Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 12, Issue 3, Jun 2023, Pages 222-228
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1260911
Copyright © 2023 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system

X

Article first published online: 06 Mar 2023 | How to cite | Additional Information (Show All)

Author information | Publication information | Export Citiation (Plain Text | BibTeX | EndNote | RefMan)

CLASSICAL | APA | MLA | TURABIAN | IEEE | ISO 690

Abstract | References | Article (XML) | Article (HTML) | PDF | 50 | 400

Long,V., Dung,T., 2023. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system. Eurasian J Soil Sci 12(3):222-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Long,V.,,& Dung,T. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12(3):222-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Long,V.,, and ,Dung,T."Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12.3 (2023):222-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Long,V.,, and ,Dung,T. "Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,12(Jun 2023):222-228 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911
V,Long.T,Dung "Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.12, no.3, pp.222-228 (Jun 2023), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Long,Vu Van ;Dung,Tran Van Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2023),12.3:222-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911

How to cite

Long, V., Dung, T., 2023. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer combined with biochar amendment improves soil quality and increases grain yield in the intensive rice cultivation system. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 12(3): 222-228. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1260911

Author information

Vu Van Long , Faculty of Natural Resources-Environment, Kien Giang University, Kien Giang, 91752, Vietnam
Tran Van Dung , Faculty of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Can Tho University, Can Tho, 94100, Vietnam

Publication information

Article first published online : 06 Mar 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 24 Feb 2023
Manuscript Received: 08 Sep 2022
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1260911
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1260911

Abstract

Intensive rice cultivation for a long time resulted in increasing soil degradation and less yield. This study aimed to evaluate effects of the combining reducing nitrogen fertilizer (N) with biochar amendment on soil chemical properties, rice growth parameters, and grain yield in the rice cultivation system in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam (VMD). Field experiment was designed in the split-plot design with two factors, including N fertilizer (main plot) and biochar (sub-plot). Two N fertilizer rates were: (N50)—50 kg N ha–1 and (N100)—100 kg N ha–1, which is the farmer's practice. Biochar was amended with three rates: no applied biochar (B0), 5 t ha–1 (B5), and 10 t ha–1 (B10). The results indicated that reducing N fertilizer by 50% combined 5–10 t biochar ha–1 resulted in maintaining soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and rice biomass. Applying biochar at a rate of 5–10 t ha–1 significantly increased the available N, available P, and rice height compared to the treatment with no applied biochar (B0). Rice yield in the treatments applied with 5–10 t ha–1 was significantly higher than the treatment without the use of biochar by 11.6–14.7%. The findings of this study confirmed that reducing 50% N fertilizer combined with 5 t ha–1 or 10 t ha–1 of biochar could improve soil available N, available P, rice growth, and grain yield in intensive rice cultivation systems in the VMD region.

Keywords

Biochar, nitrogen, Oryza sativa L., paddy soil, phosphorus, soil fertility.

Corresponding author

References

Abel, S., Peters, A., Trinks, S., Schonsky, H., Facklam, M., Wessolek, G., 2013. Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma 202-203: 183–191.

Abiven, S., Hund, A., Martinsen, V., Cornelissen, G., 2015. Biochar amendment increases maize root surface areas and branching: a shovelomics study in Zambia. Plant and Soil 395: 45–55.

Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Muirhead, B., Wright, G., Bird, M.I., 2015. Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 213: 72–85.

Agegnehu, G., Srivastava, A., Bird, M.I., 2017. The role of biochar and biochar-compost in improving soil quality and crop performance: A review. Applied Soil Ecology 119: 156–170.

Ali, I., Zhao, Q., Wu, K., Ullah, S., Iqbal, A., Liang, H., Zhang, J., Muhammad, I., Khan, A., Khan, A.A., 2021. Biochar in combination with nitrogen fertilizer is a technique: to enhance physiological and morphological traits of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by improving soil physio-biochemical properties. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 41: 2406–2420.

Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T., Horie, T., 2009. Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crops Research 111(1-2): 81–84.

Bakar, R.A., Razak, Z.A., Ahmad, S.H., Seh-Bardan, B.J., Tsong, L.C., Meng, C.P., 2015. Influence of oil palm empty fruit bunch biochar on floodwater pH and yield components of rice cultivated on acid sulphate soil under rice intensification practices. Plant Production Science 18(4): 491–500.

Bass, A.M., Bird, M.I., Kay, G., Muirhead, B., 2016. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems. Science of the Total Environment 550: 459–470.

