Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 2024, Pages 35 - 42
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1387017
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021)

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Kalimov,N., Bodryy,K., Shilo,E., Kaldybaev,D., Bodraya,M., 2024. Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021). Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(1):35 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Kalimov,N.,Bodryy,K.Shilo,E.Kaldybaev,D.,& Bodraya,M. Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021) Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(1):35 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Kalimov,N.,Bodryy,K.Shilo,E.Kaldybaev,D., and ,Bodraya,M."Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.1 (2024):35 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Kalimov,N.,Bodryy,K.Shilo,E.Kaldybaev,D., and ,Bodraya,M. "Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021)" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jan 2024):35 - 42 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017
N,Kalimov.K,Bodryy.E,Shilo.D,Kaldybaev.M,Bodraya "Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021)" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.1, pp.35 - 42 (Jan 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Kalimov,Niyazbek ;Bodryy,Konstantin ;Shilo,Evgeniya ;Kaldybaev,Damir ;Bodraya,Mariya Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021). Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.1:35 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017

How to cite

Kalimov, N., Bodryy, K., Shilo, E., Kaldybaev, D., Bodraya, M., 2024. Impact of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic matter content in Northern Kazakhstan's chernozem soils: A 10-year study (2011-2021). Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(1): 35 - 42. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1387017

Author information

Niyazbek Kalimov , Akhmet Baitursynuly Kostanay Regional University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agronomy, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
Konstantin Bodryy , Karabalyk Experimental Agriculture Station, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
Evgeniya Shilo , Karabalyk Experimental Agriculture Station, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
Damir Kaldybaev , Karabalyk Experimental Agriculture Station, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
Mariya Bodraya , Karabalyk Experimental Agriculture Station, Kostanay, Kazakhstan

Publication information

Article first published online : 06 Nov 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 25 Oct 2023
Manuscript Received: 01 Apr 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1387017
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1387017

Abstract

This extensive 10-year study conducted in Northern Kazakhstan investigates the intricate relationship between soil management techniques, crop rotations, and soil organic matter (SOM) content in Chernozem soils, an essential agricultural resource in the region. The experiments were established at the Karabalyk Agricultural Experimental Station, characterized by a arid continental climate. The study systematically examined the impact of two primary soil management techniques, conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), in combination with various crop rotations. The crop rotations tested included grain-fallow rotations, fruit-exchange crop rotations, and an eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation. The results provide valuable insights into the sustainable management of Chernozem soils in arid conditions, underscoring the role of crop rotation strategies in preserving SOM content. The findings reveal that among the crop rotations tested, the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation exhibited the most favorable outcomes for SOM preservation. This rotation helped maintain relatively stable SOM levels over the 10-year study period, contributing to soil health and fertility. In the context of the region's arid climate, the choice of soil management technique (CT or NT) had a limited impact on SOM content. The stability of SOM levels across diverse crop rotations and years highlights the dominant influence of crop management practices in this distinctive agricultural environment. This research serves as a valuable reference for tailored approaches to ensure soil health and organic matter preservation in the unique conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. It promotes the adoption of diversified crop rotations, with particular emphasis on the effectiveness of the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation, as a powerful strategy to mitigate organic matter loss, enhance soil quality, and optimize soil fertility in arid agricultural landscapes. The insights gained from this study are vital for sustainable land management in the region and underscore the importance of region-specific, holistic investigations to guide effective agricultural practices. The findings offer a solid foundation for the development of strategies that address soil health and safeguard the integrity of essential soil resources in these unique environments. The study conducted at the Karabalyk Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Kazakhstan between 2011 and 2021 provides critical insights into the relationship between soil management techniques, crop rotations, and SOM content in Chernozem soils. The research suggests that diversified crop rotations, particularly the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation, represent a promising approach for mitigating organic matter loss and enhancing soil quality in arid regions.

Keywords

Chernozem soils, soil organic matter, soil management techniques, crop rotations, tillage.

Corresponding author

References

Angers, D.A., Bolinder, M.A., Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., Drury, C.F., Liang, B.C., Voroney, R.P., Simard, R.R., Donald, R.G., Beyaert, R.P., Martel, J., 1997. Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 41(3–4): 191-201.

Bahri, H., Annabi, M., M’Hamed, C.H., Frija, A., 2019. Assessing the long-term impact of conservation agriculture on wheat-based systems in Tunisia using APSIM simulations under a climate change context. Science of The Total Environment 692: 1223–1233.

