Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 2, Mar 2024, Pages 145-152
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1424421
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures

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Babayeva,T., Guliyev,A., İslamzade,T., İslamzade,R., Haciyeva,X., Ashurova,N., Aliyeva,A., Maksudov,S., 2024. Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(2):145-152. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Babayeva,T.,Guliyev,A.İslamzade,T.İslamzade,R.Haciyeva,X.Ashurova,N.Aliyeva,A.,& Maksudov,S. Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(2):145-152. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Babayeva,T.,Guliyev,A.İslamzade,T.İslamzade,R.Haciyeva,X.Ashurova,N.Aliyeva,A., and ,Maksudov,S."Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.2 (2024):145-152. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Babayeva,T.,Guliyev,A.İslamzade,T.İslamzade,R.Haciyeva,X.Ashurova,N.Aliyeva,A., and ,Maksudov,S. "Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Mar 2024):145-152 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421
T,Babayeva.A,Guliyev.T,İslamzade.R,İslamzade.X,Haciyeva.N,Ashurova.A,Aliyeva.S,Maksudov "Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.2, pp.145-152 (Mar 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Babayeva,Tunzala ;Guliyev,Alovsat ;İslamzade,Tariverdi ;İslamzade,Rahila ;Haciyeva,Xayala ;Ashurova,Nergiz ;Aliyeva,Azade ;Maksudov,Shaban Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.2:145-152. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421

How to cite

Babayeva, T., Guliyev, A., İslamzade, T., İslamzade, R., Haciyeva, X., Ashurova, N., Aliyeva, A., Maksudov, S., 2024. Impacts of irrigation with Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan Reservoir, Azerbaijan on total cadmium and its fractions in soils with varied textures. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(2): 145-152. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1424421

Author information

Tunzala Babayeva , Sumgayit State University, Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
Alovsat Guliyev , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Tariverdi İslamzade , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Rahila İslamzade , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Xayala Haciyeva , Sumgayit State University, Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
Nergiz Ashurova , Sumgayit State University, Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
Azade Aliyeva , Sumgayit State University, Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
Shaban Maksudov , Vegetable Scientific Research Institute, Baku, Azerbaijan

Publication information

Article first published online : 23 Jan 2024
Manuscript Accepted : 15 Jan 2024
Manuscript Received: 11 Sep 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1424421
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1424421

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) presents a significant environmental threat due to its toxic nature and propensity to accumulate in various organs, posing serious health risks upon human exposure. This study focuses on the Sugovushan reservoir in Azerbaijan, aiming to comprehensively understand Cd behavior in soils subjected to varying water levels, shedding light on the intricate interplay between water quality and soil Cd content. Soil samples with distinct textures were collected from a agricultural area in Azerbaijan and subjected to an incubation experiment. The experiment, conducted at 20±0.5°C for 10 days, involved four water levels (%100, %75, %50, and %25 of field capacity) in a randomized complete block design. Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan reservoir was applied, and inorganic Cd fractions were determined after incubation. The sequential extraction method, as per Shuman's procedure, was employed to assess Cd distribution in exchangeable (EX-Cd), organic (OM-Cd), Mn oxide (MnO-Cd), amorphous Fe oxide (AFeO-Cd), and crystalline Fe oxide (CFeO-Cd) fractions. The soils exhibited varying textures (Sandy Clay Loam, Silty Loam, and Clay) with alkaline reactions, differing salinity, and low organic matter content. Despite somewhat elevated total Cd levels (1.75–2.66 mg/kg), the soils remained below the 3 mg/kg contamination threshold. Water from Sugovushan reservoir, though alkaline, contained Cd concentrations exceeding agricultural use limits. Incubation with Cd-contaminated water increased total Cd content in all soils, with SaCL exhibiting the highest susceptibility. Notably, the SaCL soil showed a significant increase in the exchangeable Cd fraction, emphasizing its environmental risk. This study underscores the importance of soil texture in influencing Cd mobility, especially in low-clay-content soils. The heightened susceptibility observed in SaCL soil highlights the potential threat to food safety, emphasizing the need for sustainable agricultural practices and water management.

