Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 2024, Pages 52 - 58
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1394446
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification

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Bhatti,S., Mari,Z., Bughio,Z., Depar,N., Rajpar,I., Siddiqui,M., Rajput,I., 2024. Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(1):52 - 58. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Bhatti,S.,Mari,Z.Bughio,Z.Depar,N.Rajpar,I.Siddiqui,M.,& Rajput,I. Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(1):52 - 58. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Bhatti,S.,Mari,Z.Bughio,Z.Depar,N.Rajpar,I.Siddiqui,M., and ,Rajput,I."Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.1 (2024):52 - 58. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Bhatti,S.,Mari,Z.Bughio,Z.Depar,N.Rajpar,I.Siddiqui,M., and ,Rajput,I. "Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jan 2024):52 - 58 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446
S,Bhatti.Z,Mari.Z,Bughio.N,Depar.I,Rajpar.M,Siddiqui.I,Rajput "Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.1, pp.52 - 58 (Jan 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Bhatti,Saleem Maseeh ;Mari,Zulfiqar Ali ;Bughio,Zohaib Ur Rehman ;Depar,Nizamuddin ;Rajpar,Inayatullah ;Siddiqui,Muhammad Asif ;Rajput,Iqra Sultan Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.1:52 - 58. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446

How to cite

Bhatti, S., Mari, Z., Bughio, Z., Depar, N., Rajpar, I., Siddiqui, M., Rajput, I., 2024. Enhancing iron concentration in bread wheat through Fe-EDTA fortification. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(1): 52 - 58. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1394446

Author information

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti , Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Zulfiqar Ali Mari , Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Zohaib Ur Rehman Bughio , Agriculture Extension Wing, Agriculture Supply and Prices Department, Sindh, Pakistan
Nizamuddin Depar , Soil and Environmental Sciences Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tando Jam, Pakistan
Inayatullah Rajpar , Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Muhammad Asif Siddiqui , Soil Salinity and Reclamation Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Tando Jam, Pakistan
Iqra Sultan Rajput , Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan

Publication information

Article first published online : 22 Nov 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 16 Nov 2023
Manuscript Received: 11 Jun 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1394446
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1394446

Abstract

Iron (Fe) malnutrition in humans is a global concern which can be revised by improved Fe density in staple crops. A field experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of chelated iron on growth, yield and iron concentration in bread wheat (cv. Moomal) at Tando Jam Pakistan. The treatments included, Control (No Fe-EDTA), Soil supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 2 kg Fe ha-1), Soil + foliar supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 2 kg ha-1 and 0.2% Fe at booting, flowering, and milky stage), and Foliar supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 0.2% Fe at booting, flowering and milky stages). The defined growth and yield traits of wheat were increased with Fe-EDTA applications over control treatment. Among different Fe-EDTA application methods, there was no significant difference for most of the growth and yield parameters (excluding spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, and 1000 grain weight). The amount of Fe in wheat grains was significantly higher in all Fe-EDTA treatments over control, with maximum value (86.54 ± 5.57 mg kg-1) in the treatment where Fe-EDTA was applied in soil + foliar. Similarly, a high Fe build up in surface soil was obtained with treatment of Fe-EDTA in soil + foliar. Overall, with various Fe-EDTA treatments, an increase of 21.2 to 29.1% in grain yield and 1.9 to 4.3 times in Fe concentration of wheat grains was achieved in current study. It is suggested that the Fe should be included in wheat production technology to attain better yield and Fe concentration in grains.

Keywords

Fe-EDTA, Fe-malnutrition, biofortification, wheat production, Fe fertilization.

Corresponding author

References

Abbas, G., Khan, M.Q., Khan, M.J., Hussain, F., Hussain, I., 2009. Effect of iron on the growth and yield contributing parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 19(3): 135-139.

Abu-Ouf, N.M., Jan, M.M., 2015. The impact of maternal iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia on child’s health. Saudi Medical Journal 36(2): 146–149.

Aciksoz, S.B., Yazici, A., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I., 2011. Biofortification of wheat with iron through soil and foliar application of nitrogen and iron fertilizers. Plant and Soil 349: 215-225.

