Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 3, Jun 2024, Pages 224-233
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1472489
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone

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Sushkova,S., Dudnikova,T., Minkina,T., Barbashev,A., Antonenko,E., Shuvaev,E., Nemtseva,A., 2024. Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(3):224-233. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Sushkova,S.,Dudnikova,T.Minkina,T.Barbashev,A.Antonenko,E.Shuvaev,E.,& Nemtseva,A. Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(3):224-233. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Sushkova,S.,Dudnikova,T.Minkina,T.Barbashev,A.Antonenko,E.Shuvaev,E., and ,Nemtseva,A."Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.3 (2024):224-233. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Sushkova,S.,Dudnikova,T.Minkina,T.Barbashev,A.Antonenko,E.Shuvaev,E., and ,Nemtseva,A. "Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jun 2024):224-233 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489
S,Sushkova.T,Dudnikova.T,Minkina.A,Barbashev.E,Antonenko.E,Shuvaev.A,Nemtseva "Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.3, pp.224-233 (Jun 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Sushkova,Svetlana ;Dudnikova,Tamara ;Minkina,Tatiana ;Barbashev,Andrey ;Antonenko,Elena ;Shuvaev,Evgenyi ;Nemtseva,Anastasia Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.3:224-233. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489

How to cite

Sushkova, S., Dudnikova, T., Minkina, T., Barbashev, A., Antonenko, E., Shuvaev, E., Nemtseva, A., 2024. Investigating the possibility of using subcritical water for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils of the dry-steppe zone. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(3): 224-233. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1472489

Author information

Svetlana Sushkova , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Tamara Dudnikova , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Tatiana Minkina , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Andrey Barbashev , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Elena Antonenko , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Evgenyi Shuvaev , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia
Anastasia Nemtseva , Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russia

Publication information

Article first published online : 23 Apr 2024
Manuscript Accepted : 15 Apr 2024
Manuscript Received: 02 Sep 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1472489
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1472489

Abstract

In the course of the model experiment, extraction conditions of 16 priority PAHs in subcritical water medium were selected for soils of the chestnut-solonetz complex. For low molecular weight 2-ringed naphthalene and 3-ringed acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene and fluorene, the optimal extraction conditions correspond to 10 minutes at a temperature of 200°C. For high molecular weight 4- and 5-ring benz(a)anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz(b)fluoranthene, benz(k)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, as well as the pollutant of the first hazard class - benz(a)pyrene, the optimal extraction time reached 20 minutes at a temperature of 250°C. For 6-ring benz(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, the optimum extraction time increased to 30 minutes and the temperature to 300°C. When comparing the methods of extraction of pollutants from soils, it is shown that the extraction methods can be placed in the following descending order by the value of the extraction coefficient of priority PAHs from the studied types of soils: ultrasonic extraction (1.05) > subcritical extraction (1.13) > saponification method (1.25). Using multivariate analysis of dispersion it is shown that the efficiency of subcritical aqueous extraction decreases with increasing number of benzene rings in the PAH molecule, as well as with increasing soil salinity in the following order: Gleyic Kastanozems < Endosalic Kastanozems < Kastanozems Sodic < Solonets.

Keywords

Priority PAHs, subcritical technologies, organic pollutants, Kastanozems, Solonets, PAH extraction method.

Corresponding author

References

ATSDR, 1995. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/tsp/ToxProfiles/ToxProfiles.aspx?id=122&tid=25

Castro-Guijarro, P.A., Álvarez-Vázquez, E.R., Fernández-Espinosa, A.J., 2021. A rapid Soxhlet and mini-SPE method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 413: 2195-2206.

Chaplygin, V., Dudnikova, T., Chernikova, N., Fedorenko, A., Mandzhieva, S., Fedorenko, G., Sushkova, S., Nevidomskaya, D., Minkina, T., Sathishkumar, P., Rajput, V.D., 2022. Phragmites australis cav. As a bioindicator of hydromorphic soils pollution with heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 308: 136409.

Cheok, C.Y., Salman, H.A.K., Sulaiman, R., 2014. Extraction and quantification of saponins: A review. Food Research International 59: 16-40.

Dudnikova, T., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Barbashev, A., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Shuvaev, E., Nevidomskaya, D., Ivantsov, A., Bakoeva, G., Gorbunova, M., 2023. Background content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during monitoring of natural and anthropogenically transformed landscapes in the coastal area soils. Water 15(13): 2424.