Keywords

Cadmium fractions, soil contamination, water quality, environmental risk.

Corresponding author

References

Akbar, K.F., Hale, W.H.G., Headley, A.D., Athar, M., 2006. Heavy metal contamination of roadside soils of northern England. Soil and Water Research 1(4): 158-163.

Alloway, B.J., Jackson, A.P., 1991. The behaviour of heavy metals in sewage sludge-amended soils. Science of The Total Environment 100: 151–176.

Anju, M., Banerjee, D.K., 2011. Associations of cadmium, zinc, and lead in soils from a lead and zinc mining area as studied by single and sequential extractions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 176: 67–85.

Bigalke, M., Ulrich, A., Rehmus, A., Keller, A., 2017. Accumulation of cadmium and uranium in arable soils in Switzerland. Environmental Pollution 221: 85–93.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bower, C.A., Wilcox L.V., 1965. Soluble Salts. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 933-951.

Carrillo‐González, R., Šimůnek, J., Sauvé, S., Adriano, D., 2006. Mechanisms and pathways of trace element mobility in soils. Advances in Agronomy 91: 111–178.

Chaoua, S., Boussaa, S., El Gharmali, A., Boumezzough, A., 2019. Impact of irrigation with wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals in soil and crops in the region of Marrakech in Morocco. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(4): 429-436.

Chen, H.P., Tang, Z., Wang, P., Zhao, F.J., 2018. Geographical variations of cadmium and arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation in Chinese rice. Environmental Pollution 238: 482–490.

EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal L 327 , 22/12/2000 P. 0001 - 0073. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2000/60/oj

EC, 2006. Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration. Official Journal of the European Union, L 372/19. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2006/118/oj

EN 13656, 2002. Characterization of waste: microwave-assisted digestion with hydrofluoric (HF), nitric (HNO3), and hydrochloric (HCl) acid mixture for subsequent determination of elements. EN Standards. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: http://en-standards.standardsdirect.org/

FAO, 1985. Water Quality for Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: http://www.fao.org/3/T0234E/T0234E00.htm 

Hajeb, P., Sloth, J.J., Shakibazadeh, S., Mahyudin, N.A., Afsah-Hejri, L., 2014. Toxic elements in food: occurrence, binding, and reduction approaches. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 13(4): 457–472.

Holmgren, G.G.S., Meyer, M.W., Chaney, R.L., Daniels, R.B., 1993. Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Quality 22(2): 335–348.

İslamzade, T., Baxishov, D., Guliyev, A., Kızılkaya, R., İslamzade, R., Ay, A., Huseynova, S., Mammadova, M., 2024. Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 13(1): 70 - 78.

Joimel, S., Cortet, J., Jolivet, C.C., Saby, N.P.A., Chenot, E.D., Branchu, P., Consalès, J.N., Lefort, C., Morel, J.L., Schwartz, C., 2016. Physico-chemical characteristics of topsoil for contrasted forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France. Science of The Total Environment 545-564: 40–47.

Karak, T., Paul, R.K., Das, S., Das, D.K., Dutta, A.K., Boruah, R.K., 2015. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 713.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2002. Influence of cadmium fractions on microbiological properties in bafra plain soils. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 48(3): 263-272.

Kloke , A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten für tolerierbare Gesamtgehalte einiger Elemente in Kulturboden. Mitteilungen VDLUFA 1/III : 9 – 11 .

Klute, A., 1965. Water Capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 273-278.

Kumar, H., Srivastava, P., Lamba, J., Lena, B., Diamantopoulos, E., Ortiz, B., Takhellambam, B., Morata, G., Bondesan, L., 2023. A methodology to optimize site-specific field capacity and irrigation thresholds. Agricultural Water Management 286: 108385.

Lian, M., Ma, Y., Li, J., Sun, J., 2022. Influence of pH on the particulate-bound Cd speciation and uptake by plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 31(6): 5511-5517.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.     

Liu, Y.Z., Xiao, T.F., Perkins, R.B., Zhu, J.M., Zhu, Z.J., Xiong, Y., Ning, Z.P., 2017. Geogenic cadmium pollution and potential health risks, with emphasis on black shale. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 176: 42–49.