Akram, M.A., Depar, N., Irfan, M., 2020. Agronomic zinc biofortification of wheat to improve accumulation, bioavailability, productivity and use efficiency. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(1): 75-84.

Ali, E.A., 2012. Effect of iron nutrient care sprayed on foliage at different physiological growth stages on yield and quality of some durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties in sandy soil. Asian Journal of Crop Science 4(4): 139-149.

Ali, S.A., Abbasi, Z., Shahid, B., Moin, G., Hambidge, K.M., Krebs, N.F., Westcott, J.E., McClure, E.M., Goldenberg, R.L., Saleem, S., 2020. Prevalence and determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age in Thatta Pakistan: Findings from a cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 15(9): e0239320.

Armin, M., Akbari, S., Mashhadi, S., 2014. Effect of time and concentration of nano-Fe foliar application on yield and yield components of wheat. International Journal of Biosciences 4(9): 69-75.

Ay, A., Demirkaya, S., Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2022. The effects of two Fe-EDDHA chelated fertilizers on dry matter production and Fe uptake of tomato seedlings and Fe forms of a calcareous soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 11(3): 259-265.

Bakhtiari, M., Moaveni, P., Sani, B., 2015. The effect of iron nanoparticles spraying time and concentration on wheat. Biological Forum: An International Journal 7(1): 679-683.

Bhardwaj, A.K., Chejara, S., Malik, K., Kumar, R., Kumar, A., Yadav, R.K., 2022. Agronomic biofortification of food crops: An emerging opportunity for global food and nutritional security. Frontiers in Plant Science 13: 1055278.

Boamponsem, G.A., Leung, D.W.M., Lister, C., 2017. Insights into resistance to Fe deficiency stress from a comparative study of ın vitro-selected novel Fe-efficient and Fe-inefficient potato plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1581.

Bradl, H.B., 2004. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soil constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 277: 1-18.

Bughio, Z.R., Bhatti, S.M., Depar, N., Rajpar, I., Sarki, M.S., Bughio, H.R., 2021. Enhancement of zinc concentration and bioavailability in rice grains by zinc application methods. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 58(5): 1483-1490.

Cakmak, I., Pfeiffer, W.H., McClafferty, B., 2010. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chemistry 87(1): 10-20.

Chatterjee, A., Lovas, S., Rasmussen, H., Goos, R., 2018. Foliar application of iron fertilizers to control iron deficiency chlorosis of soybean. Crops and Soils 51(4): 44-51.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., & Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of soil, plant, and water analysis: A manual for the West Asia and North Africa region. 3rd Edition. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Beirut. 243p.

Fernández, V., Brown, P.H., 2013. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 289.

Frossard, E., Bucher, M., Machler, F., Mozafar, A., Hurrell, R., 2000. Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn, and Ca in plants for human nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80: 861-879.

Garnett, T.P., Graham, R.D., 2005. Distribution and remobilization of iron and copper in wheat. Annals of Botany 95(5): 817-826.

Gombart, A.F., Pierre, A., Maggini, S., 2020. A review of micronutrients and the ımmune system–working in harmony to reduce the risk of ınfection. Nutrients 12(1): 236.

Grzeszczak, K., Kwiatkowski, S., Kosik-Bogacka, D., 2020. The role of Fe, Zn, and Cu in pregnancy. Biomolecules 10(8): 1176.

Habib, M., 2009. Effect of foliar application of Zn and Fe on wheat yield and quality. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(24): 6795-6798.

Hafeez, M.B., Ramzan, Y., Khan, S., Ibrar, D., Bashir, S., Zahra, N., Rashid, N., Nadeem, M., Rahman, S.U., Shair, H., Ahmad, J., Hussain, M., Irshad, S., Al-Hashimi, A., Alfagham, A., Diao, Z.H., 2021. Application of zinc and iron-based fertilizers ımproves the growth attributes, productivity, and grain quality of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Frontiers in Nutrition 8: 779595.

Hsieh, E.J., Waters, B.M., 2016. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: Implications for iron deficiency chlorosis. Journal of Experimental Botany 67(19): 1-15.

