Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 13, Issue 1, Jan 2024, Pages 1 - 9
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1365143
Copyright © 2024 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil

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Tambe,A., Mfombep,P., Julie,D., Egbe,L., Tabot,P., Dengiz,O., Agbor,D., 2024. Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil. Eurasian J Soil Sci 13(1):1 - 9. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Tambe,A.Mfombep,P.Julie,D.Egbe,L.Tabot,P.Dengiz,O.,& Agbor,D. (2024). Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13(1):1 - 9. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Tambe,A.Mfombep,P.Julie,D.Egbe,L.Tabot,P.Dengiz,O., and ,Agbor,D. "Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 13.1 (2024):1 - 9. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Tambe,A.Mfombep,P.Julie,D.Egbe,L.Tabot,P.Dengiz,O., and ,Agbor,D. "Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,13(Jan 2024):1 - 9 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143
A,Tambe.P,Mfombep.D,Julie.L,Egbe.P,Tabot.O,Dengiz.D,Agbor "Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.13, no.1, pp.1 - 9 (Jan 2024), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Tambe,Agborante Agbor ;Mfombep,Priscilla Mebong ;Julie,Defang Taku ;Egbe,Leonel Enow ;Tabot,Pascal Tabi ;Dengiz,Orhan ;Agbor,David Tavi Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2024),13.1:1 - 9. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143

How to cite

Tambe, A., Mfombep, P., Julie, D., Egbe, L., Tabot, P., Dengiz, O., Agbor, D., 2024. Tomato varieties superiority assessment under organic and inorganic (granular and foliar) fertilization in sandy clay soil. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 13(1): 1 - 9. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1365143

Author information

Agborante Agbor Tambe , Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea. Cameroon
Priscilla Mebong Mfombep , Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea. Cameroon
Defang Taku Julie , Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea. Cameroon
Leonel Enow Egbe , Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea. Cameroon
Pascal Tabi Tabot , Department of Agriculture, Higher Technical Teachers’ Training College Kumba, University of Buea. Cameroon
Orhan Dengiz , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Türkiye
David Tavi Agbor , Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Buea, Cameroon

Publication information

Article first published online : 23 Sep 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 10 Sep 2023
Manuscript Received: 06 Feb 2023
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1365143
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1365143

Abstract

Tomato is valued for its nutritional importance and contribution to countries' GDP. Despite the importance of tomatoes, tomato cultivation remains a challenge in some cities, particularly Kumba, Cameroon. This results from a vast knowledge gap for a suitable variety and agronomic management practices. Thus this work was set out to investigate the response of three tomato varieties under organic, foliar, and granular inorganic fertilization at the Kumba I subdivision. This work comprised two factors; variety having three levels (Cobra F1, Rio Grande, and Kiara tomato varieties) and fertilization having four levels (control, NPK 20:10:10 granular fertilizer, Foliar NPK 20:10:10 inorganic fertilizer, and Poultry manure) given twelve treatment combinations replicated three times randomly in a factorial design. Data was collected on soil physicochemical properties, plant growth parameters and fruit yield. The results showed that the variety did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, but soil physicochemical properties were significantly affected by fertilization. Poultry manure had the best OC (5.22 %), Ntot (1.73 g/kg), and Pavail (14.63 mg/kg), while K was highest (2.93 meq/100g) in NPK 20:10:10 granular fertilization. Rio grande, in combination with poultry manure, had the best plant growth; plant height (77.3 cm), number of branches (17), number of leaves (197), and leaf area (47.1 cm2). Cobra F1, in combination with foliar NPK 20:10:10 granular and poultry manure, had the best fruit yield; 13.42 tha-1 and 13.56 tha-1, respectively while Kiara variety at the control treatment had the lowest yield (8.36 tha-1). Thus Cobra F1 variety in combination with poultry manure yielded the best result from this study and offers the best option for tomato cultivation in the sandy clay soils of Kumba, Cameroon.

Keywords

Soil fertility, varieties, synthetic fertilizer, yield.

Corresponding author

References

Agbor, D.T., Oben, T.T., Afoh, T.L., Eboh, S.K., Kum, F.Y., Fon, T.C., Dohnji, D.J., 2022a. Comparative study of botanicals and synthetic insecticide on the control of insect pests and diseases of cowpea. International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research 8(2): 368-387.

Agbor, D.T., Acha, D.A., Eboh, K.S, Morara, C.N., Dohnji, J.D., Teche, L.M., Nkongho, R.N., 2022b. Impact of natural and hand-assisted pollination on cucumber fruit and seed yield. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research 9(2): 76-86.

