Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 2024, Pages 70 - 78
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1399553
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1399553
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan

X

Article first published online: 03 Dec 2023 | How to cite | Additional Information (Show All)

Author information | Publication information | Export Citiation (Plain Text | BibTeX | EndNote | RefMan)

CLASSICAL | APA | MLA | TURABIAN | IEEE | ISO 690

Abstract | References | Article (XML) | Article (HTML) | PDF | 56 | 406

İslamzade,T., Baxishov,D., Guliyev,A., Kızılkaya,R., İslamzade,R., Ay,A., Huseynova,S., Mammadova,M., 2024. Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(1):70 - 78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553
İslamzade,T.,Baxishov,D.Guliyev,A.Kızılkaya,R.İslamzade,R.Ay,A.Huseynova,S.,& Mammadova,M. Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(1):70 - 78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553
İslamzade,T.,Baxishov,D.Guliyev,A.Kızılkaya,R.İslamzade,R.Ay,A.Huseynova,S., and ,Mammadova,M."Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.1 (2024):70 - 78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553
İslamzade,T.,Baxishov,D.Guliyev,A.Kızılkaya,R.İslamzade,R.Ay,A.Huseynova,S., and ,Mammadova,M. "Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jan 2024):70 - 78 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553
T,İslamzade.D,Baxishov.A,Guliyev.R,Kızılkaya.R,İslamzade.A,Ay.S,Huseynova.M,Mammadova "Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.1, pp.70 - 78 (Jan 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553
İslamzade,Tariverdi ;Baxishov,Deyanet ;Guliyev,Alovsat ;Kızılkaya,Rıdvan ;İslamzade,Rahila ;Ay,Abdurrahman ;Huseynova,Sultan ;Mammadova,Mirvari Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.1:70 - 78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553

How to cite

İslamzade, T., Baxishov, D., Guliyev, A., Kızılkaya, R., İslamzade, R., Ay, A., Huseynova, S., Mammadova, M., 2024. Soil fertility status, productivity challenges, and solutions in rice farming landscapes of Azerbaijan. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(1): 70 - 78. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1399553

Author information

Tariverdi İslamzade , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Deyanet Baxishov , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Alovsat Guliyev , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Rıdvan Kızılkaya , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Türkiye
Rahila İslamzade , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Abdurrahman Ay , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Türkiye
Sultan Huseynova , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Mirvari Mammadova , Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan

Publication information

Article first published online : 03 Dec 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 30 Nov 2023
Manuscript Received: 11 Jul 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1399553
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1399553

Abstract

Rice, a fundamental staple globally, plays a pivotal role in addressing food security and nutrition. This study explores the intricate interplay between soil characteristics, productivity challenges, and solutions in Azerbaijan's rice farming landscapes, acknowledging the agricultural importance of rice and its contribution to human nutrition. This study aims to assess the physical and chemical properties of soil samples from Azerbaijan's rice cultivation areas, with a focus on nutrient content and the identification of elements limiting productivity and plant nutrition. By synthesizing these perspectives, the study enriches the understanding of the complex relationship between soil fertility class and rice productivity, offering insights for sustainable rice farming. Soil samples were collected from representative rice fields across Azerbaijan and analyzed for various parameters, including soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and nutrient content. The soil sampling and preparation process maintained the integrity of collected samples, providing a reliable basis for scientific analysis. The results reveal diverse soil properties, with clayey texture prevailing. Soil acidity, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies pose challenges, emphasizing the need for corrective measures. The majority of soils exhibit unsuitable pH levels and elevated sodium content, necessitating interventions such as soil acidification and sodicity remediation. Soil salinity issues highlight the importance of drainage and leaching practices. Low organic matter and nutrient deficiencies, particularly zinc and manganese, underscore the need for targeted interventions, including foliar applications. Overall, Azerbaijan's rice-cultivated areas face challenges related to soil fertility, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies, impacting productivity. Corrective measures, such as soil reclamation, proper fertilization, and foliar applications, are crucial for enhancing crop yields. The study contributes valuable insights for local practices and the broader global pursuit of sustainable rice farming, emphasizing the importance of tailored strategies in addressing specific regional challenges.

Keywords

Rice, Soil, Fertility, Salinity, Azerbaijan, Sustainability

Corresponding author

References

Abdul Halim, N.S., Abdullah, R., Karsani, S.A., Osman, N., Panhwar, Q.A., Ishak, C.F., 2018. Influence of soil amendments on the growth and yield of rice in acidic soil. Agronomy 8(9): 165.