Dudnikova, T., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Barbashev, A., Ferreira, C.S.S., Antonenko, E., Shuvaev, E., Bakoeva, G., 2023. Main factors in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulations in the long-term technogenic contaminated soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(3): 282-289.

Gbashi, S., Adebo, O.A., Piater, L., Madala, N.E., Njobeh, P.B., 2017. Subcritical water extraction of biological materials. Separation & Purification Reviews 46 (1): 21-34.

GN 2.1.7.2041-06, 2006; 2017. Resolution of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation dated 01/23/2006 No. 1 (ed. dated 06/26/2017) "On the introduction of hygienic standards GN 2.1.7.2041-06" (together with "GN 2.1.7.2041-06. 2.1.7. Soil, cleaning of populated areas, waste of production and consumption, sanitary protection of soil. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of chemicals in the soil. Hygienic standards", approved by Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on 19.01.2006) (Registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on 07.02.2006 N7470).

GOST 17.4.4.02-2017, 2019. Protection of Nature. Soils. Methods of sampling and preparation of samples for chemical, bacteriological, helminthological analysis. Moscow. Standartinform, Russia. 12p.

Guerin, T.F., 1999. The extraction of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues from a clay soil using sonication and a Soxhlet procedure: a comparative study. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 1 (1): 63-67.

IARC, 2020. List of classifications, volumes 1-123. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://monographs.iarc.fr/list-of-classifications-volumes/

IPA F 16.1:2.2:2.3:3.62-09, 2009. Quantitative chemical analysis of soils. Methodology for measuring the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, bottom sediments, sewage sludge and production and consumption waste by high–performance liquid chromatography. Standartiform, Moscow, Russia, 11p.

Islam, M.N., Jo, Y.T., Jung, S.K., Park, J.H., 2013. Thermodynamic and kinetic study for subcritical water extraction of PAHs. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 19 (1): 129-136.

Islam, M.N., Jo, Y.T., Park, J.H., 2012. Remediation of PAHs contaminated soil by extraction using subcritical water. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18(5): 1689-1693.

Kalinitchenko, V.P., Glinushkin, A.P., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Sushkova, S.N., Sukovatov, V.A., Il’ina, L.P., Makarenkov, D.A., Zavalin, A.A., Dudnikova, T.S., Barbashev, A.I., Bren, D.V., Rajput, P., Batukaev, A.A., 2022. Intra-soil waste recycling provides safety of environment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 44 (4): 1355-1376.

Khanjari, Y., Eikani, M.H., Rowshanzamir, S., 2016. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil using superheated water extraction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 111: 129-134.

Kim, D.S., Lim, S.B., 2020. Kinetic study of subcritical water extraction of flavonoids from citrus unshiu peel. Separation and Purification Technology 250: 117259.

Liang, X., Zhu, L., Zhuang, S., 2016. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to soils enhanced by heavy metals: perspective of molecular interactions. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16: 1509-1518.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Dutta, R., Das, P., 2020. A critical review on plant biomonitors for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air through solvent extraction techniques. Chemosphere 251: 126441.

Nowakowski, M., Rykowska, I., Wolski, R., Andrzejewski, P., 2022. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (O-PAHs, N-PAHs, OH-PAHs): Determination in suspended particulate matter (SPM)–A review. Environmental Processes 9:2.

Patel, L.A., Yoon, T.J., Currier, R.P., Maerzke, K.A., 2021. NaCl aggregation in water at elevated temperatures and pressures: Comparison of classical force fields. The Journal of Chemical Physics 154 (6): 064503.

Qu, Y., Gong, Y., Ma, J., Wei, H., Liu, Q., Liu, L., Wu, H., Yang, S., Chen, Y., 2020. Potential sources, influencing factors, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface soil of urban parks in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 260: 114016.

Silalahi, E.T.M.E., Anita,S., Teruna, H.Y., 2021. Comparison of extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil.  Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1819: 012061.

