Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 2, Mar 2024, Pages 125-132
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1408067
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif

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Doszhanova,A., Ospanbayev,Z., Sembayeva,A., Kassipkhan,A., Nazarova,A., Bekbauov,M., Kazkeyev,D., 2024. Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(2):125-132. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Doszhanova,A.,Ospanbayev,Z.Sembayeva,A.Kassipkhan,A.Nazarova,A.Bekbauov,M.,& Kazkeyev,D. Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(2):125-132. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Doszhanova,A.,Ospanbayev,Z.Sembayeva,A.Kassipkhan,A.Nazarova,A.Bekbauov,M., and ,Kazkeyev,D."Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.2 (2024):125-132. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Doszhanova,A.,Ospanbayev,Z.Sembayeva,A.Kassipkhan,A.Nazarova,A.Bekbauov,M., and ,Kazkeyev,D. "Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Mar 2024):125-132 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067
A,Doszhanova.Z,Ospanbayev.A,Sembayeva.A,Kassipkhan.A,Nazarova.M,Bekbauov.D,Kazkeyev "Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.2, pp.125-132 (Mar 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Doszhanova,Ainur ;Ospanbayev,Zhumagali ;Sembayeva,Aizada ;Kassipkhan,Akgul ;Nazarova,Aiman ;Bekbauov,Mukhit ;Kazkeyev,Dauren Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.2:125-132. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067

How to cite

Doszhanova, A., Ospanbayev, Z., Sembayeva, A., Kassipkhan, A., Nazarova, A., Bekbauov, M., Kazkeyev, D., 2024. Unveiling the soil physicochemical dynamics of bare soils in Southeast Kazakhstan: A comprehensive study in the Akdala Massif. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(2): 125-132. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1408067

Author information

Ainur Doszhanova , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Zhumagali Ospanbayev , Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing, Almalybak, Kazakhstan
Aizada Sembayeva , Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Plant Growing, Almalybak, Kazakhstan
Akgul Kassipkhan , S.Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical Research University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Aiman Nazarova , S.Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical Research University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Mukhit Bekbauov , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Dauren Kazkeyev , Kazakh National Agrarian Research University, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Publication information

Article first published online : 21 Dec 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 16 Dec 2023
Manuscript Received: 18 Jun 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1408067
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1408067

Abstract

This study addresses desertification in Kazakhstan's Akdala region, aiming to propose sustainable solutions by examining the effects of various plants on soil properties and nutrient dynamics. Desertification poses a threat to land productivity in arid areas, and this research aims to determine its impact on soil and identify plants for mitigation. Field experiments over three years in the Akdala region utilized crops such as rice, corn, soybean, sudan grass, and sorghum to assess their influence on key soil parameters. Results revealed diverse effects on soil bulk density, agronomically valuable aggregates, water-stable aggregates, labile and total organic carbon, easily hydrolyzable nitrogen, nitrate, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium. While no significant differences in bulk density were observed among crops, variations in surface and subsurface soil layers emphasized the importance of depth-specific considerations. Sorghum stood out as a particularly influential crop, significantly increasing labile and total organic carbon levels, highlighting its potential role in enhancing soil quality. The experiments were conducted on the fields of "Birlik" LLP in the Balkhash district of the Almaty region from 2015 to 2017. The chosen crops, each with distinct characteristics, provided a comprehensive understanding of their impact on soil dynamics. Advanced techniques for soil sampling and analyses ensured accurate measurements of various soil parameters. The study site's sharply continental climate, marked by temperature variations, snowy winters, and hot, dry summers, added complexity to the investigation due to its influence on plant growth and soil interactions. In conclusion, this comprehensive study offers valuable insights into the intricate relationships between different crops and soil parameters for combating desertification. The findings contribute significantly to the development of sustainable soil management practices, providing a foundation for identifying suitable crops for soil improvement in arid regions. By understanding how different plants impact soil properties, this research supports informed decision-making in agricultural practices, promoting the long-term sustainability of farming in regions vulnerable to desertification.

Keywords

Desertification, Soil Management, Arid Regions, Phytomelioration, Sustainable Agriculture.

Corresponding author

References

Abbott, L.K., Manning, D.A.C., 2015. Soil health and related ecosystem services in organic agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture Research 4(3): 116-125.

Anjos, J.T., Rowell, D.L., 1987. The effect of lime on phosphorus adsorption and barley growth in three acid soils. Plant and Soil 103: 75–82.