Barbera, V., Poma, I., Gristina, L., Novara, A., Egli, M., 2012. Long-term cropping systems and tillage management effects on soil organic carbon stock and steady state level of C sequestration rates in a semiarid environment. Land Degradation & Development 23(1): 82-91.

Bünemann, E.K., Bossio, D.A., Smithson, P.C., Frossard, E., Oberson, A., 2004. Microbial community composition and substrate use in a highly weathered soil as affected by crop rotation and P fertilization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(6): 889-901.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56(3): 777-783.

Chatterjee, A., Cooper, K., Klaustermeier, A., Awale, R., Cihacek, L.J., 2016. Does crop species diversity ınfluence soil carbon and nitrogen pools? Agronomy Journal 108(1): 427-432.

Dick, W.A., 1983. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations and pH in soil profiles as affected by tillage intensity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47(1): 102-107.

Dimassi,  B.,   Cohan,  J.P.,   Labreuche,  J.,   Mary,  B., 2013.  Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following tillage conversion in a long-term experiment in Northern France.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 169:  12–20.  

FAO, 2013. Conservation Agriculture in Central Asia: Status, Policy, Institutional Support and Strategic Framework for its Promotion. FAO Sub-Regional Office for Central Asia (FAO-SEC) Ankara, Turkey. 60p. Available at [Access date: 01.04.2023]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3275e/i3275e.pdf

Farooq, M., Flower, K.C., Jabran, K., Wahid, A.,  Siddique, K.H.M., 2011. Crop yield and weed management in rainfed conservation agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 172-183.

Follett, R.F., 2001. Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils.  Soil and Tillage Research 61(1-2):  77–92.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in soil quality by compost and hazelnut husk applications in a Hazelnut Orchard. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 135-141.

İslamzade, R., Hasanova, G., Asadova, S., 2023. Impact of varied NPK fertilizer application rates and seed quantities on barley yield and soil nutrient availability in chestnut soil of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 371 - 381.

Jacinthe, P.A., Lal, R., 2005. Labile carbon and methane uptake as affected by tillage intensity in a Mollisol. Soil and Tillage Research 80(1–2): 35-45.

Jaziri, S., M’hamed, H.C., Rezgui, M., Labidi, S., Souissi, A., Rezgui, M., Barbouchi, M., Annabi, M., Bahri, H., 2022. Long term effects of tillage–crop rotation ınteraction on soil organic carbon pools and microbial activity on wheat-based system in Mediterranean semi-arid region. Agronomy 12(4): 953

Kabbozova-Saljnikov, E., Funakawa, S.,  Ahmetov, K.,  Kosaki, T., 2004. Soil organic matter status of Chernozem soil in North Kazakhstan: effects of summer fallow. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(9): 1373-1381.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., 2014. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Compost Science & Utilization 22(2): 68-82.

Laamrani,  A., Voroney,  P.R.,  Berg,  A.A.,  Gillespie,  A.W.,  March,  M.,  Deen,  B.,  Martin,  R.C., 2020.  Temporal  Change  of  soil  carbon  on  a long-term experimental  site  with  variable crop rotations and tillage systems. Agronomy 10(6): 840.

Lal, R., Mahboubi, A.A., Fausey, N.R., 1994. Long-term tillage and rotation effects on properties of a central Ohio soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(2): 517-522.

Li, H., Mollier, A., Ziadi, N., Shi, Y., Parent, L.E., Morel, C., 2017. The long-term effects of tillage practice and phosphorus fertilization on the distribution and morphology of corn root. Plant and Soil 412: 97–114.

Luo,  Z.,  Wang,  E.,  Sun,  O., 2010.  Can no-tillage stimulate carbon sequestration in agricultural soils? A meta-analysis of paired experiments.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 139(1-2):  224–231.

Madari, B., Machado, P.L.O.A., Torres, E., de Andrade, A.G., Valencia, L.I.O., 2005. No tillage and crop rotation effects on soil aggregation and organic carbon in a Rhodic Ferralsol from southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 80: 185-200.

Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., López, M.V., Arrue, J.L., Alvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero, C., 2009. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on soil biochemical properties in Mediterranean Spanish areas. Soil and Tillage Research 105(1): 55-62.