Nejad, Z.D., Rezania, S., Jung, M.C., Al-Ghamdi, A.A., Mustafa, A.E.M.A., Elshikh, M.S., 2021. Effects of fine fractions of soil organic, semi-organic, and inorganic amendments on the mitigation of heavy metal(loid)s leaching and bioavailability in a post-mining area. Chemosphere 271: 129538.

Nies, D.H., 1999. Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 51: 730–750.

Nies, D.H., 2003. Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27(2-3): 313–339.

Orosun, M.M., Nwabachili, S., Alshehri, R.F., Omeje, M., Alshdoukhi, I.F., Okoro, H.K., Ogunkunle, C.O., Louis, H., Abdulhamid, F.A., Osahon, S.E., Mohammed, A.U., Ehinlafa, E.O., Yunus, S.O., Ife-Adediran O., 2023. Potentially toxic metals in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables and their health risks using Monte Carlo models. Scientific Reports 13: 21220.

Page, A.L., Chang, A.C., El-Amamy, M., 1987. Cadmium levels in soils and crops in the United States. In: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment. Hutchinson, T.C., Meema, K.M. (Eds.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. New York, pp. 119–146.

Pan, J.L., Plant, J.A., Voulvoulis, N., Oates, C.J., Ihlenfeld, C., 2010. Cadmium levels in Europe: implications for human health. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 32: 1–12.

Peech, M., 1965. Hydrogen-Ion Activity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 914-926.

Peters, D.B., 1965. Water Availability. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 279-285.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Sebastian, A., Prasad, M.N.V., 2014. Cadmium minimization in rice. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34: 155–173.

Shahriar, S.M.S., Munshi, M., Zakir, H.M., Islam, M.J., Mollah, M.M.A., Salam, S.M.A., 2023. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Water of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Environmental and Earth Sciences Research Journal 10(3): 100-110.

Shuman, L.M., 1979. Zinc, manganese and copper in soil fractions. Soil Science 127(1): 10–17.

Shuman, L.M., 1983. Sodium hypochlorite methods for extracting microelements associated with soil organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47(4): 656 – 660.

Shuman, L.M., 1988. Effect of phosphorus level on extractable micronutrients and their distribution among soil fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(1): 136 – 141.

Tefera, M., Gebreyohannes, F., Saraswathi, M., 2018. Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(3): 251 - 256.

Thornton, I., 1986. Geochemistry of cadmium. In: Cadmium in the Environment. Mislin, H., Ravera, O. (Eds.). Experientia Supplementum, vol 50. Birkhäuser Basel. pp. 7–12.

UNEP, 2010. Final Review of Scientific Information on Cadmium. United Nations Environment Programme Chemicals Branch, DTIE, 201p. Available at [Access date : 11.09.2023]:

https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/27636/Cadmium_Review.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

US Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Department of Agriculture Handbook 60, Washington, DC.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

WHO, 2011. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Fourth Edition Incorporating The First Addendum. World Health Organization, Geneva. 541p. Available at [Access date : 11.09.2023]: https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/254637/9789241549950-eng.pdf?sequence=1