Arshad, M.A., Martin, S., 2002. Identifying critical limits for soil quality indicators in agro-ecosystems. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 88(2): 153-160.

Borůvka, L., Vacek, O., Jehlička, J., 2005. Principal component analysis as a tool to indicate the origin of potentially toxic elements in soils. Geoderma 128(3-4): 289-300.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bower, C.A., Wilcox L.V., 1965. Soluble Salts. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 933-951.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Total nitrogen, In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1149-1176.

Bueno C.S., Ladha, J.K., 2009. Comparison of soil properties between continuously cultivated and adjacent uncultivated soils in rice-based systems. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45(5): 499–509.

Fan, M.S., Jiang, R.F., Zhang, F.S., Lü, S.H., Liu, X. J., 2008. Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system. The Journal of Applied Ecology 19(2): 424–432. [in Chinese]

Fukagawa, N.K., Ziska, L.H., 2019. Rice: Importance for Global Nutrition. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 65: S2-S3.

Gathala, M.K., Ladha, J.K., Saharawat, Y.S., Kumar, V., Kumar, V., Sharma, P.K., 2011. Effect of tillage and crop establishment methods on physical properties of a medium-textured soil under a seven-year rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75(5): 1851–1862.

Hamoud, Y.A., Guo, X., Wang, Z., Shaghaleh, H., Chen, S., Hassan, A., Bakour, A., 2019. Effects of irrigation regime and soil clay content and their interaction on the biological yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen-use efficiency of rice grown in southern China. Agricultural Water Management 213: 934-946.

Hazelton, P., Murphy, B., 2007. Interpreting soil test results. What do the numbers mean? CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Australia. 152p.

Heald, W.R., 1965. Calcium and Magnesium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 999-1010.

Hossain, M., Rahman, M., Morshed, M., Uddin, M., Hera, M., Sultana, N., Hashem, M., 2023. Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated potassium applied under the irrigated ecosystem of Bangladesh. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(2): 104 - 110.

İslamzade, R., Hasanova, G., Asadova, S., 2023. Impact of varied NPK fertilizer application rates and seed quantities on barley yield and soil nutrient availability in chestnut soil of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 371 - 381.  

Juhos, K., Szabo, S., Ladanyi, M., 2016. Explore the influence of soil quality on crop yield using statistically-derived pedological indicators. Ecological Indicators 63: 366–373.

Katayanagi, N., Fumoto, T., Hayano, M., Takata, Y., Kuwagata, T., Shirato, Y., Sawano, S., Kajiura, M., Sudo, S., Ishigooka, Y., Yagi, K., 2016. Development of a method for estimating total CH4 emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model. Science of The Total Environment 547: 429-440.

Ladha, J.K., Fischer, K.S., Hossain, M., Hobbs, P.R., Hardy, B., 2000. Improving the productivity of rice–wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A synthesis of NARS-IRRI partnership research. IRRI Discussion Paper No. 40. IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines.

Ladha, J.K., Pathak, H., Padre, A.T., Dawe, D., Gupta, R.K., 2003. Productivity trends in intensive rice–wheat cropping systems in Asia. In: Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems: Issues and impacts.  Ladha, J.K., Hill, J.E., Duxbury, J.M., Gupta, R.K., Buresh, R.J., (Eds.). ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp.45–76.

Li, D., Nanseki, T., Chomei, Y., Fukuhara, Y., 2018. Impact of soil chemical properties on rice yield in 116 paddy fields sampled from a large-scale farm in Kinki Region, Japan. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 185: 012026.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.  

Lu, D., Moran, E., Mausel, P., 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation and Development 13(4): 331-343.

Maftukhah, R., Ngadisih, N., Murtiningrum, M., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K., Melcher, A., Zehetner, F., Kral, R., 2022. Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 11(3): 225-234.

Matsumoto, S., Kasuga, J., Taiki, N., Makino, T., Arao, T., 2015. Inhibition of arsenic accumulation in Japanese rice by the application of iron and silicate materials. Catena 135: 328-335.

Mohidem, N.A., Hashim, N., Shamsudin, R., Che Man, H. 2022. Rice for food security: Revisiting its production, diversity, rice milling process and nutrient content. Agriculture 12(6): 741.

Moran, E.F., Brondizion, E.S., Tucker, J.M., da SilvaForsberg, M.C., McCracken, S., Falesi, I., 2000. Effects of soil fertility and land use on forest succession in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 139(1-3): 93-108.

Mori, M., Kotaki, K., Gunji, F., Kubo, N., Kobayashi, S., Ito, T., Itabashi, H., 2016. Suppression of cadmium uptake in rice using fermented bark as a soil amendment. Chemosphere 148: 487-494.