Alaboz, P., Dengiz, O., Pacci, S., Demir, S., Türkay, C., 2022. Determination of the effect of different organic fertilizers applications on soil quality using the SMAF model. Yuzuncu Yıl University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 32(1): 21-32.

BCA, 2019. Business in Cameroon Agriculture: Mainstay of Cameroon’s Economy. Available at [Access date: 20.01.2019]: https://www.businessincameroon.com/agriculture/0111-3675-agriculture-mainstay-of-cameroon-s-economy 

Bilalis, D., Krokida, M., Roussis, I., Papastylianou, P., Travlos, I., Cheimona, N., Dede, A., 2018. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilization on yield and quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Folia Horticulturae 30(2): 321-332.

Blanco, F.F., Folegatti, M.V., 2003. A new method for estimating the leaf area index of cucumber and tomato plants. Horticultura Brasileira 21(4): 666-669.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Brunetti, G., Traversa, A., De Mastro, F., Cocozza, C., 2019. Short term effects of synergistic inorganic and organic fertilization on soil properties and yield and quality of plum tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 252: 342-347.

Chatzistathis, T., Papadakis, I.E., Papaioannou, A., Chatzissavvidis, C., Giannakoula, A., 2020. Comparative study effects between manure application and a controlled-release fertilizer on the growth, nutrient uptake, photosystem II activity and photosynthetic rate of Olea europaea L.(cv.‘Koroneiki’). Scientia Horticulturae 264: 109176.

ED, 2016. Around the world: Tomatoes.  Eurofresh Distribution. Available at [Access date: 26.06.2017]: https://www.eurofresh-distribution.com/news/around-the-world-tomatoes

Fan, H., Zhang, Y., Li, J., Jiang, J., Waheed, A., Wang, S., Rasheed, S.M., Zhang, L., Zhang, R., 2023. Effects of organic fertilizer supply on soil properties, tomato yield, and fruit quality: A global meta-analysis. Sustainability 15(3): 2556.

FAOSTAT, 2018. Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at [Access date: 26.06.2017]: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

Farjana, S., Islam, M.A. and Haque, T., 2019. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and mulching on growth and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). Journal of Horticulture and Postharvest Research 2(2): 95-104.

Giresse, P., Maley, J., Brenac, P., 1994. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments in the Lake Barombi Mbo (West Cameroon) deduced from pollen and carbon isotopes of organic matter. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107(1-2): 65-78.

Hasnain, M., Chen, J., Ahmed, N., Memon, S., Wang, L., Wang, Y., Wang, P., 2020. The effects of fertilizer type and application time on soil properties, plant traits, yield and quality of tomato. Sustainability 12(21): 9065.

Healy, G.K., Emerson, B.J., Dawson, J.C., 2017. Tomato variety trials for productivity and quality in organic hoop house versus open field management. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 32(6): 562-572.

Ilodibia, C.V.,  Chukwuma, M.U., 2015. Effects of application of different rates of poultry manure on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Journal of Agronomy 14(4): 251-253.

Ilupeju, E.A.O., Akanbi, W.B., Olaniyi, J.O., Lawal, B.A., Ojo, M.A., Akintokun, P.O., 2015. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of three varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 14(31): 2424-2433.

Ingenbleek, L., Jazet, E., Dzossa, A.D., Adebayo, S.B., Ogungbangbe, J., Dansou, S., Diallo, Z.J., Kouebou, C., Adegboye, A., Hossou, E., Coulibaly, S., Eyangoh, S., Bizec, B.L., Verger, P., Kamanzi, J., Merten, C., Leblanc, J.C., 2017. Methodology design of the regional sub-saharan Africa total diet study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 109: 155-169.

IRAD, 2013. Institute of Research for Agricultural Development. Meteological data of Meme Division, Kumba.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kalra, Y.P., Maynard, D.G., 1991. Methods Manual for Forest Soil And Plant Analysis. Information Report Nor-X-319. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 116p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]:   https://d1ied5g1xfgpx8.cloudfront.net/pdfs/11845.pdf

Ketema, W., Beyene, D., 2021. Adaptability study and evaluation of improved varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) under irrigation for their yield and yield components in east Wollega, western Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 8(7): 118-125.

Kimengsi, J.N., Tosam, J.N., 2013. Climate variability and cocoa production in Meme Division of Cameroon: Agricultural development policy options. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(8): 606-617.

