Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 12, Issue 4, Sep 2023, Pages 344 - 351
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1333347
Copyright © 2023 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids

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Caliskan,O., Beşir,A., Anıl,M., Gülser,C., Yazıcı,F., Kurt,D., 2023. Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids. Eurasian J Soil Sci 12(4):344 - 351. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Caliskan,O.,Beşir,A.Anıl,M.Gülser,C.Yazıcı,F.,& Kurt,D. Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12(4):344 - 351. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Caliskan,O.,Beşir,A.Anıl,M.Gülser,C.Yazıcı,F., and ,Kurt,D."Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12.4 (2023):344 - 351. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Caliskan,O.,Beşir,A.Anıl,M.Gülser,C.Yazıcı,F., and ,Kurt,D. "Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,12(Sep 2023):344 - 351 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347
O,Caliskan.A,Beşir.M,Anıl.C,Gülser.F,Yazıcı.D,Kurt "Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.12, no.4, pp.344 - 351 (Sep 2023), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Caliskan,Omer ;Beşir,Ayşegül ;Anıl,Münir ;Gülser,Coşkun ;Yazıcı,Fehmi ;Kurt,Dursun Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2023),12.4:344 - 351. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347

How to cite

Caliskan, O., Beşir, A., Anıl, M., Gülser, C., Yazıcı, F., Kurt, D., 2023. Morphologic and chemical characterizations of some salep orchids. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 12(4): 344 - 351. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1333347

Author information

Omer Caliskan , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Bafra Vocational School, Department of Plant and Animal Production, Samsun, Türkiye
Ayşegül Beşir , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Samsun, Türkiye
Münir Anıl , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Samsun, Türkiye
Coşkun Gülser , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Türkiye
Fehmi Yazıcı , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Samsun, Türkiye
Dursun Kurt , Ondokuz Mayıs University, Bafra Vocational School, Department of Plant and Animal Production, Samsun, Türkiye

Publication information

Article first published online : 26 Jul 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 17 Jul 2023
Manuscript Received: 11 Dec 2022
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1333347
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1333347

Abstract

Salep orchids have been used as a food for centuries without cultivating but, mainly harvesting from nature. After powdering, their tubers are utilized as hot beverage and in ice-cream industry as a stabilizer. Due to their importance in food industry, it is important to characterize the morphology and chemistry of salep orchids. In this study, it was aimed to determine some morphological (fresh weight, dry weight and dry matter ratio of tubers and the number of tubers required for 1 kg salep powder) and chemical (glucomannan, starch, protein, moisture, ash, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc contents and glucomannan/starch ratio of tubers) properties of 10 salep orchid species from 6 genus namely, Anacamptis pyramidalis, Dactylorhiza romana, Himantoglossum caprinum, Himantoglossum comperianum, Ophrys apifera, Ophrys mammosa, Orchis coriophora, Orchis morio, Orchis tridendata, Serapias vomeracea grown in nature of Black Sea Region of Türkiye. Such a kinds of data is the first and can be beneficial in utilizing the researched species in food industry.

Keywords

Mineral contents, Orchidacea, sahlep, terrestrial orchids, tuber.

Corresponding author

References

AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Arabacı, O., Tan, U., Yıldız, O., Tutar, M., 2017. Effect of different harvest times on some quality characteristics of cultivated salep orchid Serapias vomeracea (Burm.fill.) Brig. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 4(3): 445–451.

Atashpour, S., Jahromi, H.K., Jahromi, Z.K., Zarei, S., 2017. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-induced rat liver injury. World Journal of Hepatology 9(4): 209–216.

Aybeke, M., 2012. Comparative anatomy of selected rhizomatous and tuberoustaxa of subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae) asan aid to identification. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298(9): 1643–1658.

Bozdoğan, A., Yaşar, K., 2016. Increasing the nutritional value of salep. Journal of Food Physics 28: 33–39.

Caliskan, O., Kurt, D., Cirak, C., 2019. Development of New Sustainable Sahlep Production Methods Using Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soo ex E. Nelson. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 21(6): 1547–1555.