Iqbal, S., Thierfelder, C., Khan, H.Z., Javeed, H.M.R., Arif, M., Shehzad, M., 2017. Maximizing maize quality, productivity and profitability through a combined use of compost and nitrogen fertilizer in a semi-arid environment in Pakistan. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 107: 197-213.

Khan, M.B., Farooq, M., Hussain, M., Shahnawaz, Shabir, G., 2010. Foliar application of micronutrients improves wheat yield and net economic return. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12(6): 953-956.

Khokhar, H.K., 2015. Effect of different sources of phosphate fertilizers on growth and yield of late sown wheat varieties. MSc Thesis. Sindh Agriculture University, Department of Soil Science, Tandojam, Pakistan, 65p.

Kiran, A., Wakeel, A., Mahmood, K., Mubaraka, R., Hafsa, Haefele, S.M., 2022. Biofortification of staple crops to alleviate human malnutrition: Contributions and potential in developing countries. Agronomy 12(2): 452.

Liberal, N., Pinela, J., Vívar-Quintana, A.M., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L., 2020. Fighting iron-deficiency anemia: Innovations in food fortificants and biofortification strategies. Foods 9(12): 1871.

Lindsay, W.L., 1995. Chemical reactions in soils that affect iron availability to plants. A quantitative approach. In: Iron Nutrition in Soils and Plants. Abadia, J. (Ed.). Vol. 59. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 7-14.

Mahender, A., Swamy, B., Anandan, A., Ali, J., 2019. Tolerance of iron-deficient and -toxic soil conditions in rice. Plants 8(2): 31.

Midya, A., Saren, B.K., Dey, J.K., Maitra, S., Praharaj, S., Gaikwad, D.J., Gaber, A., Alhomrani, M., Hossain, A., 2021. Crop establishment methods and integrated nutrient management improve: Part II. nutrient uptake and use efficiency and soil health in rice (Oryza sativa L.) field in the lower indo-gangetic plain, India. Agronomy 11(9): 1894.

Owaidah, T., Al-Numair, N., Al-Suliman, A., Zolaly, M., Hasanato, R., Al Zahrani, F., Albalawi, M., Bashawri, L., Siddiqui, K., Alalaf, F., Almomen, A., Sajid, M.R., 2020. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common epidemiological conditions in saudi arabia: Report of the national epidemiological survey. Anemia Article ID 6642568.

Pahlavan-Rad, M.R., Pessarakli, M., 2009. Response of wheat plants to zinc, iron, and manganese applications and uptake and concentration of zinc, iron, and manganese in wheat grains. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40(7-8): 1322-1332.

PES, 2022. Pakistan Economic Survey, 2021-2022. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ramzani, P.M.A., Khalid, M., Naveed, M., Irum, A., Khan, W.D., Kausar, S., 2016. Iron biofortification of cereals grown under calcareous soils, In: Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Perspectives. Hakeem, K.R., Akhtar, J., Sabir, M. (Eds.), Springer, Cham. pp. 231-258.

Rashid, A., 1996. Secondary and micronutrients. In: Soil Science Bashir, E., Bantel, R., (Eds.). National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, 374p.

Senguttuvel, P., Padmavathi G., Jasmine, C., Sanjeeva R. D., Neeraja C.N., Jaldhani, V., Beulah, P., Gobinath, R., Aravind Kumar, J., Sai Prasad, S.V., Subba Rao L.V., Hariprasad, A.S., Sruthi, K., Shivani, D., Sundaram, R.M., Mahalingam G., 2023. Rice biofortification: breeding and genomic approaches for genetic enhancement of grain zinc and iron contents. Frontiers in Plant Science 14: 1138408.

Shaddox, T.W., Fu, H., Gardner, D.S., Goss, R.M., Guertal, E.A., Kreuser, W.C., Miller, G.L., Stewart, B.R., Tang, K., Unruh, J.B., 2019. Solubility of ten iron fertilizers in eleven north American soils. Agronomy Journal 111(3): 1498–1505.

Sial, N.A., Abro, S.A., Abbas, M., Irfan, M., Depar, N., 2018. Growth and yield of wheat as affected by phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphate fertilizer. Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology 15(2): 475-479.

Taskin, M.B., Gunes, A., 2022. Iron biofortification of wheat grains by Foliar application of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) and other ıron sources with urea. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 22: 4642-4652.  