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) presents a significant environmental threat due to its toxic nature and propensity to accumulate in various organs, posing serious health risks upon human exposure. This study focuses on the Sugovushan reservoir in Azerbaijan, aiming to comprehensively understand Cd behavior in soils subjected to varying water levels, shedding light on the intricate interplay between water quality and soil Cd content. Soil samples with distinct textures were collected from a agricultural area in Azerbaijan and subjected to an incubation experiment. The experiment, conducted at 20±0.5°C for 10 days, involved four water levels (%100, %75, %50, and %25 of field capacity) in a randomized complete block design. Cd-contaminated water from Sugovushan reservoir was applied, and inorganic Cd fractions were determined after incubation. The sequential extraction method, as per Shuman's procedure, was employed to assess Cd distribution in exchangeable (EX-Cd), organic (OM-Cd), Mn oxide (MnO-Cd), amorphous Fe oxide (AFeO-Cd), and crystalline Fe oxide (CFeO-Cd) fractions. The soils exhibited varying textures (Sandy Clay Loam, Silty Loam, and Clay) with alkaline reactions, differing salinity, and low organic matter content. Despite somewhat elevated total Cd levels (1.75–2.66 mg/kg), the soils remained below the 3 mg/kg contamination threshold. Water from Sugovushan reservoir, though alkaline, contained Cd concentrations exceeding agricultural use limits. Incubation with Cd-contaminated water increased total Cd content in all soils, with SaCL exhibiting the highest susceptibility. Notably, the SaCL soil showed a significant increase in the exchangeable Cd fraction, emphasizing its environmental risk. This study underscores the importance of soil texture in influencing Cd mobility, especially in low-clay-content soils. The heightened susceptibility observed in SaCL soil highlights the potential threat to food safety, emphasizing the need for sustainable agricultural practices and water management.

Keywords: Cadmium fractions, soil contamination, water quality, environmental risk.

References

Akbar, K.F., Hale, W.H.G., Headley, A.D., Athar, M., 2006. Heavy metal contamination of roadside soils of northern England. Soil and Water Research 1(4): 158-163.

Alloway, B.J., Jackson, A.P., 1991. The behaviour of heavy metals in sewage sludge-amended soils. Science of The Total Environment 100: 151–176.

Anju, M., Banerjee, D.K., 2011. Associations of cadmium, zinc, and lead in soils from a lead and zinc mining area as studied by single and sequential extractions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 176: 67–85.

Bigalke, M., Ulrich, A., Rehmus, A., Keller, A., 2017. Accumulation of cadmium and uranium in arable soils in Switzerland. Environmental Pollution 221: 85–93.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bower, C.A., Wilcox L.V., 1965. Soluble Salts. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.). Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 933-951.

Carrillo‐González, R., Šimůnek, J., Sauvé, S., Adriano, D., 2006. Mechanisms and pathways of trace element mobility in soils. Advances in Agronomy 91: 111–178.

Chaoua, S., Boussaa, S., El Gharmali, A., Boumezzough, A., 2019. Impact of irrigation with wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals in soil and crops in the region of Marrakech in Morocco. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(4): 429-436.

Chen, H.P., Tang, Z., Wang, P., Zhao, F.J., 2018. Geographical variations of cadmium and arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation in Chinese rice. Environmental Pollution 238: 482–490.

EC, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the european parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal L 327 , 22/12/2000 P. 0001 - 0073. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2000/60/oj

EC, 2006. Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration. Official Journal of the European Union, L 372/19. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2006/118/oj

EN 13656, 2002. Characterization of waste: microwave-assisted digestion with hydrofluoric (HF), nitric (HNO3), and hydrochloric (HCl) acid mixture for subsequent determination of elements. EN Standards. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: http://en-standards.standardsdirect.org/

FAO, 1985. Water Quality for Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Available at  [Access date : 11.09.2023]: http://www.fao.org/3/T0234E/T0234E00.htm 

Hajeb, P., Sloth, J.J., Shakibazadeh, S., Mahyudin, N.A., Afsah-Hejri, L., 2014. Toxic elements in food: occurrence, binding, and reduction approaches. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 13(4): 457–472.

Holmgren, G.G.S., Meyer, M.W., Chaney, R.L., Daniels, R.B., 1993. Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Quality 22(2): 335–348.

İslamzade, T., Baxishov, D., Guliyev, A., Kızılkaya, R., İslamzade, R., Ay, A., Huseynova, S., Mammadova, M., 2024. Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 13(1): 70 - 78.

Joimel, S., Cortet, J., Jolivet, C.C., Saby, N.P.A., Chenot, E.D., Branchu, P., Consalès, J.N., Lefort, C., Morel, J.L., Schwartz, C., 2016. Physico-chemical characteristics of topsoil for contrasted forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France. Science of The Total Environment 545-564: 40–47.

Karak, T., Paul, R.K., Das, S., Das, D.K., Dutta, A.K., Boruah, R.K., 2015. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 713.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2002. Influence of cadmium fractions on microbiological properties in bafra plain soils. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 48(3): 263-272.