Assanova, M.A., 2015. Public policy and model of sustainable development in the republic of Kazakhstan. Asian Social Science 11(6): 237–243.

Bektayev, N., Mansurova, K., Kaldybayev, S., Pachikin, K., Еrzhanova, K., Absatova, B., 2023. Comprehensive assessment and information database on saline and waterlogged soils in Kazakhstan: Insights from Remote Sensing Technology. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 290 - 299.

Binner, I., Dultz, S., Schellhorn, M., Schenk, M.K., 2017. Potassium adsorption and release properties of clays in peat-based horticultural substrates for increasing the cultivation safety of plants. Applied Clay Science 145: 28-36.

Blake,  G.R., Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk Density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, WI, Madison, USA. pp.363-375.

Ćirić, V., Manojlović, M., Nešić, L., Belić, M., 2012. Soil dry aggregate size distribution: effects of soil type and land use. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12 (4): 689-703.

Duan, A., Lei, J., Hu, X., Zhang, J., Du, H., Zhang, X., Guo, W., Sun, J., 2019. Effects of planting density on soil bulk density, ph and nutrients of unthinned Chinese Fir mature stands in south subtropical Region of China. Forests 10(4): 351.

Dumale, J.W.A., Miyazaki, T., Nishimura, T., Seki, K., 2009. CO2 evolution and short-term carbon turnover in stable soil organic carbon from soils applied with fresh organic matter. Geophysical Researh Letters 36(1): 1-6.

Eslamian, F., Qi, Z., Qian, C., 2021. Lime amendments to enhance soil phosphorus adsorption capacity and to reduce phosphate desorption. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232: 66.

Geist, H.J., Lambin, E.F., 2004. Dynamic causal patterns of desertification. Bioscience 54(9): 817–829.

GOST 26205-91. Soils. Determination of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium by Machigin method modified by CINAO. Available at [Access date: 11.11.2021]: https://gostperevod.com/gost-26205-91.html

GOST 26213-2021. Soils. Methods for determination of organic matter. Available at [Access date: 11.11.2021]: https://gostperevod.com/gost-26213-2021.html

Hu, Y., Han, Y., Zhang, Y., 2020. Land desertification and its influencing factors in Kazakhstan. Journal of Arid Environments 180: 104203.

Jiang, L., Bao, A., Jiapaer, G., Guo, H., Zheng, G., Gafforov, K., Kurban, A., De Maeyer, P., 2019. Monitoring land sensitivity to desertification in Central Asia: convergence or divergence? Science of The Total Environment 658: 669–683.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kemper,  W.D. Rosenau, R.C., 1986. Aggregate Stability and Size Distribution. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, WI, Madison, USA. pp.425-442.

Kersebaum, K., Lorenz, K., Reuter, H., Schwarz, J., Wegehenkel, M., Wendroth, O., 2005. Operational use of agro-meteorological data and GIS to derive site specific nitrogen fertilizer recommendations based on the simulation of soil and crop growth processes. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 30(1-3): 59-67.

Kussainova, M., Spaeth, K., Zhaparkulova, E., 2020. Efficiency of using the rangeland hydrology and erosion model for assessing the degradation of pastures and forage lands in Aydarly, Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 186 - 193.

Kvan, R.A., Kalashnikov, A.A., Paramonov, A.I., Kaldarova, S.M., 2011. Water resources and prospects for their use in irrigation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Vodnoe hozyajstvo Kazahstana 3: 15-17. [in Russian]

Makovníková, J., Širáň M., Houšková B., Pálka B., Jones, A., 2017. Comparison of different models for predicting soil bulk density. Case study - Slovakian agricultural soils. International Agrophysics 31(4): 491–498.

Malhi, S., Gill, K., Harapiak, J., Nyborg, M., Gregorich, E., Monreal, C., 2003. Light fraction organic N, ammonium, nitrate and total N in a thin black Chernozemic soil under bromegrass after 27 annual applications of different N rates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 65: 201-210.

Medvedev, V.V., Cybulko, W.G., 1995. Soil criteria for assessing the maximum permissible ground pressure of agricultural vehicles on Chernozem soils. Soil and Tillage Research 36(3-4): 153–164.