Soursou, V., Campo, J., Picó, Y., 2023. Revisiting the analytical determination of PAHs in environmental samples: An update on recent advances. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 37: e00195.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Chaplygin, V., Nevidomskaya, D., Rajput, V., Bauer, T., Mazarji, M., Bren, A.B., Popov, I., Mazanko, M., 2021. Subcritical water extraction of organic acids from chicken manure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 101(4): 1523-1529.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Tjurina, I., Bolotova, O., Vasilyeva, G., Orlović-Leko, P., Varduni, T., Kizilkaya, R., Akca, I., 2015. Solubility of benzo[a]pyrene and organic matter of soil in subcritical water. Croatica Chemica Acta 88(3): 247-253.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Gülser, C., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2020. PAHs accumulation in soil-plant system of Phragmites australis Cav. in soil under long-term chemical contamination. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (3): 242-253.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Rajput, V., Fedorenko, A., Antonenko, E., Dudnikova, T., Chernikova, N., Yadav, B.K., Batukaev, A., 2021. Soil PAHs contamination effect on the cellular and subcellular organelle changes of Phragmites australis Cav. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 43: 2407-2421.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tjurina, I.G., 2013. Elaboration and approbation of methods for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils for monitoring of the ecological state in technogenic landscapes. World Applied Sciences Journal 25(10): 1432-1437.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Kızılkaya, R., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni, T.V., 2016. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extractionfrom soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16: 1323-1329.

Sushkova, S.N., Vasilyeva, G.K., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tjurina, I.G., Kolesnikov, S.I., Kizilkaya, R., Askin, T., 2014. New method for benzo[a]pyrene analysis in plant material using subcritical water extraction. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 144: 267-272.

Taki, G., Islam, M.N., Park, S.J., Park, J.H. 2018. Optimization of operating parameters to remove and recover crude oil from contaminated soil using subcritical water extraction process. Environmental Engineering Research 23(2): 175-180.

Touba, H., Mansoori, G.A., 1998. Structure and property prediction of sub-and supercritical water. Fluid phase equilibria 150-151: 459-468.

Tsibart, A.S., Gennadiev, A.N., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review). Eurasian Soil Science 46(7): 728-741.

US EPA, 2007. SW-846 Test Method 3550C: Ultrasonic Extraction. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://www.epa.gov/hw-sw846/sw-846-test-method-3550c-ultrasonic-extraction

US EPA, 2020. IRIS Assessments. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris_drafts/AtoZ.cfm

Wu, L., Sun, R., Li, Y., Sun, C., 2019. Sample preparation and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 24: e00074.

Yabalak, E., Akay, S., Kayan, B., Gizir, A.M., Yang, Y., 2023. Solubility and decomposition of organic compounds in subcritical water. Molecules 28 (3): 1000.

Yabalak, E., Aminzai, M.T., Gizir, A.M., Yang, Y., 2024. A Review: Subcritical water extraction of organic pollutants from environmental matrices. Molecules 29 (1): 258.

Zhang, Q., Liu, P., Li, S., Zhang, X., Chen, M., 2020. Progress in the analytical research methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 43 (13-14): 425-444.

Zhu, M.H., Yin-Dong, L., Wang, L.T., Huang, Z.B., Yuan, P.Q. 2024. Selective extraction of aromatics from residual oil with subcritical water. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 202: 444-454.

Abstract

In the course of the model experiment, extraction conditions of 16 priority PAHs in subcritical water medium were selected for soils of the chestnut-solonetz complex. For low molecular weight 2-ringed naphthalene and 3-ringed acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene and fluorene, the optimal extraction conditions correspond to 10 minutes at a temperature of 200°C. For high molecular weight 4- and 5-ring benz(a)anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz(b)fluoranthene, benz(k)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, as well as the pollutant of the first hazard class - benz(a)pyrene, the optimal extraction time reached 20 minutes at a temperature of 250°C. For 6-ring benz(g,h,i)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, the optimum extraction time increased to 30 minutes and the temperature to 300°C. When comparing the methods of extraction of pollutants from soils, it is shown that the extraction methods can be placed in the following descending order by the value of the extraction coefficient of priority PAHs from the studied types of soils: ultrasonic extraction (1.05) > subcritical extraction (1.13) > saponification method (1.25). Using multivariate analysis of dispersion it is shown that the efficiency of subcritical aqueous extraction decreases with increasing number of benzene rings in the PAH molecule, as well as with increasing soil salinity in the following order: Gleyic Kastanozems < Endosalic Kastanozems < Kastanozems Sodic < Solonets.