Mousavi, S.F., Yousefi-Moghadam, S., Mostafazadeh-Fard, B., Hemmat, A., Yazdani, M.R., 2009. Effect of puddling intensity on physical properties of a silty clay soil under laboratory and field conditions. Paddy and Water Environment 7(1): 45–54.

Obade, V.P., Lal, R., 2016. Towards a standard technique for soil quality assessment. Geoderma 265: 96-102.

Olsen,S.R., Dean, L.A., 1965. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1035-1049.

Peech, M., 1965. Hydrogen-Ion Activity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 914-926.

Pratt, P.F., 1965. Potassium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1022-1030.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Timsina, J., Connor, D.J., 2001. Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: Issues and challenges. Field Crops Research 69(2): 93–132.

USDA, 2001. Soil Quality Test Kit Guide. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Institute. USA. 82p. Available at [Access date: : 11.07.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2022-10/Soil%20Quality%20Test%20Kit%20Guide.pdf

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

Abstract

Rice, a fundamental staple globally, plays a pivotal role in addressing food security and nutrition. This study explores the intricate interplay between soil characteristics, productivity challenges, and solutions in Azerbaijan's rice farming landscapes, acknowledging the agricultural importance of rice and its contribution to human nutrition. This study aims to assess the physical and chemical properties of soil samples from Azerbaijan's rice cultivation areas, with a focus on nutrient content and the identification of elements limiting productivity and plant nutrition. By synthesizing these perspectives, the study enriches the understanding of the complex relationship between soil fertility class and rice productivity, offering insights for sustainable rice farming. Soil samples were collected from representative rice fields across Azerbaijan and analyzed for various parameters, including soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and nutrient content. The soil sampling and preparation process maintained the integrity of collected samples, providing a reliable basis for scientific analysis. The results reveal diverse soil properties, with clayey texture prevailing. Soil acidity, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies pose challenges, emphasizing the need for corrective measures. The majority of soils exhibit unsuitable pH levels and elevated sodium content, necessitating interventions such as soil acidification and sodicity remediation. Soil salinity issues highlight the importance of drainage and leaching practices. Low organic matter and nutrient deficiencies, particularly zinc and manganese, underscore the need for targeted interventions, including foliar applications. Overall, Azerbaijan's rice-cultivated areas face challenges related to soil fertility, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies, impacting productivity. Corrective measures, such as soil reclamation, proper fertilization, and foliar applications, are crucial for enhancing crop yields. The study contributes valuable insights for local practices and the broader global pursuit of sustainable rice farming, emphasizing the importance of tailored strategies in addressing specific regional challenges.

Keywords: Rice, Soil, Fertility, Salinity, Azerbaijan, Sustainability.

References

Abdul Halim, N.S., Abdullah, R., Karsani, S.A., Osman, N., Panhwar, Q.A., Ishak, C.F., 2018. Influence of soil amendments on the growth and yield of rice in acidic soil. Agronomy 8(9): 165.

Arshad, M.A., Martin, S., 2002. Identifying critical limits for soil quality indicators in agro-ecosystems. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 88(2): 153-160.

Borůvka, L., Vacek, O., Jehlička, J., 2005. Principal component analysis as a tool to indicate the origin of potentially toxic elements in soils. Geoderma 128(3-4): 289-300.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal 54(5): 464-465.

Bower, C.A., Wilcox L.V., 1965. Soluble Salts. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 933-951.

Bremner, J.M., 1965. Total nitrogen, In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1149-1176.

Bueno C.S., Ladha, J.K., 2009. Comparison of soil properties between continuously cultivated and adjacent uncultivated soils in rice-based systems. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45(5): 499–509.

Fan, M.S., Jiang, R.F., Zhang, F.S., Lü, S.H., Liu, X. J., 2008. Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system. The Journal of Applied Ecology 19(2): 424–432. [in Chinese]

Fukagawa, N.K., Ziska, L.H., 2019. Rice: Importance for Global Nutrition. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 65: S2-S3.

Gathala, M.K., Ladha, J.K., Saharawat, Y.S., Kumar, V., Kumar, V., Sharma, P.K., 2011. Effect of tillage and crop establishment methods on physical properties of a medium-textured soil under a seven-year rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75(5): 1851–1862.

Hamoud, Y.A., Guo, X., Wang, Z., Shaghaleh, H., Chen, S., Hassan, A., Bakour, A., 2019. Effects of irrigation regime and soil clay content and their interaction on the biological yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen-use efficiency of rice grown in southern China. Agricultural Water Management 213: 934-946.