Mazzoncini, M., Antichi, D., Bene, C.D., Risaliti, R., Petri, M., Bonari, E., 2016. Soil carbon and nitrogen changes after 28 years of no-tillage management under Mediterranean conditions. European Journal of Agronomy 77: 156-165.

Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (33): 13268-13272.

Oshakbaeva Zh.O., 2006. Changes in the basic properties of the chernozems of the Kostanay region during long-term development. 125 p. Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Almaty, Kazakhstan. [in Russian]

Ospanbayev, Z., Doszhanova, A., Abdrazakov, Y., Zhapayev, R., Sembayeva, A., Zakieva, A., Yertayeva, Z., 2023. Tillage system and cover crop effects on organic carbon and available nutrient contents in light chestnut soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(3): 238-243.

Quinton, J., Govers, G., Van Oost, K. Bardgett, R.D., 2010. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nature Geoscience 3: 311–314.

Salvo, L., Hernández, J., Ernst, O., 2010. Distribution of soil organic carbon in different size fractions, under pasture and crop rotations with conventional tillage and no-till systems. Soil and Tillage Research 109(2): 116-122.

Saparov, A., 2014. Soil Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Current Status, Problems and Solutions. In:  Novel Measurement and Assessment Tools for Monitoring and Management of Land and Water Resources in Agricultural Landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G., (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing. Switzerland. pp.61-73.

Sombrero, A., de Benito, A., 2010. Carbon accumulation in soil. Ten-year study of conservation tillage and crop rotation in a semi-arid area of Castile-Leon, Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 107(2): 64-70.

Suleimenova, N., Makhamedova, B., Orynbasarova, G., Kalykov, D., Yertayeva, Z., 2019. Impact of resource conserving technologies (RCT) on soil physical properties and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield in irrigated agriculture areas of the South-Eastern Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(1): 83 - 93.

Tiemann, L.K., Grandy, A.S., Atkinson, E.E., Marin-Spiotta, E., McDaniel, M.D., 2015. Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem. Ecology Letters 18(8): 761-771.

VandenBygaart, A.J., Bremer, E., McConkey, B.G., Janzen, H.H., Angers, D.A., Carter, M.R., Drury, C.F., Lafond, G.P., McKenzie, R.H., 2010. Soil organic carbon stocks on long-term agroecosystem experiments in Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90(4): 543-550.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

West, T.O., Post, W.M., 2002. Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(6): 1930-1946.

Xu, N., Wilson, H.F., Saiers, J.E., Entz, M., 2013. Effects of crop rotation and management system on water-extractable organic matter concentration, structure, and bioavailability in a chernozemic agricultural soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 42(1): 179-190.

Zhang, Z., Qiang, H., McHugh, A.D:, He, J., Li, H., Wang, Q., Lu, Z., 2016. Effect of conservation farming practices on soil organic matter and stratification in a mono-cropping system of Northern China. Soil and Tillage Research 156: 173-181.

Abstract

This extensive 10-year study conducted in Northern Kazakhstan investigates the intricate relationship between soil management techniques, crop rotations, and soil organic matter (SOM) content in Chernozem soils, an essential agricultural resource in the region. The experiments were established at the Karabalyk Agricultural Experimental Station, characterized by a arid continental climate. The study systematically examined the impact of two primary soil management techniques, conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), in combination with various crop rotations. The crop rotations tested included grain-fallow rotations, fruit-exchange crop rotations, and an eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation. The results provide valuable insights into the sustainable management of Chernozem soils in arid conditions, underscoring the role of crop rotation strategies in preserving SOM content. The findings reveal that among the crop rotations tested, the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation exhibited the most favorable outcomes for SOM preservation. This rotation helped maintain relatively stable SOM levels over the 10-year study period, contributing to soil health and fertility. In the context of the region's arid climate, the choice of soil management technique (CT or NT) had a limited impact on SOM content. The stability of SOM levels across diverse crop rotations and years highlights the dominant influence of crop management practices in this distinctive agricultural environment. This research serves as a valuable reference for tailored approaches to ensure soil health and organic matter preservation in the unique conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. It promotes the adoption of diversified crop rotations, with particular emphasis on the effectiveness of the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation, as a powerful strategy to mitigate organic matter loss, enhance soil quality, and optimize soil fertility in arid agricultural landscapes. The insights gained from this study are vital for sustainable land management in the region and underscore the importance of region-specific, holistic investigations to guide effective agricultural practices. The findings offer a solid foundation for the development of strategies that address soil health and safeguard the integrity of essential soil resources in these unique environments. The study conducted at the Karabalyk Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Kazakhstan between 2011 and 2021 provides critical insights into the relationship between soil management techniques, crop rotations, and SOM content in Chernozem soils. The research suggests that diversified crop rotations, particularly the eight-field fruit-exchange crop rotation, represent a promising approach for mitigating organic matter loss and enhancing soil quality in arid regions.