Turan, M., Ekinci, M., Kul, R., Kocaman, A., Argin, S., Zhirkova, A.M., Perminova, I.V., Yildirim, E., 2022. Foliar applications of humic substances together with Fe/Nano Fe to increase the iron content and growth parameters of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Agronomy 12(9): 2044.

Vassil, A.D., Kapulnik, Y., Raskin, I., Salt, D.E., 1998. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by Indian mustard. Plant Physiology 117(2): 447-453.

Wiedenhoeft, A.C., 2006. Plant Nutrition. Chelsea House Publishers, 144p.

Zhang, Y., Shi, R., Rezaul, K.M., Zhang, F., Zou, C., 2010. Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(23): 12268-12274.

Zou, C., Du, Y., Rashid, A., Ram, H., Savasli, E., Pieterse, P.J., Ortiz-Monasterio, I., Yazici, A., Kaur, C., Mahmood, K., Singh, S., Le Roux, M.R., Kuang, W., Onder, O., Kalayci, M., Cakmak, I., 2019. Simultaneous biofortification of wheat with zinc, iodine, selenium, and iron through foliar treatment of a micronutrient cocktail in six countries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67(29): 8096–8106.

Abstract

Iron (Fe) malnutrition in humans is a global concern which can be revised by improved Fe density in staple crops. A field experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of chelated iron on growth, yield and iron concentration in bread wheat (cv. Moomal) at Tando Jam Pakistan. The treatments included, Control (No Fe-EDTA), Soil supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 2 kg Fe ha-1), Soil + foliar supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 2 kg ha-1 and 0.2% Fe at booting, flowering, and milky stage), and Foliar supplement of Fe-EDTA (@ 0.2% Fe at booting, flowering and milky stages). The defined growth and yield traits of wheat were increased with Fe-EDTA applications over control treatment. Among different Fe-EDTA application methods, there was no significant difference for most of the growth and yield parameters (excluding spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, and 1000 grain weight). The amount of Fe in wheat grains was significantly higher in all Fe-EDTA treatments over control, with maximum value (86.54 ± 5.57 mg kg-1) in the treatment where Fe-EDTA was applied in soil + foliar. Similarly, a high Fe build up in surface soil was obtained with treatment of Fe-EDTA in soil + foliar. Overall, with various Fe-EDTA treatments, an increase of 21.2 to 29.1% in grain yield and 1.9 to 4.3 times in Fe concentration of wheat grains was achieved in current study. It is suggested that the Fe should be included in wheat production technology to attain better yield and Fe concentration in grains.

Keywords: Fe-EDTA, Fe-malnutrition, biofortification, wheat production, Fe fertilization.

References

Abbas, G., Khan, M.Q., Khan, M.J., Hussain, F., Hussain, I., 2009. Effect of iron on the growth and yield contributing parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 19(3): 135-139.

Abu-Ouf, N.M., Jan, M.M., 2015. The impact of maternal iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia on child’s health. Saudi Medical Journal 36(2): 146–149.

Aciksoz, S.B., Yazici, A., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I., 2011. Biofortification of wheat with iron through soil and foliar application of nitrogen and iron fertilizers. Plant and Soil 349: 215-225.

Akram, M.A., Depar, N., Irfan, M., 2020. Agronomic zinc biofortification of wheat to improve accumulation, bioavailability, productivity and use efficiency. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 9(1): 75-84.

Ali, E.A., 2012. Effect of iron nutrient care sprayed on foliage at different physiological growth stages on yield and quality of some durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties in sandy soil. Asian Journal of Crop Science 4(4): 139-149.

Ali, S.A., Abbasi, Z., Shahid, B., Moin, G., Hambidge, K.M., Krebs, N.F., Westcott, J.E., McClure, E.M., Goldenberg, R.L., Saleem, S., 2020. Prevalence and determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age in Thatta Pakistan: Findings from a cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 15(9): e0239320.

Armin, M., Akbari, S., Mashhadi, S., 2014. Effect of time and concentration of nano-Fe foliar application on yield and yield components of wheat. International Journal of Biosciences 4(9): 69-75.