Bera, T., Collins, H., Alva, A., Purakayastha, T., Patra, A., 2016. Biochar and manure effluent effects on soil biochemical properties under corn production. Applied Soil Ecology 107: 360–367.

Biederman, L.A., Harpole, W.S., 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta‐analysis. GCB Bioenergy 5(2): 202–214.

Brusseau, M.L., Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., 2019. Environmental and Pollution Science. Academic Press. UK. 656p.

Cao, Y., Gao, Y., Qi, Y., Li, J., 2018. Biochar-enhanced composts reduce the potential leaching of nutrients and heavy metals and suppress plant-parasitic nematodes in excessively fertilized cucumber soils. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 7589–7599.

Chan, K., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45(8): 629–634.

Chan, K., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2008. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46(5): 437–444.

Choudhury, A., Khanif, Y., 2004. Effects of nitrogen and copper fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer nitrogen efficiency: A 15N tracer study. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 47(1): 50–55.

Dong, D., Feng, Q., Mcgrouther, K., Yang, M., Wang, H., Wu, W., 2015. Effects of biochar amendment on rice growth and nitrogen retention in a waterlogged paddy field. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15: 153–162.

Dung, T.V., Tan, D.B., Khanh, T.H., Gale, D., Long, V.V., 2021. Effect of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus inoculation and reduced nitrogen fertilizer on yield and growth parameters of rice varieties. Journal of Seed Science 43: e202143029.

Dung, T.V., Thu, T.A., Long, V.V., Da, C.T., 2022. Decomposition of rice straw residues and the emission of CO2, CH4 under paddy rice and crop rotation in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta region–A microcosm study. Plant, Soil and Environment 68: 29–35.

Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., Zech, W., 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal–a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 219–230.

Griffin, D.E., Wang, D., Parikh, S.J., Scow, K.M., 2017. Short-lived effects of walnut shell biochar on soils and crop yields in a long-term field experiment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 236: 21–29.

IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome. 192p. Available at [Access date: 08.09.2022]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Jaafar, N.M., Clode, P.L., Abbott, L.K., 2015. Soil microbial responses to biochars varying in particle size, surface and pore properties. Pedosphere 25(5): 770–780.

Kopittke, P.M., Dalal, R.C., Finn, D., Menzies, N.W., 2017. Global changes in soil stocks of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur as influenced by long‐term agricultural production. Global Change Biology 23(6): 2509–2519.

Kopittke, P.M., Dalal, R.C., Hoeschen, C., Li, C., Menzies, N.W., Mueller, C.W., 2020. Soil organic matter is stabilized by organo-mineral associations through two key processes: The role of the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Geoderma 357: 113974.

Kopittke, P.M., Menzies, N.W., Wang, P., McKenna, B.A., Lombi, E., 2019. Soil and the intensification of agriculture for global food security. Environment International 132: 105078.

Kroetsch, D., Wang, C., 2008. Particle size distribution. In: Soil sampling and methods of analysis, Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.), CRC Press and Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 713–725.

Laird, D., Fleming, P., Wang, B., Horton, R., Karlen, D., 2010. Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158(3-4): 436–442.

Lashari, M.S., Liu, Y., Li, L., Pan, W., Fu, J., Pan, G., Zheng, J., Zheng, J., Zhang, X., Yu, X., 2013. Effects of amendment of biochar-manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution on soil quality and wheat yield of a salt-stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain. Field Crops Research 144: 113–118.

Lehmann, J., da Silva, J.P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., Glaser, B., 2003. Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil 249: 343–357.

Li, B., Fan, C., Xiong, Z., Li, Q., Zhang, M., 2015. The combined effects of nitrification inhibitor and biochar incorporation on yield-scaled N2O emissions from an intensively managed vegetable field in southeastern China. Biogeosciences 12: 2003–2017.

Metson, A.J., 1961. Methods of chemical analysis for soil survey samples. Soil Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand. 207p.

Murphy, J., Riley, J.P., 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31–36.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 403-430.

Phuong, N.T.K., Khoi, C.M., Ritz, K., Linh, T.B., Minh, D.D., Duc, T.A., Sinh, N.V., Linh, T.T., Toyota, K., 2020a. Influence of rice husk biochar and compost amendments on salt contents and hydraulic properties of soil and rice yield in salt-affected fields. Agronomy 10(8): 1101.

Phuong, N.T.K., Khoi, C.M., Ritz, K., Sinh, N.V., Tarao, M., Toyota, K., 2020b. Potential use of rice husk biochar and compost to improve P availability and reduce GHG emissions in acid sulfate soil. Agronomy 10(5): 685.

