Eurasian Journal of Soil Science

Volume 12, Issue 2, Apr 2023, Pages 190 - 204
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Stable URL: http://ejss.fess.org/10.18393/ejss.1244373
Copyright © 2023 The authors and Federation of Eurasian Soil Science Societies



Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal

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Timilsina,S., Shrestha,S., Tripathi,S., Bhattarai,R., Mishra,S., Regmi,R., Paudel,D., Miya,M., 2023. Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal. Eurasian J Soil Sci 12(2):190 - 204. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Timilsina,S.,Shrestha,S.Tripathi,S.Bhattarai,R.Mishra,S.Regmi,R.Paudel,D.,& Miya,M. Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12(2):190 - 204. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Timilsina,S.,Shrestha,S.Tripathi,S.Bhattarai,R.Mishra,S.Regmi,R.Paudel,D., and ,Miya,M."Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, 12.2 (2023):190 - 204. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Timilsina,S.,Shrestha,S.Tripathi,S.Bhattarai,R.Mishra,S.Regmi,R.Paudel,D., and ,Miya,M. "Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal" Eurasian Journal of Soil Science,12(Apr 2023):190 - 204 DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373
S,Timilsina.S,Shrestha.S,Tripathi.R,Bhattarai.S,Mishra.R,Regmi.D,Paudel.M,Miya "Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal" Eurasian J. Soil Sci, vol.12, no.2, pp.190 - 204 (Apr 2023), DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Timilsina,Sachin ;Shrestha,Saurav ;Tripathi,Shankar ;Bhattarai,Rajeev ;Mishra,Shambhu Kumar ;Regmi,Raju Raj ;Paudel,Diwakar ;Miya,Mahamad Sayab Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, (2023),12.2:190 - 204. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373

How to cite

Timilsina, S., Shrestha, S., Tripathi, S., Bhattarai, R., Mishra, S., Regmi, R., Paudel, D., Miya, M., 2023. Assessment of land use land cover dynamics and its impact on springs water in Ritung Khola Sub-Watershed, Myagdi district, Nepal. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 12(2): 190 - 204. DOI : 10.18393/ejss.1244373

Author information

Sachin Timilsina , Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara 33700, Nepal
Saurav Shrestha , University of New Haven, 300 Boston Post Road, West Haven CT 06516, USA
Shankar Tripathi , Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Hetauda Campus, Hetauda 44100, Nepal
Rajeev Bhattarai , School of Forest Resources, College of Natural Sci., Forestry and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Shambhu Kumar Mishra , Soil and Watershed Management Office, Parbat 33400, Gandaki Province, Nepal
Raju Raj Regmi , Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara 33700, Nepal
Diwakar Paudel , Soil and Watershed Management Office, Parbat 33400, Gandaki Province, Nepal
Mahamad Sayab Miya , Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara 33700, Nepal

Publication information

Article first published online : 30 Jan 2023
Manuscript Accepted : 20 Jan 2023
Manuscript Received: 10 Sep 2022
DOI: 10.18393/ejss.1244373
Stable URL: http://ejss.fesss.org/10.18393/ejss.1244373

Abstract

Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change has emerged as a significant environmental issue and a worry for the sustainable use of natural resources. This study was performed to determine the rate in change of land cover and its significant impact on springs water in the Ritung Khola sub-watershed of Myagdi district, Nepal, between 2010 and 2020. This study analyzes LULC dynamics and it’s impact on springs water using satellite imageries (Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) and focus group discussions with the inhabitants. We used Supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification algorithm to classify attributes of the LULC changes. The results demonstrated a significant change in LULC during those ten years (2010-2020). The area covered by agricultural land and human settlements significantly increased by 313.54% and 367.14%, respectively. On the contrary, barren land, water bodies and forest cover have been reduced by 37.52%, 13.16% and 5.26%, respectively. The number of active springs followed decreasing trend as many of them were completely displaced or dried due to erosions and frequent landslides. The findings from this study are expected to facilitate the planning process adopted to prevent springs under the threat of extension and mitigate the water scarcity problem.

Keywords

Landsat, land cover, land use, springs, watershed, water bodies.