Kloke , A., 1980. Orientierungsdaten für tolerierbare Gesamtgehalte einiger Elemente in Kulturboden. Mitteilungen VDLUFA 1/III : 9 – 11 .

Klute, A., 1965. Water Capacity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 273-278.

Kumar, H., Srivastava, P., Lamba, J., Lena, B., Diamantopoulos, E., Ortiz, B., Takhellambam, B., Morata, G., Bondesan, L., 2023. A methodology to optimize site-specific field capacity and irrigation thresholds. Agricultural Water Management 286: 108385.

Lian, M., Ma, Y., Li, J., Sun, J., 2022. Influence of pH on the particulate-bound Cd speciation and uptake by plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 31(6): 5511-5517.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.     

Liu, Y.Z., Xiao, T.F., Perkins, R.B., Zhu, J.M., Zhu, Z.J., Xiong, Y., Ning, Z.P., 2017. Geogenic cadmium pollution and potential health risks, with emphasis on black shale. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 176: 42–49.

Nejad, Z.D., Rezania, S., Jung, M.C., Al-Ghamdi, A.A., Mustafa, A.E.M.A., Elshikh, M.S., 2021. Effects of fine fractions of soil organic, semi-organic, and inorganic amendments on the mitigation of heavy metal(loid)s leaching and bioavailability in a post-mining area. Chemosphere 271: 129538.

Nies, D.H., 1999. Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 51: 730–750.

Nies, D.H., 2003. Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 27(2-3): 313–339.

Orosun, M.M., Nwabachili, S., Alshehri, R.F., Omeje, M., Alshdoukhi, I.F., Okoro, H.K., Ogunkunle, C.O., Louis, H., Abdulhamid, F.A., Osahon, S.E., Mohammed, A.U., Ehinlafa, E.O., Yunus, S.O., Ife-Adediran O., 2023. Potentially toxic metals in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables and their health risks using Monte Carlo models. Scientific Reports 13: 21220.

Page, A.L., Chang, A.C., El-Amamy, M., 1987. Cadmium levels in soils and crops in the United States. In: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment. Hutchinson, T.C., Meema, K.M. (Eds.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. New York, pp. 119–146.

Pan, J.L., Plant, J.A., Voulvoulis, N., Oates, C.J., Ihlenfeld, C., 2010. Cadmium levels in Europe: implications for human health. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 32: 1–12.

Peech, M., 1965. Hydrogen-Ion Activity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 914-926.

Peters, D.B., 1965. Water Availability. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 279-285.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Sebastian, A., Prasad, M.N.V., 2014. Cadmium minimization in rice. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34: 155–173.

Shahriar, S.M.S., Munshi, M., Zakir, H.M., Islam, M.J., Mollah, M.M.A., Salam, S.M.A., 2023. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Water of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Environmental and Earth Sciences Research Journal 10(3): 100-110.

Shuman, L.M., 1979. Zinc, manganese and copper in soil fractions. Soil Science 127(1): 10–17.

Shuman, L.M., 1983. Sodium hypochlorite methods for extracting microelements associated with soil organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47(4): 656 – 660.

Shuman, L.M., 1988. Effect of phosphorus level on extractable micronutrients and their distribution among soil fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52(1): 136 – 141.

Tefera, M., Gebreyohannes, F., Saraswathi, M., 2018. Heavy metal analysis in the soils of in and around Robe town, Bale zone, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 7(3): 251 - 256.

Thornton, I., 1986. Geochemistry of cadmium. In: Cadmium in the Environment. Mislin, H., Ravera, O. (Eds.). Experientia Supplementum, vol 50. Birkhäuser Basel. pp. 7–12.

UNEP, 2010. Final Review of Scientific Information on Cadmium. United Nations Environment Programme Chemicals Branch, DTIE, 201p. Available at [Access date : 11.09.2023]:

https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/27636/Cadmium_Review.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

US Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Department of Agriculture Handbook 60, Washington, DC.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

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Eurasian Journal of Soil Science