Kirui, O.K., Abiodun, F.O., 2017. Innovation for sustainable agricultural growth in Cameroon. Forum to Agricultural Research to Africa (FARA), Centre for Development Research University of Bonn (ZEF) and Program of Accompaying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI). 46p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]:   https://research4agrinnovation.org/app/uploads/2017/11/CameroonDossier2017.pdf

Lin, Y., Ye, G., Kuzyakov, Y., Liu, D., Fan, J., Ding, W., 2019. Long-term manure application increases soil organic matter and aggregation, and alters microbial community structure and keystone taxa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 134: 187-196.

Lippman, S.A., Pulerwitz, J., Chinaglia, M., Hubbard, A., Reingold, A., Díaz, J., 2007. Mobility and Its Liminal Context: Exploring Sexual Partnering among Truck Drivers Crossing the Southern Brazilian Border. Social Science & Medicine 65(12): 2464-2473.

Mahbou, S.T.G., Ntsomboh-Ntsefong, G., Aminatou, M.F., Lessa, F.T., Onana, G.E., Youmbi, E., 2022. Effect of grafting on growth and shelf life of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grafted on two local Solanum species. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 13(9): 401-418.

Mengui, K.C., Oh, S., Lee, S.H., 2019. The technical efficiency of smallholder Irish potato producers in Santa subdivision, Cameroon. Agriculture 9(12): 259.

Mesallam, M.G., Shafshak, N.S., Abo-Sedera, F.A., Abou Elmagd, M.M., 2017. Effect of bio fertilizers, organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of tomato plants grown under sandy soil conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 55(2), 343-354.

Naz, M., Khan, Q.U., Khan, M.J., Sayal, O.U., Afridi, A., Sayal, A.U., 2018. Impact of foliar NPK and NAA blended with organic material on tomato yield attributes and properties of soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 31(4): 323.

Ngosong, C., Tanyi, C.B., Njume, C.A., Mfombep, P.M., Okolle, J.N., Njock, T.E., Nkongho, R.N., Tening, A.S., 2018. Importance of NPK foliar fertilization for ımproving performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), managing diseases and leafminer (Tuta absoluta). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 20(2): 1-14.

Nkongho, R.N., Efouba-Mbong, J.T., Ndam, L.M., Ketchem, G.A., Etchu-Takang, E.G., Agbor, D.T., 2022. Seed production system and adaptability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars in Buea, Cameroon. PLoS ONE 17(12): e0278771.

Norbert, N.F., Aaron, S.T., Kenneth, M., 2017. Physicochemical properties of soils and some water sources on the Eastern Flank of Mount Cameroon. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 11(5): 219-236.

Okolle, J.N., 2019. Research Notes on Current Issues in Cameroon Agriculture. FARA Research Results 169p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]: https://research4agrinnovation.org/app/uploads/2019/12/FRR-Vol-4-No-14_2019-Thumbnail.pdf

Okolle, N.J., Ijiang, T.P., Ngome, A.F., 2014. Evaluation of farmer’s knowledge on pests and diseases of vegetables and their management practices in three different Agroecological zones in Cameroon. AgroVital Services & Consulting – AgroViSc Cameroon,  62p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]: https://humidtropics.cgiar.org/wp-content/report2013docs/Cameroon%20Crop%20protect%20study%20Report.pdf  

Ravindran, B., Lee, S.R., Chang, S.W., Nguyen, D.D., Chung, W.J., Balasubramanian, B., Mupambwa, H.A., Arasu, M.V., Al‐Dhabi, N.A., Sekaran, G., 2019. Positive effects of compost and vermicompost produced from tannery waste-animal fleshing on the growth and yield of commercial crop-tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plant. Journal of Environmental Management 234: 154-158.

Saleem, M.Y., Asghar, M., Iqbal, Q., 2013. Augmented analysis for yield and some yield components in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Pakistan Journal of Botany 45(1): 215-218.

Schütz, L., Gattinger, A., Meier, M., Müller, A., Boller, T., Mäder, P., Natarajan, M., 2018. Improving crop yield and nutrient use efficiency via biofertilization, A global meta-analysis. Frontiers of Plant Science 8: 2204.

Shehata, M.N., 2018. The Infuence of organic manures and foliar spray of moringa extract on growth, quality and yield of tomato. Journal of Plant Production 9(12): 1167-1173.

Shushay, C., Derbew, B., Fetien, A., 2013. Genetic variability and association of characters in tomato (Solanum lcopersicon L.) genotypes in northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Research 8(2): 67-76.

Tolly, L.D.E., Kamtchouing, P., 2016. Dynamics of losses in tomato commodity chain (Estimates based on experimental design in Cameroon ICAS VII Seventh International Conference on Agricultural Statistics, 24-26 October 2016, Rome, Italy. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]:  https://doi.org/10.1481/icasVII.2016.b15e

van Reeuwijk, L.P., 2012. Procedures for Soil Analysis. International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC)/ Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations (FAO). 6th Edition. Wageningen. The Netherlands.