Meisinger, J., 1984. Evaluating plant-available nitrogen in soil–crop systems. In: Nitrogen in Crop Production. Hauck, R.D. (Ed.). American Sciety of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 391-416

Papadopoulos, A., 2011. Soil Aggregates, Structure, and Stability. In: Encyclopedia of Agrophysics. Gliński, J., Horabik, J., Lipiec, J. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 736–740.

Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51(5): 1173–1179.

Reynolds, J.F., Smith, D.M.S., Lambin, E.F., TurnerII, B.L., Mortimore, M., Batterbury, S.P.J., Downing, T.E., Dowlatabadi, H., Fernández, R.J., Herrick, J.E., Huber-Sannwald, E., Jiang, H., Leemans, R., Lynam, T., Maestre, F.T., Ayarza, M., Walker,B., 2007. Global desertification: building a science for dryland development. Science 316 (5826), 847–851.

Roberts, T., Ross, W., Norman, R., Slaton, N., Wilson, C., 2011. Predicting nitrogen fertilizer needs for rice in Arkansas using alkaline-hydrolyzable-nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75 (3): 1161-1171.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Shein, Y.V., Arhangel’skaya, T.A., Goncharov, V.M., Guber, A.K.,Pochatkova, T.N., Sidorova, M.A., Smagin, A.V., Umarova, A.B. 2001. Field and laboratory methods of physical properties and soil status investigations. The University of Moscow, Russia, 199 p. [in Russian].

Stirzaker, R.J., Passioura, J.B., Wilms, Y., 1996. Soil structure and plant growth: Impact of bulk density and biopores. Plant and Soil 185: 151-162.

Sui, Y.Y., Jiao, X.G., Liu, X.B., Zhang, X.Y., Ding, G.W., 2012. Water-stable aggregates and their organic carbon distribution after five years of chemical fertilizer and manure treatments on eroded farmland of Chinese Mollisols. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92(3): 551–557.

Tian, H., Lu, C., Yang, J., Banger, K., Huntzinger, D.N., Schwalm, C.R., Michalak, A.M., Cook, R., Ciais, P., Hayes, D., Huang, M.Y., Lto, A., Jain, A.K., Lei, H., Mao, J.F., Pan, S.F., Post, W.M., Peng, S.S., Poulter, B., Ren, W., Ricciuto, D., Schaefer, K., Shi, X.Y., Tao, B., Wang, W., Wei, Y.X., Yang, Q.C., Zhang, B.W., Zheng, N., 2015. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: current status and future directions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29(6): 775-792.

Tisdall, J.M., Oades, J.M., 1982. Organic matter and water-stable aggregate in soil European Journal of Soil Science 33(2): 141 -163.

Tyurin, I. V., 1965. Organic matter of soil and its role in fertility. Nauka, Moscow. 320p

Verón, S.R., Paruelo, J.M., Oesterheld, M., 2006. Assessing desertification. Journal of Arid Environments 66(4): 751–763.

Wang, X.Y., Yu, D.S., Xu, Z.C., Pan, Y., Pan, J.J., Shi, X.Z. 2017. Regional patterns and controls of soil organic carbon pools of croplands in China. Plant and Soil 421, 525–539.

Zhaksybayeva, G., Balgabayev, A., Vassilina, T., Shibikeyeva, A., Malimbayeva, A., 2022. Yield of sugar beet and changes in phosphorus fractions in relation to long term P fertilization in chestnut soil of Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science  11(1): 25-32.

Abstract

This study addresses desertification in Kazakhstan's Akdala region, aiming to propose sustainable solutions by examining the effects of various plants on soil properties and nutrient dynamics. Desertification poses a threat to land productivity in arid areas, and this research aims to determine its impact on soil and identify plants for mitigation. Field experiments over three years in the Akdala region utilized crops such as rice, corn, soybean, sudan grass, and sorghum to assess their influence on key soil parameters. Results revealed diverse effects on soil bulk density, agronomically valuable aggregates, water-stable aggregates, labile and total organic carbon, easily hydrolyzable nitrogen, nitrate, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium. While no significant differences in bulk density were observed among crops, variations in surface and subsurface soil layers emphasized the importance of depth-specific considerations. Sorghum stood out as a particularly influential crop, significantly increasing labile and total organic carbon levels, highlighting its potential role in enhancing soil quality. The experiments were conducted on the fields of "Birlik" LLP in the Balkhash district of the Almaty region from 2015 to 2017. The chosen crops, each with distinct characteristics, provided a comprehensive understanding of their impact on soil dynamics. Advanced techniques for soil sampling and analyses ensured accurate measurements of various soil parameters. The study site's sharply continental climate, marked by temperature variations, snowy winters, and hot, dry summers, added complexity to the investigation due to its influence on plant growth and soil interactions. In conclusion, this comprehensive study offers valuable insights into the intricate relationships between different crops and soil parameters for combating desertification. The findings contribute significantly to the development of sustainable soil management practices, providing a foundation for identifying suitable crops for soil improvement in arid regions. By understanding how different plants impact soil properties, this research supports informed decision-making in agricultural practices, promoting the long-term sustainability of farming in regions vulnerable to desertification.