Keywords: Chernozem soils, soil organic matter, soil management techniques, crop rotations, tillage.

References

Angers, D.A., Bolinder, M.A., Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., Drury, C.F., Liang, B.C., Voroney, R.P., Simard, R.R., Donald, R.G., Beyaert, R.P., Martel, J., 1997. Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 41(3–4): 191-201.

Bahri, H., Annabi, M., M’Hamed, C.H., Frija, A., 2019. Assessing the long-term impact of conservation agriculture on wheat-based systems in Tunisia using APSIM simulations under a climate change context. Science of The Total Environment 692: 1223–1233.

Barbera, V., Poma, I., Gristina, L., Novara, A., Egli, M., 2012. Long-term cropping systems and tillage management effects on soil organic carbon stock and steady state level of C sequestration rates in a semiarid environment. Land Degradation & Development 23(1): 82-91.

Bünemann, E.K., Bossio, D.A., Smithson, P.C., Frossard, E., Oberson, A., 2004. Microbial community composition and substrate use in a highly weathered soil as affected by crop rotation and P fertilization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(6): 889-901.

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56(3): 777-783.

Chatterjee, A., Cooper, K., Klaustermeier, A., Awale, R., Cihacek, L.J., 2016. Does crop species diversity ınfluence soil carbon and nitrogen pools? Agronomy Journal 108(1): 427-432.

Dick, W.A., 1983. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations and pH in soil profiles as affected by tillage intensity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47(1): 102-107.

Dimassi,  B.,   Cohan,  J.P.,   Labreuche,  J.,   Mary,  B., 2013.  Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following tillage conversion in a long-term experiment in Northern France.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 169:  12–20.  

FAO, 2013. Conservation Agriculture in Central Asia: Status, Policy, Institutional Support and Strategic Framework for its Promotion. FAO Sub-Regional Office for Central Asia (FAO-SEC) Ankara, Turkey. 60p. Available at [Access date: 01.04.2023]: http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3275e/i3275e.pdf

Farooq, M., Flower, K.C., Jabran, K., Wahid, A.,  Siddique, K.H.M., 2011. Crop yield and weed management in rainfed conservation agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 117: 172-183.

Follett, R.F., 2001. Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils.  Soil and Tillage Research 61(1-2):  77–92.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015. Changes in soil quality by compost and hazelnut husk applications in a Hazelnut Orchard. Compost Science & Utilization 23(3): 135-141.

İslamzade, R., Hasanova, G., Asadova, S., 2023. Impact of varied NPK fertilizer application rates and seed quantities on barley yield and soil nutrient availability in chestnut soil of Azerbaijan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(4): 371 - 381.

Jacinthe, P.A., Lal, R., 2005. Labile carbon and methane uptake as affected by tillage intensity in a Mollisol. Soil and Tillage Research 80(1–2): 35-45.

Jaziri, S., M’hamed, H.C., Rezgui, M., Labidi, S., Souissi, A., Rezgui, M., Barbouchi, M., Annabi, M., Bahri, H., 2022. Long term effects of tillage–crop rotation ınteraction on soil organic carbon pools and microbial activity on wheat-based system in Mediterranean semi-arid region. Agronomy 12(4): 953

Kabbozova-Saljnikov, E., Funakawa, S.,  Ahmetov, K.,  Kosaki, T., 2004. Soil organic matter status of Chernozem soil in North Kazakhstan: effects of summer fallow. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(9): 1373-1381.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., 2014. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Compost Science & Utilization 22(2): 68-82.

Laamrani,  A., Voroney,  P.R.,  Berg,  A.A.,  Gillespie,  A.W.,  March,  M.,  Deen,  B.,  Martin,  R.C., 2020.  Temporal  Change  of  soil  carbon  on  a long-term experimental  site  with  variable crop rotations and tillage systems. Agronomy 10(6): 840.