Keywords: Priority PAHs, subcritical technologies, organic pollutants, Kastanozems, Solonets, PAH extraction method.

References

ATSDR, 1995. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/tsp/ToxProfiles/ToxProfiles.aspx?id=122&tid=25

Castro-Guijarro, P.A., Álvarez-Vázquez, E.R., Fernández-Espinosa, A.J., 2021. A rapid Soxhlet and mini-SPE method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 413: 2195-2206.

Chaplygin, V., Dudnikova, T., Chernikova, N., Fedorenko, A., Mandzhieva, S., Fedorenko, G., Sushkova, S., Nevidomskaya, D., Minkina, T., Sathishkumar, P., Rajput, V.D., 2022. Phragmites australis cav. As a bioindicator of hydromorphic soils pollution with heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 308: 136409.

Cheok, C.Y., Salman, H.A.K., Sulaiman, R., 2014. Extraction and quantification of saponins: A review. Food Research International 59: 16-40.

Dudnikova, T., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Barbashev, A., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Shuvaev, E., Nevidomskaya, D., Ivantsov, A., Bakoeva, G., Gorbunova, M., 2023. Background content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during monitoring of natural and anthropogenically transformed landscapes in the coastal area soils. Water 15(13): 2424.

Dudnikova, T., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Barbashev, A., Ferreira, C.S.S., Antonenko, E., Shuvaev, E., Bakoeva, G., 2023. Main factors in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulations in the long-term technogenic contaminated soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(3): 282-289.

Gbashi, S., Adebo, O.A., Piater, L., Madala, N.E., Njobeh, P.B., 2017. Subcritical water extraction of biological materials. Separation & Purification Reviews 46 (1): 21-34.

GN 2.1.7.2041-06, 2006; 2017. Resolution of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation dated 01/23/2006 No. 1 (ed. dated 06/26/2017) "On the introduction of hygienic standards GN 2.1.7.2041-06" (together with "GN 2.1.7.2041-06. 2.1.7. Soil, cleaning of populated areas, waste of production and consumption, sanitary protection of soil. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of chemicals in the soil. Hygienic standards", approved by Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on 19.01.2006) (Registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on 07.02.2006 N7470).

GOST 17.4.4.02-2017, 2019. Protection of Nature. Soils. Methods of sampling and preparation of samples for chemical, bacteriological, helminthological analysis. Moscow. Standartinform, Russia. 12p.

Guerin, T.F., 1999. The extraction of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues from a clay soil using sonication and a Soxhlet procedure: a comparative study. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 1 (1): 63-67.

IARC, 2020. List of classifications, volumes 1-123. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://monographs.iarc.fr/list-of-classifications-volumes/

IPA F 16.1:2.2:2.3:3.62-09, 2009. Quantitative chemical analysis of soils. Methodology for measuring the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, bottom sediments, sewage sludge and production and consumption waste by high–performance liquid chromatography. Standartiform, Moscow, Russia, 11p.

Islam, M.N., Jo, Y.T., Jung, S.K., Park, J.H., 2013. Thermodynamic and kinetic study for subcritical water extraction of PAHs. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 19 (1): 129-136.

Islam, M.N., Jo, Y.T., Park, J.H., 2012. Remediation of PAHs contaminated soil by extraction using subcritical water. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18(5): 1689-1693.

Kalinitchenko, V.P., Glinushkin, A.P., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Sushkova, S.N., Sukovatov, V.A., Il’ina, L.P., Makarenkov, D.A., Zavalin, A.A., Dudnikova, T.S., Barbashev, A.I., Bren, D.V., Rajput, P., Batukaev, A.A., 2022. Intra-soil waste recycling provides safety of environment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 44 (4): 1355-1376.

Khanjari, Y., Eikani, M.H., Rowshanzamir, S., 2016. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil using superheated water extraction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 111: 129-134.

Kim, D.S., Lim, S.B., 2020. Kinetic study of subcritical water extraction of flavonoids from citrus unshiu peel. Separation and Purification Technology 250: 117259.

Liang, X., Zhu, L., Zhuang, S., 2016. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to soils enhanced by heavy metals: perspective of molecular interactions. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16: 1509-1518.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Dutta, R., Das, P., 2020. A critical review on plant biomonitors for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air through solvent extraction techniques. Chemosphere 251: 126441.