Keywords: Desertification, Soil Management, Arid Regions, Phytomelioration, Sustainable Agriculture.

References

Abbott, L.K., Manning, D.A.C., 2015. Soil health and related ecosystem services in organic agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture Research 4(3): 116-125.

Anjos, J.T., Rowell, D.L., 1987. The effect of lime on phosphorus adsorption and barley growth in three acid soils. Plant and Soil 103: 75–82.

Assanova, M.A., 2015. Public policy and model of sustainable development in the republic of Kazakhstan. Asian Social Science 11(6): 237–243.

Bektayev, N., Mansurova, K., Kaldybayev, S., Pachikin, K., Еrzhanova, K., Absatova, B., 2023. Comprehensive assessment and information database on saline and waterlogged soils in Kazakhstan: Insights from Remote Sensing Technology. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 290 - 299.

Binner, I., Dultz, S., Schellhorn, M., Schenk, M.K., 2017. Potassium adsorption and release properties of clays in peat-based horticultural substrates for increasing the cultivation safety of plants. Applied Clay Science 145: 28-36.

Blake,  G.R., Hartge, K.H. 1986. Bulk Density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, WI, Madison, USA. pp.363-375.

Ćirić, V., Manojlović, M., Nešić, L., Belić, M., 2012. Soil dry aggregate size distribution: effects of soil type and land use. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12 (4): 689-703.

Duan, A., Lei, J., Hu, X., Zhang, J., Du, H., Zhang, X., Guo, W., Sun, J., 2019. Effects of planting density on soil bulk density, ph and nutrients of unthinned Chinese Fir mature stands in south subtropical Region of China. Forests 10(4): 351.

Dumale, J.W.A., Miyazaki, T., Nishimura, T., Seki, K., 2009. CO2 evolution and short-term carbon turnover in stable soil organic carbon from soils applied with fresh organic matter. Geophysical Researh Letters 36(1): 1-6.

Eslamian, F., Qi, Z., Qian, C., 2021. Lime amendments to enhance soil phosphorus adsorption capacity and to reduce phosphate desorption. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232: 66.

Geist, H.J., Lambin, E.F., 2004. Dynamic causal patterns of desertification. Bioscience 54(9): 817–829.

GOST 26205-91. Soils. Determination of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium by Machigin method modified by CINAO. Available at [Access date: 11.11.2021]: https://gostperevod.com/gost-26205-91.html

GOST 26213-2021. Soils. Methods for determination of organic matter. Available at [Access date: 11.11.2021]: https://gostperevod.com/gost-26213-2021.html

Hu, Y., Han, Y., Zhang, Y., 2020. Land desertification and its influencing factors in Kazakhstan. Journal of Arid Environments 180: 104203.

Jiang, L., Bao, A., Jiapaer, G., Guo, H., Zheng, G., Gafforov, K., Kurban, A., De Maeyer, P., 2019. Monitoring land sensitivity to desertification in Central Asia: convergence or divergence? Science of The Total Environment 658: 669–683.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kemper,  W.D. Rosenau, R.C., 1986. Aggregate Stability and Size Distribution. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 5.1, Second Edition. Klute, A. (Ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, WI, Madison, USA. pp.425-442.

Kersebaum, K., Lorenz, K., Reuter, H., Schwarz, J., Wegehenkel, M., Wendroth, O., 2005. Operational use of agro-meteorological data and GIS to derive site specific nitrogen fertilizer recommendations based on the simulation of soil and crop growth processes. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 30(1-3): 59-67.

Kussainova, M., Spaeth, K., Zhaparkulova, E., 2020. Efficiency of using the rangeland hydrology and erosion model for assessing the degradation of pastures and forage lands in Aydarly, Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(2): 186 - 193.