Rajkovich, S., Enders, A., Hanley, K., Hyland, C., Zimmerman, A.R., Lehmann, J., 2012. Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48: 271–284.

Sánchez-García, M., Sánchez-Monedero, M., Roig, A., López-Cano, I., Moreno, B., Benitez, E., Cayuela, M., 2016. Compost vs biochar amendment: a two-year field study evaluating soil C build-up and N dynamics in an organically managed olive crop. Plant and Soil 408: 1–14.

Scharlemann, J.P., Tanner, E.V., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V., 2014. Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management 5(1): 81–91.

Schulz, H., Glaser, B., 2012. Effects of biochar compared to organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil quality and plant growth in a greenhouse experiment. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 175(3): 410–422.

Shah, T., Tariq, M., Muhammad, D., 2021. The influence of added biochar on soil microbial biomass in a less fertile alkaline calcareous soil under different management practices. Soil and Environment 40: 27–37.

Shcherbak, I., Millar, N., Robertson, G.P., 2014. Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen. PNAS 111(25): 9199–9204.

Solaiman, Z.M., Blackwell, P., Abbott, L.K., Storer, P., 2010. Direct and residual effect of biochar application on mycorrhizal root colonisation, growth and nutrition of wheat. Australian Journal of Soil Research 48(7): 546–554.

Thies, J.E., Rillig, M.C., Graber, E.R., 2015. Biochar effects on the abundance, activity and diversity of the soil biota. In: Biochar for environmental management: Science, Technology and Implementation, Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Ed.), Routledge. pp. 359–422.

Ullah, Z., Akmal, M.S., Ahmed, M., Ali, M., Khan, A.Z., Ziad, T., 2018. Effect of biochar on maize yield and yield components in rainfed conditions. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) 12(3): 46–51.

Uzoma, K., Inoue, M., Andry, H., Fujimaki, H., Zahoor, A., Nishihara, E., 2011. Effect of cow manure biochar on maize productivity under sandy soil condition. Soil Use and Management 27(2): 205–212.

Vaccari, F., Maienza, A., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S., Di Lonardo, S., Giagnoni, L., Lagomarsino, A., Pozzi, A., Pusceddu, E., Ranieri, R., Valboa, G., Genesio, L., 2015. Biochar stimulates plant growth but not fruit yield of processing tomato in a fertile soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 207: 163–170.

Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Morris, S., Chan, K., Downie, A., Rust, J., Joseph, S., Cowie, A., 2010. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant and Soil 327: 235–246.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29–38.

Weil, R., Brady, N.C., 2017. The nature and properties of soils. Pearson Publisher. 1104p.

Wulf, S., Vandré, R., Clemens, J., 2002. Mitigation options for CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from slurry management. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases: scientific understanding, control options and policy aspects. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, Maastricht, Netherlands, 21–23 January 2002. Millpress Science Publishers, pp. 487–492.

Abstract

Intensive rice cultivation for a long time resulted in increasing soil degradation and less yield. This study aimed to evaluate effects of the combining reducing nitrogen fertilizer (N) with biochar amendment on soil chemical properties, rice growth parameters, and grain yield in the rice cultivation system in the Mekong Delta region, Vietnam (VMD). Field experiment was designed in the split-plot design with two factors, including N fertilizer (main plot) and biochar (sub-plot). Two N fertilizer rates were: (N50)—50 kg N ha–1 and (N100)—100 kg N ha–1, which is the farmer's practice. Biochar was amended with three rates: no applied biochar (B0), 5 t ha–1 (B5), and 10 t ha–1 (B10). The results indicated that reducing N fertilizer by 50% combined 5–10 t biochar ha–1 resulted in maintaining soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and rice biomass. Applying biochar at a rate of 5–10 t ha–1 significantly increased the available N, available P, and rice height compared to the treatment with no applied biochar (B0). Rice yield in the treatments applied with 5–10 t ha–1 was significantly higher than the treatment without the use of biochar by 11.6–14.7%. The findings of this study confirmed that reducing 50% N fertilizer combined with 5 t ha–1  or 10 t ha–1 of biochar could improve soil available N, available P, rice growth, and grain yield in intensive rice cultivation systems in the VMD region

References

Abel, S., Peters, A., Trinks, S., Schonsky, H., Facklam, M., Wessolek, G., 2013. Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma 202-203: 183–191.

Abiven, S., Hund, A., Martinsen, V., Cornelissen, G., 2015. Biochar amendment increases maize root surface areas and branching: a shovelomics study in Zambia. Plant and Soil 395: 45–55.

Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Muirhead, B., Wright, G., Bird, M.I., 2015. Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 213: 72–85.

Agegnehu, G., Srivastava, A., Bird, M.I., 2017. The role of biochar and biochar-compost in improving soil quality and crop performance: A review. Applied Soil Ecology 119: 156–170.

Ali, I., Zhao, Q., Wu, K., Ullah, S., Iqbal, A., Liang, H., Zhang, J., Muhammad, I., Khan, A., Khan, A.A., 2021. Biochar in combination with nitrogen fertilizer is a technique: to enhance physiological and morphological traits of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by improving soil physio-biochemical properties. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 41: 2406–2420.

Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T., Horie, T., 2009. Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crops Research 111(1-2): 81–84.

Bakar, R.A., Razak, Z.A., Ahmad, S.H., Seh-Bardan, B.J., Tsong, L.C., Meng, C.P., 2015. Influence of oil palm empty fruit bunch biochar on floodwater pH and yield components of rice cultivated on acid sulphate soil under rice intensification practices. Plant Production Science 18(4): 491–500.

Bass, A.M., Bird, M.I., Kay, G., Muirhead, B., 2016. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems. Science of the Total Environment 550: 459–470.

Bera, T., Collins, H., Alva, A., Purakayastha, T., Patra, A., 2016. Biochar and manure effluent effects on soil biochemical properties under corn production. Applied Soil Ecology 107: 360–367.

Biederman, L.A., Harpole, W.S., 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta‐analysis. GCB Bioenergy 5(2): 202–214.

Brusseau, M.L., Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P., 2019. Environmental and Pollution Science. Academic Press. UK. 656p.

Cao, Y., Gao, Y., Qi, Y., Li, J., 2018. Biochar-enhanced composts reduce the potential leaching of nutrients and heavy metals and suppress plant-parasitic nematodes in excessively fertilized cucumber soils. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 7589–7599.

Chan, K., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45(8): 629–634.

Chan, K., Van Zwieten, L., Meszaros, I., Downie, A., Joseph, S., 2008. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research 46(5): 437–444.

Choudhury, A., Khanif, Y., 2004. Effects of nitrogen and copper fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer nitrogen efficiency: A 15N tracer study. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 47(1): 50–55.

Dong, D., Feng, Q., Mcgrouther, K., Yang, M., Wang, H., Wu, W., 2015. Effects of biochar amendment on rice growth and nitrogen retention in a waterlogged paddy field. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15: 153–162.

Dung, T.V., Tan, D.B., Khanh, T.H., Gale, D., Long, V.V., 2021. Effect of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus inoculation and reduced nitrogen fertilizer on yield and growth parameters of rice varieties. Journal of Seed Science 43: e202143029.

Dung, T.V., Thu, T.A., Long, V.V., Da, C.T., 2022. Decomposition of rice straw residues and the emission of CO2, CH4 under paddy rice and crop rotation in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta region–A microcosm study. Plant, Soil and Environment 68: 29–35.

Glaser, B., Lehmann, J., Zech, W., 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal–a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35: 219–230.

Griffin, D.E., Wang, D., Parikh, S.J., Scow, K.M., 2017. Short-lived effects of walnut shell biochar on soils and crop yields in a long-term field experiment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 236: 21–29.

IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome. 192p. Available at [Access date: 08.09.2022]: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf

Jaafar, N.M., Clode, P.L., Abbott, L.K., 2015. Soil microbial responses to biochars varying in particle size, surface and pore properties. Pedosphere 25(5): 770–780.

Kopittke, P.M., Dalal, R.C., Finn, D., Menzies, N.W., 2017. Global changes in soil stocks of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur as influenced by long‐term agricultural production. Global Change Biology 23(6): 2509–2519.

Kopittke, P.M., Dalal, R.C., Hoeschen, C., Li, C., Menzies, N.W., Mueller, C.W., 2020. Soil organic matter is stabilized by organo-mineral associations through two key processes: The role of the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Geoderma 357: 113974.

Kopittke, P.M., Menzies, N.W., Wang, P., McKenna, B.A., Lombi, E., 2019. Soil and the intensification of agriculture for global food security. Environment International 132: 105078.

Kroetsch, D., Wang, C., 2008. Particle size distribution. In: Soil sampling and methods of analysis, Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G. (Eds.), CRC Press and Taylor and Francis Group: Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 713–725.

Laird, D., Fleming, P., Wang, B., Horton, R., Karlen, D., 2010. Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158(3-4): 436–442.