Lal, R., Mahboubi, A.A., Fausey, N.R., 1994. Long-term tillage and rotation effects on properties of a central Ohio soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58(2): 517-522.

Li, H., Mollier, A., Ziadi, N., Shi, Y., Parent, L.E., Morel, C., 2017. The long-term effects of tillage practice and phosphorus fertilization on the distribution and morphology of corn root. Plant and Soil 412: 97–114.

Luo,  Z.,  Wang,  E.,  Sun,  O., 2010.  Can no-tillage stimulate carbon sequestration in agricultural soils? A meta-analysis of paired experiments.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 139(1-2):  224–231.

Madari, B., Machado, P.L.O.A., Torres, E., de Andrade, A.G., Valencia, L.I.O., 2005. No tillage and crop rotation effects on soil aggregation and organic carbon in a Rhodic Ferralsol from southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 80: 185-200.

Madejón, E., Murillo, J.M., Moreno, F., López, M.V., Arrue, J.L., Alvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero, C., 2009. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on soil biochemical properties in Mediterranean Spanish areas. Soil and Tillage Research 105(1): 55-62.

Mazzoncini, M., Antichi, D., Bene, C.D., Risaliti, R., Petri, M., Bonari, E., 2016. Soil carbon and nitrogen changes after 28 years of no-tillage management under Mediterranean conditions. European Journal of Agronomy 77: 156-165.

Montgomery, D.R., 2007. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (33): 13268-13272.

Oshakbaeva Zh.O., 2006. Changes in the basic properties of the chernozems of the Kostanay region during long-term development. 125 p. Dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Almaty, Kazakhstan. [in Russian]

Ospanbayev, Z., Doszhanova, A., Abdrazakov, Y., Zhapayev, R., Sembayeva, A., Zakieva, A., Yertayeva, Z., 2023. Tillage system and cover crop effects on organic carbon and available nutrient contents in light chestnut soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 12(3): 238-243.

Quinton, J., Govers, G., Van Oost, K. Bardgett, R.D., 2010. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nature Geoscience 3: 311–314.

Salvo, L., Hernández, J., Ernst, O., 2010. Distribution of soil organic carbon in different size fractions, under pasture and crop rotations with conventional tillage and no-till systems. Soil and Tillage Research 109(2): 116-122.

Saparov, A., 2014. Soil Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Current Status, Problems and Solutions. In:  Novel Measurement and Assessment Tools for Monitoring and Management of Land and Water Resources in Agricultural Landscapes of Central Asia. Mueller, L., Saparov, A., Lischeid, G., (Eds.). Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing. Switzerland. pp.61-73.

Sombrero, A., de Benito, A., 2010. Carbon accumulation in soil. Ten-year study of conservation tillage and crop rotation in a semi-arid area of Castile-Leon, Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 107(2): 64-70.

Suleimenova, N., Makhamedova, B., Orynbasarova, G., Kalykov, D., Yertayeva, Z., 2019. Impact of resource conserving technologies (RCT) on soil physical properties and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield in irrigated agriculture areas of the South-Eastern Kazakhstan. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 8(1): 83 - 93.

Tiemann, L.K., Grandy, A.S., Atkinson, E.E., Marin-Spiotta, E., McDaniel, M.D., 2015. Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem. Ecology Letters 18(8): 761-771.

VandenBygaart, A.J., Bremer, E., McConkey, B.G., Janzen, H.H., Angers, D.A., Carter, M.R., Drury, C.F., Lafond, G.P., McKenzie, R.H., 2010. Soil organic carbon stocks on long-term agroecosystem experiments in Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90(4): 543-550.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

West, T.O., Post, W.M., 2002. Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66(6): 1930-1946.

Xu, N., Wilson, H.F., Saiers, J.E., Entz, M., 2013. Effects of crop rotation and management system on water-extractable organic matter concentration, structure, and bioavailability in a chernozemic agricultural soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 42(1): 179-190.

Zhang, Z., Qiang, H., McHugh, A.D:, He, J., Li, H., Wang, Q., Lu, Z., 2016. Effect of conservation farming practices on soil organic matter and stratification in a mono-cropping system of Northern China. Soil and Tillage Research 156: 173-181.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science