Ay, A., Demirkaya, S., Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2022. The effects of two Fe-EDDHA chelated fertilizers on dry matter production and Fe uptake of tomato seedlings and Fe forms of a calcareous soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 11(3): 259-265.

Bakhtiari, M., Moaveni, P., Sani, B., 2015. The effect of iron nanoparticles spraying time and concentration on wheat. Biological Forum: An International Journal 7(1): 679-683.

Bhardwaj, A.K., Chejara, S., Malik, K., Kumar, R., Kumar, A., Yadav, R.K., 2022. Agronomic biofortification of food crops: An emerging opportunity for global food and nutritional security. Frontiers in Plant Science 13: 1055278.

Boamponsem, G.A., Leung, D.W.M., Lister, C., 2017. Insights into resistance to Fe deficiency stress from a comparative study of ın vitro-selected novel Fe-efficient and Fe-inefficient potato plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1581.

Bradl, H.B., 2004. Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soil constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 277: 1-18.

Bughio, Z.R., Bhatti, S.M., Depar, N., Rajpar, I., Sarki, M.S., Bughio, H.R., 2021. Enhancement of zinc concentration and bioavailability in rice grains by zinc application methods. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 58(5): 1483-1490.

Cakmak, I., Pfeiffer, W.H., McClafferty, B., 2010. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chemistry 87(1): 10-20.

Chatterjee, A., Lovas, S., Rasmussen, H., Goos, R., 2018. Foliar application of iron fertilizers to control iron deficiency chlorosis of soybean. Crops and Soils 51(4): 44-51.

Estefan, G., Sommer, R., & Ryan, J., 2013. Methods of soil, plant, and water analysis: A manual for the West Asia and North Africa region. 3rd Edition. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Beirut. 243p.

Fernández, V., Brown, P.H., 2013. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 289.

Frossard, E., Bucher, M., Machler, F., Mozafar, A., Hurrell, R., 2000. Potential for increasing the content and bioavailability of Fe, Zn, and Ca in plants for human nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80: 861-879.

Garnett, T.P., Graham, R.D., 2005. Distribution and remobilization of iron and copper in wheat. Annals of Botany 95(5): 817-826.

Gombart, A.F., Pierre, A., Maggini, S., 2020. A review of micronutrients and the ımmune system–working in harmony to reduce the risk of ınfection. Nutrients 12(1): 236.

Grzeszczak, K., Kwiatkowski, S., Kosik-Bogacka, D., 2020. The role of Fe, Zn, and Cu in pregnancy. Biomolecules 10(8): 1176.

Habib, M., 2009. Effect of foliar application of Zn and Fe on wheat yield and quality. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(24): 6795-6798.

Hafeez, M.B., Ramzan, Y., Khan, S., Ibrar, D., Bashir, S., Zahra, N., Rashid, N., Nadeem, M., Rahman, S.U., Shair, H., Ahmad, J., Hussain, M., Irshad, S., Al-Hashimi, A., Alfagham, A., Diao, Z.H., 2021. Application of zinc and iron-based fertilizers ımproves the growth attributes, productivity, and grain quality of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Frontiers in Nutrition 8: 779595.

Hsieh, E.J., Waters, B.M., 2016. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: Implications for iron deficiency chlorosis. Journal of Experimental Botany 67(19): 1-15.

Iqbal, S., Thierfelder, C., Khan, H.Z., Javeed, H.M.R., Arif, M., Shehzad, M., 2017. Maximizing maize quality, productivity and profitability through a combined use of compost and nitrogen fertilizer in a semi-arid environment in Pakistan. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 107: 197-213.

Khan, M.B., Farooq, M., Hussain, M., Shahnawaz, Shabir, G., 2010. Foliar application of micronutrients improves wheat yield and net economic return. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12(6): 953-956.

Khokhar, H.K., 2015. Effect of different sources of phosphate fertilizers on growth and yield of late sown wheat varieties. MSc Thesis. Sindh Agriculture University, Department of Soil Science, Tandojam, Pakistan, 65p.

Kiran, A., Wakeel, A., Mahmood, K., Mubaraka, R., Hafsa, Haefele, S.M., 2022. Biofortification of staple crops to alleviate human malnutrition: Contributions and potential in developing countries. Agronomy 12(2): 452.