Caliskan, O., Kurt, D., Cirak, C., 2020. A new sustainable production method for the sahlep orchid Serapias orientalis (greuter) H. Baumann & Kunkele. Pakistan Journal of Botany 53(1): 1051–1056.

Dixon, K.W., Kell, S.P., Barrett, R.L., Cribb, P.J., 2003. Demographic studies and life-history strategies of temperate terrestrial orchids as a basis for conservation. In: Orchid Conservation. Dixon, K.W., Shelagh, P., Barrett, R.L., Cribb, P. (Eds.). Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabaluk Sabah, Malaysia. pp.137–158.

Doi, K., 1995. Effect of konjac fibre (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49(3): 190–197.

Ertaş, S., Özel, A., Erden, K., 2019. Determination of the botanical properties and glucomannan contents of some salep species cultivated in Sanliurfa conditions. Harran Journal of Agricultural and Food Science 23(1): 39–46. [in Turkish]

Farazi, Z., Nikzad, H., Parivar, K., Nikzad M., 2013. The effect of aqueous extract of salep tubers on the structure of testis and sexual hormones in male mice. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 11(1):61–66. [in Persian]

Farhoosh, R., Riazi, A., 2007. A compositional study on two currents types of salep in Iran and their reolojical properties as a function of concentration and temperature. Food Hydrocolloids 21(4): 660–666.

Ghorbani, A., Gravendeel, B., Zarre, S., Boer, H., 2014. Illegal wild collection and international trade of CITES listed terretrial orchid tubers in Iran. Traffic Bulletin 26(2): 53–58.

Hossain, M.M., 2011. Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances — An overview. Fitoterapia 82(2): 102–140.

Jenkings, M., Oldfield, S., 1992. Spices in Danger Wild Plants in Trade. A Traffic Network Report. Traffic Int. Pub. UK. 36p. Available at [Access date: 12.11.2023]: https://www.traffic.org/site/assets/files/9597/wild-plants-in-trade.pdf

Kacar, B., Inal, A., 2008. Plant Analysis. Nobel Publications, Ankara, Türkiye. 892p. [in Turkish]

Karaman, S., Yilmaz, M.T., Ertugay, M.F., Baslar, M., Kayacier, A., 2012. Effect of ultrasound treatment on steady and dynamic shear properties of glucomannan based salep dispersions: Optimization of amplitude level sonication time and temperature using response surface methodology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 19(4): 928-938.

Kasparek, M., Grim, U., 1999. European Trade in Turkish Salep with special reference to Germany. Economic Botany 53(4): 396–406.

Kreutz, C.A.J., 2009. Turkey Orchids. Rota Publications, Istanbul, Türkiye. 848 p. [in Turkish]

Kreziou, A., de Boer, H., Gravender, B., 2015. Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations. Oryx 50: 393–396.

Kurt, A., Kahyaoglu, T., 2017. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of cultivated sahlep. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 4(3): 488–498.

Kurt, D., 2020. Development of growth models based on years for salep orchid planted in natural environment. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 63: e20190768.

Lalika, M.C.S., Mende, D.H., Urio, P., Gimbi, D.M., Mwanyika, S.J., Donati, G., 2013. Domestication potential and nutrient composition of wild orchids from two southern regions in Tanzania. Time Journal of Biological Science and Technology 1(1): 1-11.

Lande, D., 1998. Europe’s Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic Network Report Traffic International Publications, Cambridge, UK. 119p. Available at [Access date: 12.11.2023]: https://www.traffic.org/site/assets/files/9611/europes-medicinal-and-aromatic-plants.pdf

Megazyme, 2004a. Glucomannan Assay Procedure K-GLUM 10/04. Megazyme International Ireland Limited, Wicklow, Ireland.

Megazyme, 2004b. Total Starch Assay Procedure (amyloglucosidase / α-amylase Method) AA/AMG 11/01, AOAC Method 996.11. Megazyme International Ireland Limited, Wicklow, Ireland.

