov, A.G., 2018.  Phytol: A review of biomedical activities. Food and Chemical Toxicology 121: 82-94.

Malviya, M.K., Solanki, M.K., Li, C.N., Htun, R., Singh, R.K., Singh, P., Li, Y.R., 2021. Sugarcane microbiome: role in sustainable production. In: Microbiomes and Plant Health. Kumari, B., Solanki, M.K., Kashyap, P.L., Ansari, R.A.,  Academic Press, Elsevier pp. 225-242.

Mickymaray, S., Alturaiki, W., 2018. Antifungal efficacy of marine macroalgae against fungal isolates from bronchial asthmatic cases. Molecules 23: 3032.

Muflihunna, A., Mu’nisa, A., Hala, Y., 2021. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and antioxidant activity of sea-cucumber (Holothurian atra and Holothurian edulis) from Selayar Island. Journal of Physics Conference Series, IOP Publishing. 1752, 012057.

Mukherjee, M., Chakraborty, S., Sarkar, S., Saha, S., Majumder, S., Ghosh, A., Bhattacharya, M., 2020. Soil nutritional status of tea plantations in plains of sub–Himalayan West Bengal, India. Current Agricultural Research 8(3): 239-246.

Nambi, S.K., Raju, R., 2017. GC-MS analysis of n-Hexane Extract of Fruits of Trichopus zeylanicus ssp. travancoricus Burkill ex K. Narayanan. Pharmacognosy Journal 9: 99-102.

Octarya, Z., Novianty, R., Suraya, N., Saryono, S., 2021. Antimicrobial activity and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus 269 isolated from Sungai Pinang Hot Spring, Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 22: 75-85.

Pandey, A., Tripathi, A., Srivastava, P., Choudhary, K.K., Dikshit, A., 2019. Plant growth-promoting microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, In: Role of plant growth promoting microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and nanotechnology. Kumar, A., Singh, A.K., Choudhary, K.K. (Eds.). Elsevier Science. Amsterdam, pp. 1-19.

Pelo, S.P., Adebo, O.A., Green, E., 2021. Chemotaxonomic profiling of fungal endophytes of Solanum mauritianum (alien weed) using gas chromatography high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRTOF-MS). Metabolomics 17: 1-13.

Premjanu, N., Jaynthy, C., 2014. Antimicrobial activity of diethyl phthalate: an in-silico approach. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 7: 141-142.

Rautela, I., Sharma, M.D., Sharma, N., Kishor, K., Singh, K., Sharma, N., 2017. Comparative GC-MS analysis of leaf and root extract of medicinal plant Withania somnifera. World of Journal Pharmaceutical Research 7: 956-972. 

Saha, S., Acharyya, S., Sarkar, S., & Bhattacharya, M., 2021. Study of tolerance ability in phosphate solubilising microorganisms isolated from tea plantations soil of lower Darjeeling hills. Bulletin of the National Research Centre 45: 109.

Saha, S., Chakraborty, S., Acharyya, S., Sahadeb, S., Маjumder, S., Ghosh, А., Bhattacharya, М., 2020. Phosphate solubilizing microorganism consortium of virgin Tiger hill forest soil shows high level tolerance to pesticide, antibiotic, antifungal and heavy metals. Ecobiotech 3: 578-588.

Saha, S., Ghosh, A., Acharyya, S., Bhattacharya, M., 2022. Metabolites of Albizia inhibit in vitro growth of phosphate solubilizing microbial consortia isolated from tea garden soil of Darjeeling hills, India. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 23: 2865-2870.

Sharma, A., Dutta, A.K., Bora, M.K., Dutta, P.P., 2019. Study of energy management in a tea processing industry in Assam, India. In: AIP Conference Proceedings: Current Trends in Renewable and Alternate Energy. 4–6 December 2018. Guwahati, India. 2091 (1): 020012.

Singh, R., Dar, S.A., Sharma, P., 2012. Antibacterial activity and toxicological evaluation of semi purified hexane extract of Urtica dioica leaves. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 6: 123-135.

Subavathy, P., Thilaga, R.D., 2016. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from whole body tissue methanolic extract of Cypraea arabica (L. 1758). World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 5: 800-806.

Sun, F., Xu, Z., Fan, L., 2021. Response of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes and related microorganisms to different heavy metals in activated sludge. Journal of Environmental Management 300: 113754.

Tyagi, S., Singh, R.K., Tiwari, S.P., 2021. Anti-enterococcal and anti-oxidative potential of a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. HNBGU 003. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(7): 4022-4028.

Vanitha, V., Vijayakumar, S., Nilavukkarasi, M., Punitha, V.N., Vidhya, E., Praseetha, P.K., 2020. Heneicosane—A novel microbicidal bioactive alkane identified from Plumbago zeylanica L. Industrial Crops and Products 154: 112748.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science