Lashari, M.S., Liu, Y., Li, L., Pan, W., Fu, J., Pan, G., Zheng, J., Zheng, J., Zhang, X., Yu, X., 2013. Effects of amendment of biochar-manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution on soil quality and wheat yield of a salt-stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain. Field Crops Research 144: 113–118.

Lehmann, J., da Silva, J.P., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., Glaser, B., 2003. Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferralsol of the Central Amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil 249: 343–357.

Li, B., Fan, C., Xiong, Z., Li, Q., Zhang, M., 2015. The combined effects of nitrification inhibitor and biochar incorporation on yield-scaled N2O emissions from an intensively managed vegetable field in southeastern China. Biogeosciences 12: 2003–2017.

Metson, A.J., 1961. Methods of chemical analysis for soil survey samples. Soil Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand. 207p.

Murphy, J., Riley, J.P., 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31–36.

Olsen, S.R., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Phosphorus. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd edition. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R., (Eds.). American Society of Agronomy Inc., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 403-430.

Phuong, N.T.K., Khoi, C.M., Ritz, K., Linh, T.B., Minh, D.D., Duc, T.A., Sinh, N.V., Linh, T.T., Toyota, K., 2020a. Influence of rice husk biochar and compost amendments on salt contents and hydraulic properties of soil and rice yield in salt-affected fields. Agronomy 10(8): 1101.

Phuong, N.T.K., Khoi, C.M., Ritz, K., Sinh, N.V., Tarao, M., Toyota, K., 2020b. Potential use of rice husk biochar and compost to improve P availability and reduce GHG emissions in acid sulfate soil. Agronomy 10(5): 685.

Rajkovich, S., Enders, A., Hanley, K., Hyland, C., Zimmerman, A.R., Lehmann, J., 2012. Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48: 271–284.

Sánchez-García, M., Sánchez-Monedero, M., Roig, A., López-Cano, I., Moreno, B., Benitez, E., Cayuela, M., 2016. Compost vs biochar amendment: a two-year field study evaluating soil C build-up and N dynamics in an organically managed olive crop. Plant and Soil 408: 1–14.

Scharlemann, J.P., Tanner, E.V., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V., 2014. Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management 5(1): 81–91.

Schulz, H., Glaser, B., 2012. Effects of biochar compared to organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil quality and plant growth in a greenhouse experiment. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 175(3): 410–422.

Shah, T., Tariq, M., Muhammad, D., 2021. The influence of added biochar on soil microbial biomass in a less fertile alkaline calcareous soil under different management practices. Soil and Environment 40: 27–37.

Shcherbak, I., Millar, N., Robertson, G.P., 2014. Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen. PNAS 111(25): 9199–9204.

Solaiman, Z.M., Blackwell, P., Abbott, L.K., Storer, P., 2010. Direct and residual effect of biochar application on mycorrhizal root colonisation, growth and nutrition of wheat. Australian Journal of Soil Research 48(7): 546–554.

Thies, J.E., Rillig, M.C., Graber, E.R., 2015. Biochar effects on the abundance, activity and diversity of the soil biota. In: Biochar for environmental management: Science, Technology and Implementation, Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Ed.), Routledge. pp. 359–422.

Ullah, Z., Akmal, M.S., Ahmed, M., Ali, M., Khan, A.Z., Ziad, T., 2018. Effect of biochar on maize yield and yield components in rainfed conditions. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) 12(3): 46–51.

Uzoma, K., Inoue, M., Andry, H., Fujimaki, H., Zahoor, A., Nishihara, E., 2011. Effect of cow manure biochar on maize productivity under sandy soil condition. Soil Use and Management 27(2): 205–212.

Vaccari, F., Maienza, A., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S., Di Lonardo, S., Giagnoni, L., Lagomarsino, A., Pozzi, A., Pusceddu, E., Ranieri, R., Valboa, G., Genesio, L., 2015. Biochar stimulates plant growth but not fruit yield of processing tomato in a fertile soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 207: 163–170.

Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Morris, S., Chan, K., Downie, A., Rust, J., Joseph, S., Cowie, A., 2010. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant and Soil 327: 235–246.

Walkley, A., Black, I.A., 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29–38.

Weil, R., Brady, N.C., 2017. The nature and properties of soils. Pearson Publisher. 1104p.

Wulf, S., Vandré, R., Clemens, J., 2002. Mitigation options for CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from slurry management. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases: scientific understanding, control options and policy aspects. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, Maastricht, Netherlands, 21–23 January 2002. Millpress Science Publishers, pp. 487–492.



Eurasian Journal of Soil Science