Hazelton, P., Murphy, B., 2007. Interpreting soil test results. What do the numbers mean? CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Australia. 152p.

Heald, W.R., 1965. Calcium and Magnesium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 999-1010.

Hossain, M., Rahman, M., Morshed, M., Uddin, M., Hera, M., Sultana, N., Hashem, M., 2023. Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to elevated potassium applied under the irrigated ecosystem of Bangladesh. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(2): 104 - 110.

İslamzade, R., Hasanova, G., Asadova, S., 2023. Impact of varied NPK fertilizer application rates and seed quantities on barley yield and soil nutrient availability in chestnut soil of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 371 - 381.  

Juhos, K., Szabo, S., Ladanyi, M., 2016. Explore the influence of soil quality on crop yield using statistically-derived pedological indicators. Ecological Indicators 63: 366–373.

Katayanagi, N., Fumoto, T., Hayano, M., Takata, Y., Kuwagata, T., Shirato, Y., Sawano, S., Kajiura, M., Sudo, S., Ishigooka, Y., Yagi, K., 2016. Development of a method for estimating total CH4 emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model. Science of The Total Environment 547: 429-440.

Ladha, J.K., Fischer, K.S., Hossain, M., Hobbs, P.R., Hardy, B., 2000. Improving the productivity of rice–wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A synthesis of NARS-IRRI partnership research. IRRI Discussion Paper No. 40. IRRI, Los Baños, the Philippines.

Ladha, J.K., Pathak, H., Padre, A.T., Dawe, D., Gupta, R.K., 2003. Productivity trends in intensive rice–wheat cropping systems in Asia. In: Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems: Issues and impacts.  Ladha, J.K., Hill, J.E., Duxbury, J.M., Gupta, R.K., Buresh, R.J., (Eds.). ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. pp.45–76.

Li, D., Nanseki, T., Chomei, Y., Fukuhara, Y., 2018. Impact of soil chemical properties on rice yield in 116 paddy fields sampled from a large-scale farm in Kinki Region, Japan. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 185: 012026.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42(3): 421-428.  

Lu, D., Moran, E., Mausel, P., 2002. Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation and Development 13(4): 331-343.

Maftukhah, R., Ngadisih, N., Murtiningrum, M., Mentler, A., Keiblinger, K., Melcher, A., Zehetner, F., Kral, R., 2022. Contrasting rice management systems – Site-specific effects on soil parameters. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 11(3): 225-234.

Matsumoto, S., Kasuga, J., Taiki, N., Makino, T., Arao, T., 2015. Inhibition of arsenic accumulation in Japanese rice by the application of iron and silicate materials. Catena 135: 328-335.

Mohidem, N.A., Hashim, N., Shamsudin, R., Che Man, H. 2022. Rice for food security: Revisiting its production, diversity, rice milling process and nutrient content. Agriculture 12(6): 741.

Moran, E.F., Brondizion, E.S., Tucker, J.M., da SilvaForsberg, M.C., McCracken, S., Falesi, I., 2000. Effects of soil fertility and land use on forest succession in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 139(1-3): 93-108.

Mori, M., Kotaki, K., Gunji, F., Kubo, N., Kobayashi, S., Ito, T., Itabashi, H., 2016. Suppression of cadmium uptake in rice using fermented bark as a soil amendment. Chemosphere 148: 487-494.

Mousavi, S.F., Yousefi-Moghadam, S., Mostafazadeh-Fard, B., Hemmat, A., Yazdani, M.R., 2009. Effect of puddling intensity on physical properties of a silty clay soil under laboratory and field conditions. Paddy and Water Environment 7(1): 45–54.

Obade, V.P., Lal, R., 2016. Towards a standard technique for soil quality assessment. Geoderma 265: 96-102.

Olsen,S.R., Dean, L.A., 1965. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1035-1049.

Peech, M., 1965. Hydrogen-Ion Activity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 914-926.

Pratt, P.F., 1965. Potassium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., White, J.L., Ensminger, L.E., Clark F.E. (Eds.), Soil Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 1022-1030.

Rowell, D.L., 1996. Soil Science: methods and applications. Longman, UK. 350p.

Timsina, J., Connor, D.J., 2001. Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: Issues and challenges. Field Crops Research 69(2): 93–132.

USDA, 2001. Soil Quality Test Kit Guide. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Institute. USA. 82p. Available at [Access date: : 11.07.2023]: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/2022-10/Soil%20Quality%20Test%20Kit%20Guide.pdf

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science