Walkley, A., Black, C.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29–38.

Abstract

Tomato is valued for its nutritional importance and contribution to countries' GDP. Despite the importance of tomatoes, tomato cultivation remains a challenge in some cities, particularly Kumba, Cameroon. This results from a vast knowledge gap for a suitable variety and agronomic management practices. Thus this work was set out to investigate the response of three tomato varieties under organic, foliar, and granular inorganic fertilization at the Kumba I subdivision. This work comprised two factors; variety having three levels (Cobra F1, Rio Grande, and Kiara tomato varieties) and fertilization having four levels (control, NPK 20:10:10 granular fertilizer, Foliar NPK 20:10:10 inorganic fertilizer, and Poultry manure) given twelve treatment combinations replicated three times randomly in a factorial design. Data was collected on soil physicochemical properties, plant growth parameters and fruit yield. The results showed that the variety did not significantly affect soil physicochemical properties, but soil physicochemical properties were significantly affected by fertilization. Poultry manure had the best OC (5.22 %), Ntot (1.73 g/kg), and Pavail (14.63 mg/kg), while K was highest (2.93 meq/100g) in NPK 20:10:10 granular fertilization. Rio grande, in combination with poultry manure, had the best plant growth; plant height (77.3 cm), number of branches (17), number of leaves (197), and leaf area (47.1 cm2). Cobra F1, in combination with foliar NPK 20:10:10 granular and poultry manure, had the best fruit yield; 13.42 tha-1 and 13.56 tha-1, respectively while Kiara variety at the control treatment had the lowest yield (8.36 tha-1). Thus Cobra F1 variety in combination with poultry manure yielded the best result from this study and offers the best option for tomato cultivation in the sandy clay soils of Kumba, Cameroon.

Keywords: Soil fertility, varieties, synthetic fertilizer, yield.

References

Agbor, D.T., Oben, T.T., Afoh, T.L., Eboh, S.K., Kum, F.Y., Fon, T.C., Dohnji, D.J., 2022a. Comparative study of botanicals and synthetic insecticide on the control of insect pests and diseases of cowpea. International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research 8(2): 368-387.

Agbor, D.T., Acha, D.A., Eboh, K.S, Morara, C.N., Dohnji, J.D., Teche, L.M., Nkongho, R.N., 2022b. Impact of natural and hand-assisted pollination on cucumber fruit and seed yield. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research 9(2): 76-86.

Alaboz, P., Dengiz, O., Pacci, S., Demir, S., Türkay, C., 2022. Determination of the effect of different organic fertilizers applications on soil quality using the SMAF model. Yuzuncu Yıl University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 32(1): 21-32.

BCA, 2019. Business in Cameroon Agriculture: Mainstay of Cameroon’s Economy. Available at [Access date: 20.01.2019]: https://www.businessincameroon.com/agriculture/0111-3675-agriculture-mainstay-of-cameroon-s-economy 

Bilalis, D., Krokida, M., Roussis, I., Papastylianou, P., Travlos, I., Cheimona, N., Dede, A., 2018. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilization on yield and quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Folia Horticulturae 30(2): 321-332.

Blanco, F.F., Folegatti, M.V., 2003. A new method for estimating the leaf area index of cucumber and tomato plants. Horticultura Brasileira 21(4): 666-669.

Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S., 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp. 595-624.

Brunetti, G., Traversa, A., De Mastro, F., Cocozza, C., 2019. Short term effects of synergistic inorganic and organic fertilization on soil properties and yield and quality of plum tomato. Scientia Horticulturae 252: 342-347.

Chatzistathis, T., Papadakis, I.E., Papaioannou, A., Chatzissavvidis, C., Giannakoula, A., 2020. Comparative study effects between manure application and a controlled-release fertilizer on the growth, nutrient uptake, photosystem II activity and photosynthetic rate of Olea europaea L.(cv.‘Koroneiki’). Scientia Horticulturae 264: 109176.

ED, 2016. Around the world: Tomatoes.  Eurofresh Distribution. Available at [Access date: 26.06.2017]: https://www.eurofresh-distribution.com/news/around-the-world-tomatoes

Fan, H., Zhang, Y., Li, J., Jiang, J., Waheed, A., Wang, S., Rasheed, S.M., Zhang, L., Zhang, R., 2023. Effects of organic fertilizer supply on soil properties, tomato yield, and fruit quality: A global meta-analysis. Sustainability 15(3): 2556.