Corresponding author

References

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Abstract

Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change has emerged as a significant environmental issue and a worry for the sustainable use of natural resources. This study was performed to determine the rate in change of land cover and its significant impact on springs water in the Ritung Khola sub-watershed of Myagdi district, Nepal, between 2010 and 2020. This study analyzes LULC dynamics and it’s impact on springs water using satellite imageries (Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) and focus group discussions with the inhabitants. We used Supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification algorithm to classify attributes of the LULC changes. The results demonstrated a significant change in LULC during those ten years (2010-2020). The area covered by agricultural land and human settlements significantly increased by 313.54% and 367.14%, respectively. On the contrary, barren land, water bodies and forest cover have been reduced by 37.52%, 13.16% and 5.26%, respectively. The number of active springs followed decreasing trend as many of them were completely displaced or dried due to erosions and frequent landslides. The findings from this study are expected to facilitate the planning process adopted to prevent springs under the threat of extension and mitigate the water scarcity problem.

Keywords: Landsat, land cover, land use, springs, watershed, water bodies.

References

Abdullah, A.Y.M., Masrur, A., Adnan, M.S.G., Baky, M.A.A., Hassan, Q.K., Dewan, A., 2019. Spatio-temporal patterns of land use/land cover change in the heterogeneous coastal region of Bangladesh between 1990 and 2017. Remote Sensing 11(7): 790.

Adhikari, N., Pant, R.R., Rimal, B., Rai, R., 2018. Land use and land cover change in Western Nepal: A case from Phewa Watershed-Pokhara, Nepal. Himalayan Scientific Journal 9: 33-42.

Adhikari, S., Gurung, A., Chauhan, R., Rijal, D., Dongol, B.S., Aryal, D., Talchabhadel, R., 2021. Status of springs in mountain watershed of western Nepal. Water Policy 23(1): 142-156.

Agaton, M., Setiawan, Y., Effendi, H., 2016. Land use/land cover change detection in an urban watershed: a case study of upper Citarum Watershed, West Java Province, Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences 33: 654-660.

Alajlan, N., Bazi, Y., Melgani, F., Yager, R.R., 2012. Fusion of supervised and unsupervised learning for improved classification of hyperspectral images. Information Sciences 217: 39-55.

Attri, P., Chaudhry, S., Sharma, S., 2015. Remote sensing & GIS-based approaches for LULC change detection–a review. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 5: 3126–3137.

Baghdadi, N., Zribi, M., 2016. Land surface remote sensing in urban and coastal areas. London: ISTE Press Ltd.

Baral, P., Wen, Y., Urriola, N.N., 2018. Forest cover changes and trajectories in a typical middle mountain watershed of western Nepal. Land 7(2): 72.

Barquín, J., Scarsbrook, M., 2008. Management and conservation strategies for coldwater springs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(5): 580-591.

Bekele, D., Alamirew, T., Kebede, A., Zeleke, G., Melesse, A.M., 2019. Land use and land cover dynamics in the Keleta watershed, Awash River basin, Ethiopia. Environmental Hazards 18(3): 246-265.

Bharatkar, P.S., Patel, R., 2013. Approach to accuracy assessment tor RS image classification techniques. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 4(12): 79–86.

Bhat, S.U., Mushtaq, S., Qayoom, U., Sabha, I., 2020. Water quality scenario of Kashmir Himalayan Springs—A case study of Baramulla District, Kashmir Valley. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 231(9): 1-17.

Bufebo, B., Elias, E., 2021. Land use/land cover change and its driving forces in Shenkolla watershed, south Central Ethiopia. The Scientific World Journal Article ID 9470918.

Cai, G., Ren, H., Yang, L., Zhang, N., Du, M., Wu, C., 2019. Detailed urban land use land cover classification at the metropolitan scale using a three-layer classification scheme. Sensors 19(14): 3120.

Cantonati, M., Füreder, L., Gerecke, R., Jüttner, I., Cox, E.J., 2012. Crenic habitats, hotspots for freshwater biodiversity conservation: toward an understanding of their ecology. Freshwater Science 31(2): 463-480.

CBS, 2019. Environmental Statistics of Nepal. National Planning Commission, Secretariat Central Bureau of Statistics. Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Chalise, D., Kumar, L., 2020. Land use change affects water erosion in the Nepal Himalayas. PLoS ONE 15(4): e0231692.

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