Liberal, N., Pinela, J., Vívar-Quintana, A.M., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L., 2020. Fighting iron-deficiency anemia: Innovations in food fortificants and biofortification strategies. Foods 9(12): 1871.

Lindsay, W.L., 1995. Chemical reactions in soils that affect iron availability to plants. A quantitative approach. In: Iron Nutrition in Soils and Plants. Abadia, J. (Ed.). Vol. 59. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 7-14.

Mahender, A., Swamy, B., Anandan, A., Ali, J., 2019. Tolerance of iron-deficient and -toxic soil conditions in rice. Plants 8(2): 31.

Midya, A., Saren, B.K., Dey, J.K., Maitra, S., Praharaj, S., Gaikwad, D.J., Gaber, A., Alhomrani, M., Hossain, A., 2021. Crop establishment methods and integrated nutrient management improve: Part II. nutrient uptake and use efficiency and soil health in rice (Oryza sativa L.) field in the lower indo-gangetic plain, India. Agronomy 11(9): 1894.

Owaidah, T., Al-Numair, N., Al-Suliman, A., Zolaly, M., Hasanato, R., Al Zahrani, F., Albalawi, M., Bashawri, L., Siddiqui, K., Alalaf, F., Almomen, A., Sajid, M.R., 2020. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common epidemiological conditions in saudi arabia: Report of the national epidemiological survey. Anemia Article ID 6642568.

Pahlavan-Rad, M.R., Pessarakli, M., 2009. Response of wheat plants to zinc, iron, and manganese applications and uptake and concentration of zinc, iron, and manganese in wheat grains. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 40(7-8): 1322-1332.

PES, 2022. Pakistan Economic Survey, 2021-2022. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Ramzani, P.M.A., Khalid, M., Naveed, M., Irum, A., Khan, W.D., Kausar, S., 2016. Iron biofortification of cereals grown under calcareous soils, In: Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Perspectives. Hakeem, K.R., Akhtar, J., Sabir, M. (Eds.), Springer, Cham. pp. 231-258.

Rashid, A., 1996. Secondary and micronutrients. In: Soil Science Bashir, E., Bantel, R., (Eds.). National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, 374p.

Senguttuvel, P., Padmavathi G., Jasmine, C., Sanjeeva R. D., Neeraja C.N., Jaldhani, V., Beulah, P., Gobinath, R., Aravind Kumar, J., Sai Prasad, S.V., Subba Rao L.V., Hariprasad, A.S., Sruthi, K., Shivani, D., Sundaram, R.M., Mahalingam G., 2023. Rice biofortification: breeding and genomic approaches for genetic enhancement of grain zinc and iron contents. Frontiers in Plant Science 14: 1138408.

Shaddox, T.W., Fu, H., Gardner, D.S., Goss, R.M., Guertal, E.A., Kreuser, W.C., Miller, G.L., Stewart, B.R., Tang, K., Unruh, J.B., 2019. Solubility of ten iron fertilizers in eleven north American soils. Agronomy Journal 111(3): 1498–1505.

Sial, N.A., Abro, S.A., Abbas, M., Irfan, M., Depar, N., 2018. Growth and yield of wheat as affected by phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphate fertilizer. Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology 15(2): 475-479.

Taskin, M.B., Gunes, A., 2022. Iron biofortification of wheat grains by Foliar application of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) and other ıron sources with urea. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 22: 4642-4652.  

Turan, M., Ekinci, M., Kul, R., Kocaman, A., Argin, S., Zhirkova, A.M., Perminova, I.V., Yildirim, E., 2022. Foliar applications of humic substances together with Fe/Nano Fe to increase the iron content and growth parameters of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Agronomy 12(9): 2044.

Vassil, A.D., Kapulnik, Y., Raskin, I., Salt, D.E., 1998. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by Indian mustard. Plant Physiology 117(2): 447-453.

Wiedenhoeft, A.C., 2006. Plant Nutrition. Chelsea House Publishers, 144p.

Zhang, Y., Shi, R., Rezaul, K.M., Zhang, F., Zou, C., 2010. Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(23): 12268-12274.

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Eurasian Journal of Soil Science