Palaz, B.E., Yılmaz, C.H., Aytop, H., Büyükcıngıl, Y., 2018. Natural flora of Kahramanmaras mineral nutrition characteristics of orchid plant growing some physical and chemical properties of soils. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Natural Sciences 5(4): 537–544. [in Turkish]

Parlak, S., 2016. Determining the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical weed control methods in cultivated Anacamptis sancta parcels. Journal of Forestry Research 4(1): 126–133. [in Turkish]

Pourahmad, M., Jahromi, H.K., Jahromi, Z.K., 2015. Protective effect of salep on liver. Hepatitis Montlily 15: e28137.

Sen, M.A., Palabiyik, I., Kurultay, Ş., 2018. Composition, viscosity and solubility of saleps from twenty different orchid (Orchidaceae) species. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12(2): 1334–1339.

Sen, M.A., Palabiyik, I., Kurultay, S., 2019. The effect of saleps obtained from various Orchidaceae species on some physical and sensory properties of ice cream. Food Science and Technology 39(1): 83–87.

Sezik, E., 2002. Turkish Orchids and Salep. Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica 44(3): 151–157.

Swarts, N.D., Dixon, K.W., 2009. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Annals of Botany 104(3): 543–556.

Tamer, C.E., Karaman, B., Copur, O.U., 2006. A traditional Turkish beverage: salep. Food Reviews International 22(1): 43–50.

Tatiya, A., Kalaskar, M., Patil, Y., Surana, S., 2018. Chemical analysis nutritional content and antioxidant property of Eulophia herbacea Lindl. tubers: a medicinally versatile Indian tribal nutritional food suplement. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 17(1): 141–147.

Tekinşen, K.K., Güner, A., 2010. Chemical composition and physicocemical properties of tubera salep produced from Orchidaceae spices. Food Chemistry 121(2): 468–471.

Thakur, M., Chauhan, N.S., Bhargava, S., Dixit, V.K., 2009. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38(6): 1009–1015.

Tığlı, E.H., Fakir, H., 2017. Distribution areas, morphologial and phenologicial characteristics of some native orchid species in Bucak (Burdur) Province. Turkish Journal of Forestry 18(4): 289–294. [in Turkish]

Turgay, O., Cinar, I., 2017. Salep: The name of the plant, powder, hot beverage, food ingredient. In: Proceeding of the 19th International Conference Food Procesing and Technology. October 23-25 Paris, France. pp. 8–9.

Türkmen, N., 2019. A study on potential use of salep from some wild orchid species in maras type ice cream manufacture. PhD Thesis. Ankara University, Department of Dairy Technology, Ankara, Türkiye. 186 p.

Yaman, K., 2013. Regulations relating to the salep and its trade in Turkish official gazette archives from 1920 to the present. Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2(1): 172–180. [in Turkish]

Yaşar, K., Kahyaoglu, T., Şahan, N., 2009. Dynamic rheological characterization of salep glucomannan/galactomannan-based milk beverages. Food Hydrocolloids 23(5): 1305–1311.

Abstract

Salep orchids have been used as a food for centuries without cultivating but, mainly harvesting from nature. After powdering, their tubers are utilized as hot beverage and in ice-cream industry as a stabilizer. Due to their importance in food industry, it is important to characterize the morphology and chemistry of salep orchids. In this study, it was aimed to determine some morphological (fresh weight, dry weight and dry matter ratio of tubers and the number of tubers required for 1 kg salep powder) and chemical (glucomannan, starch, protein, moisture, ash, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc contents and glucomannan/starch ratio of tubers) properties of 10 salep orchid species from 6 genus namely, Anacamptis pyramidalis, Dactylorhiza romana, Himantoglossum caprinum, Himantoglossum comperianum, Ophrys apifera, Ophrys mammosa, Orchis coriophora, Orchis morio, Orchis tridendata, Serapias vomeracea grown in nature of Black Sea Region of Türkiye. Such a kinds of data is the first and can be beneficial in utilizing the researched species in food industry.