Nowakowski, M., Rykowska, I., Wolski, R., Andrzejewski, P., 2022. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (O-PAHs, N-PAHs, OH-PAHs): Determination in suspended particulate matter (SPM)–A review. Environmental Processes 9:2.

Patel, L.A., Yoon, T.J., Currier, R.P., Maerzke, K.A., 2021. NaCl aggregation in water at elevated temperatures and pressures: Comparison of classical force fields. The Journal of Chemical Physics 154 (6): 064503.

Qu, Y., Gong, Y., Ma, J., Wei, H., Liu, Q., Liu, L., Wu, H., Yang, S., Chen, Y., 2020. Potential sources, influencing factors, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface soil of urban parks in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 260: 114016.

Silalahi, E.T.M.E., Anita,S., Teruna, H.Y., 2021. Comparison of extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil.  Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1819: 012061.

Soursou, V., Campo, J., Picó, Y., 2023. Revisiting the analytical determination of PAHs in environmental samples: An update on recent advances. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 37: e00195.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Chaplygin, V., Nevidomskaya, D., Rajput, V., Bauer, T., Mazarji, M., Bren, A.B., Popov, I., Mazanko, M., 2021. Subcritical water extraction of organic acids from chicken manure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 101(4): 1523-1529.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Tjurina, I., Bolotova, O., Vasilyeva, G., Orlović-Leko, P., Varduni, T., Kizilkaya, R., Akca, I., 2015. Solubility of benzo[a]pyrene and organic matter of soil in subcritical water. Croatica Chemica Acta 88(3): 247-253.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Antonenko, E., Konstantinova, E., Gülser, C., Dudnikova, T., Barbashev, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2020. PAHs accumulation in soil-plant system of Phragmites australis Cav. in soil under long-term chemical contamination. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9 (3): 242-253.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Tarigholizadeh, S., Rajput, V., Fedorenko, A., Antonenko, E., Dudnikova, T., Chernikova, N., Yadav, B.K., Batukaev, A., 2021. Soil PAHs contamination effect on the cellular and subcellular organelle changes of Phragmites australis Cav. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 43: 2407-2421.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tjurina, I.G., 2013. Elaboration and approbation of methods for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils for monitoring of the ecological state in technogenic landscapes. World Applied Sciences Journal 25(10): 1432-1437.

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Kızılkaya, R., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni, T.V., 2016. New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extractionfrom soils and its approbation in soil under technogenic pressure. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16: 1323-1329.

Sushkova, S.N., Vasilyeva, G.K., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tjurina, I.G., Kolesnikov, S.I., Kizilkaya, R., Askin, T., 2014. New method for benzo[a]pyrene analysis in plant material using subcritical water extraction. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 144: 267-272.

Taki, G., Islam, M.N., Park, S.J., Park, J.H. 2018. Optimization of operating parameters to remove and recover crude oil from contaminated soil using subcritical water extraction process. Environmental Engineering Research 23(2): 175-180.

Touba, H., Mansoori, G.A., 1998. Structure and property prediction of sub-and supercritical water. Fluid phase equilibria 150-151: 459-468.

Tsibart, A.S., Gennadiev, A.N., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review). Eurasian Soil Science 46(7): 728-741.

US EPA, 2007. SW-846 Test Method 3550C: Ultrasonic Extraction. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://www.epa.gov/hw-sw846/sw-846-test-method-3550c-ultrasonic-extraction

US EPA, 2020. IRIS Assessments. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA. Available at [Access date: 02.09.2023]: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris_drafts/AtoZ.cfm

Wu, L., Sun, R., Li, Y., Sun, C., 2019. Sample preparation and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry 24: e00074.

Yabalak, E., Akay, S., Kayan, B., Gizir, A.M., Yang, Y., 2023. Solubility and decomposition of organic compounds in subcritical water. Molecules 28 (3): 1000.

Yabalak, E., Aminzai, M.T., Gizir, A.M., Yang, Y., 2024. A Review: Subcritical water extraction of organic pollutants from environmental matrices. Molecules 29 (1): 258.

Zhang, Q., Liu, P., Li, S., Zhang, X., Chen, M., 2020. Progress in the analytical research methods of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 43 (13-14): 425-444.

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