FAOSTAT, 2018. Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at [Access date: 26.06.2017]: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

Farjana, S., Islam, M.A. and Haque, T., 2019. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and mulching on growth and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.). Journal of Horticulture and Postharvest Research 2(2): 95-104.

Giresse, P., Maley, J., Brenac, P., 1994. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments in the Lake Barombi Mbo (West Cameroon) deduced from pollen and carbon isotopes of organic matter. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107(1-2): 65-78.

Hasnain, M., Chen, J., Ahmed, N., Memon, S., Wang, L., Wang, Y., Wang, P., 2020. The effects of fertilizer type and application time on soil properties, plant traits, yield and quality of tomato. Sustainability 12(21): 9065.

Healy, G.K., Emerson, B.J., Dawson, J.C., 2017. Tomato variety trials for productivity and quality in organic hoop house versus open field management. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 32(6): 562-572.

Ilodibia, C.V.,  Chukwuma, M.U., 2015. Effects of application of different rates of poultry manure on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Journal of Agronomy 14(4): 251-253.

Ilupeju, E.A.O., Akanbi, W.B., Olaniyi, J.O., Lawal, B.A., Ojo, M.A., Akintokun, P.O., 2015. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of three varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 14(31): 2424-2433.

Ingenbleek, L., Jazet, E., Dzossa, A.D., Adebayo, S.B., Ogungbangbe, J., Dansou, S., Diallo, Z.J., Kouebou, C., Adegboye, A., Hossou, E., Coulibaly, S., Eyangoh, S., Bizec, B.L., Verger, P., Kamanzi, J., Merten, C., Leblanc, J.C., 2017. Methodology design of the regional sub-saharan Africa total diet study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology 109: 155-169.

IRAD, 2013. Institute of Research for Agricultural Development. Meteological data of Meme Division, Kumba.

Jones, J.B., 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analyses. CRC Press, New York, USA. 363p.

Kalra, Y.P., Maynard, D.G., 1991. Methods Manual for Forest Soil And Plant Analysis. Information Report Nor-X-319. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. 116p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]:   https://d1ied5g1xfgpx8.cloudfront.net/pdfs/11845.pdf

Ketema, W., Beyene, D., 2021. Adaptability study and evaluation of improved varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) under irrigation for their yield and yield components in east Wollega, western Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 8(7): 118-125.

Kimengsi, J.N., Tosam, J.N., 2013. Climate variability and cocoa production in Meme Division of Cameroon: Agricultural development policy options. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(8): 606-617.

Kirui, O.K., Abiodun, F.O., 2017. Innovation for sustainable agricultural growth in Cameroon. Forum to Agricultural Research to Africa (FARA), Centre for Development Research University of Bonn (ZEF) and Program of Accompaying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI). 46p. Available at [Access date: 06.02.2023]:   https://research4agrinnovation.org/app/uploads/2017/11/CameroonDossier2017.pdf

Lin, Y., Ye, G., Kuzyakov, Y., Liu, D., Fan, J., Ding, W., 2019. Long-term manure application increases soil organic matter and aggregation, and alters microbial community structure and keystone taxa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 134: 187-196.

Lippman, S.A., Pulerwitz, J., Chinaglia, M., Hubbard, A., Reingold, A., Díaz, J., 2007. Mobility and Its Liminal Context: Exploring Sexual Partnering among Truck Drivers Crossing the Southern Brazilian Border. Social Science & Medicine 65(12): 2464-2473.

Mahbou, S.T.G., Ntsomboh-Ntsefong, G., Aminatou, M.F., Lessa, F.T., Onana, G.E., Youmbi, E., 2022. Effect of grafting on growth and shelf life of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grafted on two local Solanum species. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 13(9): 401-418.

Mengui, K.C., Oh, S., Lee, S.H., 2019. The technical efficiency of smallholder Irish potato producers in Santa subdivision, Cameroon. Agriculture 9(12): 259.

Mesallam, M.G., Shafshak, N.S., Abo-Sedera, F.A., Abou Elmagd, M.M., 2017. Effect of bio fertilizers, organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of tomato plants grown under sandy soil conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 55(2), 343-354.

Naz, M., Khan, Q.U., Khan, M.J., Sayal, O.U., Afridi, A., Sayal, A.U., 2018. Impact of foliar NPK and NAA blended with organic material on tomato yield attributes and properties of soil. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 31(4): 323.

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Nkongho, R.N., Efouba-Mbong, J.T., Ndam, L.M., Ketchem, G.A., Etchu-Takang, E.G., Agbor, D.T., 2022. Seed production system and adaptability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cultivars in Buea, Cameroon. PLoS ONE 17(12): e0278771.

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