Kvan, R.A., Kalashnikov, A.A., Paramonov, A.I., Kaldarova, S.M., 2011. Water resources and prospects for their use in irrigation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Vodnoe hozyajstvo Kazahstana 3: 15-17. [in Russian]

Makovníková, J., Širáň M., Houšková B., Pálka B., Jones, A., 2017. Comparison of different models for predicting soil bulk density. Case study - Slovakian agricultural soils. International Agrophysics 31(4): 491–498.

Malhi, S., Gill, K., Harapiak, J., Nyborg, M., Gregorich, E., Monreal, C., 2003. Light fraction organic N, ammonium, nitrate and total N in a thin black Chernozemic soil under bromegrass after 27 annual applications of different N rates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 65: 201-210.

Medvedev, V.V., Cybulko, W.G., 1995. Soil criteria for assessing the maximum permissible ground pressure of agricultural vehicles on Chernozem soils. Soil and Tillage Research 36(3-4): 153–164.

Meisinger, J., 1984. Evaluating plant-available nitrogen in soil–crop systems. In: Nitrogen in Crop Production. Hauck, R.D. (Ed.). American Sciety of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 391-416

Papadopoulos, A., 2011. Soil Aggregates, Structure, and Stability. In: Encyclopedia of Agrophysics. Gliński, J., Horabik, J., Lipiec, J. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 736–740.

Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S. 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51(5): 1173–1179.

Reynolds, J.F., Smith, D.M.S., Lambin, E.F., TurnerII, B.L., Mortimore, M., Batterbury, S.P.J., Downing, T.E., Dowlatabadi, H., Fernández, R.J., Herrick, J.E., Huber-Sannwald, E., Jiang, H., Leemans, R., Lynam, T., Maestre, F.T., Ayarza, M., Walker,B., 2007. Global desertification: building a science for dryland development. Science 316 (5826), 847–851.

Roberts, T., Ross, W., Norman, R., Slaton, N., Wilson, C., 2011. Predicting nitrogen fertilizer needs for rice in Arkansas using alkaline-hydrolyzable-nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75 (3): 1161-1171.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Shein, Y.V., Arhangel’skaya, T.A., Goncharov, V.M., Guber, A.K.,Pochatkova, T.N., Sidorova, M.A., Smagin, A.V., Umarova, A.B. 2001. Field and laboratory methods of physical properties and soil status investigations. The University of Moscow, Russia, 199 p. [in Russian].

Stirzaker, R.J., Passioura, J.B., Wilms, Y., 1996. Soil structure and plant growth: Impact of bulk density and biopores. Plant and Soil 185: 151-162.

Sui, Y.Y., Jiao, X.G., Liu, X.B., Zhang, X.Y., Ding, G.W., 2012. Water-stable aggregates and their organic carbon distribution after five years of chemical fertilizer and manure treatments on eroded farmland of Chinese Mollisols. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92(3): 551–557.

Tian, H., Lu, C., Yang, J., Banger, K., Huntzinger, D.N., Schwalm, C.R., Michalak, A.M., Cook, R., Ciais, P., Hayes, D., Huang, M.Y., Lto, A., Jain, A.K., Lei, H., Mao, J.F., Pan, S.F., Post, W.M., Peng, S.S., Poulter, B., Ren, W., Ricciuto, D., Schaefer, K., Shi, X.Y., Tao, B., Wang, W., Wei, Y.X., Yang, Q.C., Zhang, B.W., Zheng, N., 2015. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: current status and future directions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29(6): 775-792.

Tisdall, J.M., Oades, J.M., 1982. Organic matter and water-stable aggregate in soil European Journal of Soil Science 33(2): 141 -163.

Tyurin, I. V., 1965. Organic matter of soil and its role in fertility. Nauka, Moscow. 320p

Verón, S.R., Paruelo, J.M., Oesterheld, M., 2006. Assessing desertification. Journal of Arid Environments 66(4): 751–763.

Wang, X.Y., Yu, D.S., Xu, Z.C., Pan, Y., Pan, J.J., Shi, X.Z. 2017. Regional patterns and controls of soil organic carbon pools of croplands in China. Plant and Soil 421, 525–539.

Zhaksybayeva, G., Balgabayev, A., Vassilina, T., Shibikeyeva, A., Malimbayeva, A., 2022. Yield of sugar beet and changes in phosphorus fractions in relation to long term P fertilization in chestnut soil of Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science  11(1): 25-32.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science