Keywords: Mineral contents, Orchidacea, sahlep, terrestrial orchids, tuber.

References

AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Arabacı, O., Tan, U., Yıldız, O., Tutar, M., 2017. Effect of different harvest times on some quality characteristics of cultivated salep orchid Serapias vomeracea (Burm.fill.) Brig. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 4(3): 445–451.

Atashpour, S., Jahromi, H.K., Jahromi, Z.K., Zarei, S., 2017. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-induced rat liver injury. World Journal of Hepatology 9(4): 209–216.

Aybeke, M., 2012. Comparative anatomy of selected rhizomatous and tuberoustaxa of subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae) asan aid to identification. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298(9): 1643–1658.

Bozdoğan, A., Yaşar, K., 2016. Increasing the nutritional value of salep. Journal of Food Physics 28: 33–39.

Caliskan, O., Kurt, D., Cirak, C., 2019. Development of New Sustainable Sahlep Production Methods Using Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soo ex E. Nelson. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 21(6): 1547–1555.

Caliskan, O., Kurt, D., Cirak, C., 2020. A new sustainable production method for the sahlep orchid Serapias orientalis (greuter) H. Baumann & Kunkele. Pakistan Journal of Botany 53(1): 1051–1056.

Dixon, K.W., Kell, S.P., Barrett, R.L., Cribb, P.J., 2003. Demographic studies and life-history strategies of temperate terrestrial orchids as a basis for conservation. In: Orchid Conservation. Dixon, K.W., Shelagh, P., Barrett, R.L., Cribb, P. (Eds.). Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabaluk Sabah, Malaysia. pp.137–158.

Doi, K., 1995. Effect of konjac fibre (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49(3): 190–197.

Ertaş, S., Özel, A., Erden, K., 2019. Determination of the botanical properties and glucomannan contents of some salep species cultivated in Sanliurfa conditions. Harran Journal of Agricultural and Food Science 23(1): 39–46. [in Turkish]

Farazi, Z., Nikzad, H., Parivar, K., Nikzad M., 2013. The effect of aqueous extract of salep tubers on the structure of testis and sexual hormones in male mice. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 11(1):61–66. [in Persian]

Farhoosh, R., Riazi, A., 2007. A compositional study on two currents types of salep in Iran and their reolojical properties as a function of concentration and temperature. Food Hydrocolloids 21(4): 660–666.

Ghorbani, A., Gravendeel, B., Zarre, S., Boer, H., 2014. Illegal wild collection and international trade of CITES listed terretrial orchid tubers in Iran. Traffic Bulletin 26(2): 53–58.

Hossain, M.M., 2011. Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances — An overview. Fitoterapia 82(2): 102–140.

Jenkings, M., Oldfield, S., 1992. Spices in Danger Wild Plants in Trade. A Traffic Network Report. Traffic Int. Pub. UK. 36p. Available at [Access date: 12.11.2023]: https://www.traffic.org/site/assets/files/9597/wild-plants-in-trade.pdf

Kacar, B., Inal, A., 2008. Plant Analysis. Nobel Publications, Ankara, Türkiye. 892p. [in Turkish]

Karaman, S., Yilmaz, M.T., Ertugay, M.F., Baslar, M., Kayacier, A., 2012. Effect of ultrasound treatment on steady and dynamic shear properties of glucomannan based salep dispersions: Optimization of amplitude level sonication time and temperature using response surface methodology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 19(4): 928-938.

Kasparek, M., Grim, U., 1999. European Trade in Turkish Salep with special reference to Germany. Economic Botany 53(4): 396–406.

Kreutz, C.A.J., 2009. Turkey Orchids. Rota Publications, Istanbul, Türkiye. 848 p. [in Turkish]

Kreziou, A., de Boer, H., Gravender, B., 2015. Harvesting of salep orchids in north-western Greece continues to threaten natural populations. Oryx 50: 393–396.

Kurt, A., Kahyaoglu, T., 2017. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of cultivated sahlep. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite 4(3): 488–498.

Kurt, D., 2020. Development of growth models based on years for salep orchid planted in natural environment. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 63: e20190768.

Lalika, M.C.S., Mende, D.H., Urio, P., Gimbi, D.M., Mwanyika, S.J., Donati, G., 2013. Domestication potential and nutrient composition of wild orchids from two southern regions in Tanzania. Time Journal of Biological Science and Technology 1(1): 1-11.

Lande, D., 1998. Europe’s Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic Network Report Traffic International Publications, Cambridge, UK. 119p. Available at [Access date: 12.11.2023]: https://www.traffic.org/site/assets/files/9611/europes-medicinal-and-aromatic-plants.pdf

Megazyme, 2004a. Glucomannan Assay Procedure K-GLUM 10/04. Megazyme International Ireland Limited, Wicklow, Ireland.

Megazyme, 2004b. Total Starch Assay Procedure (amyloglucosidase / α-amylase Method) AA/AMG 11/01, AOAC Method 996.11. Megazyme International Ireland Limited, Wicklow, Ireland.

Palaz, B.E., Yılmaz, C.H., Aytop, H., Büyükcıngıl, Y., 2018. Natural flora of Kahramanmaras mineral nutrition characteristics of orchid plant growing some physical and chemical properties of soils. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Natural Sciences 5(4): 537–544. [in Turkish]

Parlak, S., 2016. Determining the effectiveness of chemical and mechanical weed control methods in cultivated Anacamptis sancta parcels. Journal of Forestry Research 4(1): 126–133. [in Turkish]

Pourahmad, M., Jahromi, H.K., Jahromi, Z.K., 2015. Protective effect of salep on liver. Hepatitis Montlily 15: e28137.

Sen, M.A., Palabiyik, I., Kurultay, Ş., 2018. Composition, viscosity and solubility of saleps from twenty different orchid (Orchidaceae) species. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12(2): 1334–1339.

Sen, M.A., Palabiyik, I., Kurultay, S., 2019. The effect of saleps obtained from various Orchidaceae species on some physical and sensory properties of ice cream. Food Science and Technology 39(1): 83–87.

Sezik, E., 2002. Turkish Orchids and Salep. Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica 44(3): 151–157.

Swarts, N.D., Dixon, K.W., 2009. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Annals of Botany 104(3): 543–556.

Tamer, C.E., Karaman, B., Copur, O.U., 2006. A traditional Turkish beverage: salep. Food Reviews International 22(1): 43–50.

Tatiya, A., Kalaskar, M., Patil, Y., Surana, S., 2018. Chemical analysis nutritional content and antioxidant property of Eulophia herbacea Lindl. tubers: a medicinally versatile Indian tribal nutritional food suplement. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 17(1): 141–147.

Tekinşen, K.K., Güner, A., 2010. Chemical composition and physicocemical properties of tubera salep produced from Orchidaceae spices. Food Chemistry 121(2): 468–471.

Thakur, M., Chauhan, N.S., Bhargava, S., Dixit, V.K., 2009. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38(6): 1009–1015.

Tığlı, E.H., Fakir, H., 2017. Distribution areas, morphologial and phenologicial characteristics of some native orchid species in Bucak (Burdur) Province. Turkish Journal of Forestry 18(4): 289–294. [in Turkish]

Turgay, O., Cinar, I., 2017. Salep: The name of the plant, powder, hot beverage, food ingredient. In: Proceeding of the 19th International Conference Food Procesing and Technology. October 23-25 Paris, France. pp. 8–9.

Türkmen, N., 2019. A study on potential use of salep from some wild orchid species in maras type ice cream manufacture. PhD Thesis. Ankara University, Department of Dairy Technology, Ankara, Türkiye. 186 p.

Yaman, K., 2013. Regulations relating to the salep and its trade in Turkish official gazette archives from 1920 to the present. Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2(1): 172–180. [in Turkish]

Yaşar, K., Kahyaoglu, T., Şahan, N., 2009. Dynamic rheological characterization of salep glucomannan/galactomannan-based milk beverages. Food Hydrocolloids 23(5): 1305–1311.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science